Different approaches and methods

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  • expound

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  • 1. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
  • 2. Introduction Different approaches differ in the level of teacher and student participation. We start describing these approaches from that approach with the highest to the lowest level of teacher direction or from the lowest to the highest level of student participation. On the basis of student and teacher involvement, these methods are categorized as direct/expository approach or guided/exploratory approach.
  • 3. Basic Concepts:  Approach - one’s viewpoint toward teaching or refers to what one believes in, regarding teaching, upon which teaching behaviors are based.  Method - a series of related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and students to achieve the objective of the lesson.
  • 4. Two Types of Teaching Approaches Direct Approach Indirect/ Guided Approach Expository Method Deductive Directive Exploratory Method Inductive Exploratory Inquiry Laboratory Problem Solving Metacognition Reflective Constructivism Demonstrative
  • 5. When to use : Direct Instruction/ Expository • Content oriented • Factual Information • Similar information directly available – no effort to look for it Guided Instruction/ Exploratory • Experience oriented • Developmental / formulation of concept, principles, skills, attitudes, and values • Information not available – needs to be discovered yet
  • 6. Direct/Expository Instruction Approach Direct instruction is a way of teaching which is aimed at helping students acquire some basic skills and “procedural knowledge.” It is straight forward and is done in “a step-by- step manner.” The emphasis is on how to execute the steps of the entire procedure. This may involve a simple or a complex skill such as solving a problem by using mathematical equations.
  • 7. Attention is focused on every detail of the procedure. It includes presentation and recitation, as well as teacher-student interactions. Content mastery and overlearning of fundamental facts. Teachers need to arouse of heighten the interest of the students.
  • 8. Performance-based subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Music and Physical Education are taught by this technique. Strategies use in Direct Instruction: 1.Lecture and Student Recitation 2.Deduction 3.Expository/didactic method 4.Demonstration method
  • 9. To employ this methodology, follow these steps: -Provide the rationale -Demonstrate the skill -Provide guided practice -Check for understanding and provide feedback -Provide extended practice and transfer
  • 10. Characteristic of a Direct Instruction:  Teacher-directed and teacher dominated  Teaching of skill. The students gain “how” rather than “what” (procedural knowledge). Each step must be mastered  Step by step procedure with no step missed  Lesson objectives easily observed behaviours that can be measured accurately. The level of performance can be assess from the number of steps performed correctly  Form of learning through imitation ( behavioral modeling)
  • 11.  Sample Lessons with Step-By-Step Tasks  Executing steps of a folkdance  Steps in preparing a meal  Writing a letter  Solving Math problems Examples:
  • 12. Deductive Method  Teacher-dominated approach  It begins with the abstract rule, generalization, principle and ends with specific examples and concrete details  Cover a wider scope of subject matter  Learning is passive process, the learners do not take part in the generation of conclusion or generalization  Drill or exercises come after the explanation of the rule or principle
  • 13. Example: Geography The teacher begins her lesson with a generalization that geographical location influences peoples’ way of life. She will present a map of the Philippines. Then study the map with them. Those who live in wide plains like Central Plain of Luzon, Cagayan Valley have rice as main product and farming as main occupation. Those who live near the sea are fishermen. Their main product is fish.
  • 14. Example: Science  Teacher define: All animals with backbone are classified as vertebrates.  Teacher give examples: dog is vertebrate because it possesses backbone. Fish, frog and cow are vertebrates, they possess backbone
  • 15. Example: Math  Teacher Explain the rule first: To add similar fractions just add the numerators then copy the denominator.  Then teacher begin will gives examples.  After which she will give written exercises for her pupils.
  • 16. Advantages of Deductive Method:  Wider scope of subject matter because the instruction is direct by stating at once the rule or the principle at the beginning of the class.  Teacher do not have to worry on what questions to ask for learners to generalization or conclusion.
  • 17. Disadvantages of Deductive Method  Passive learning. Less involvement on part of the learners  The learners do not take part in the generation of conclusion or generalization.  Learners’ involvement will be drill or exercises that come after the explanation of the rule or principle  Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Teacher begin the lesson with the abstract with what the learners do not know
  • 18. Inductive Method  It begins with specific details, concrete data and examples and ends with an abstract  Learners are more engaged in the teaching- learning process  Learning becomes more interesting at the outset because we begin with the experiences of our students. Begin with what they know.  It helps the development of our learners’ higher order thinking skills. To see patterns and analyze the same in order to arrive at generalizations requires analytical thinking.
  • 19. Inductive Method  It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered  Need much time to lead students to formulate generalizations  Teachers got to ask the right questions, organize answers and comments to pave the way to the derivation of generalizations or principles
  • 20. Example: Geography The teacher will shows to the class the map of the Philippines then ask the class to study it with special attention on geographical features and economic products. To guide them in their analysis she will ask them questions like what is the occupation of people who live by the sea? What is their main livelihood? What generalization can you draw about the relationship between geographical features of a place and peoples’ means of livelihood?
  • 21. Example: Science  To Find out the body parts of animal that if it has a backbone.  Teacher will say: the dog has a backbone. The fish, frog and cow also have backbones.  Then the students will conclude that: the dog, fish, cow and frog are vertebrates.
  • 22. Advantages of Inductive Methods  The learners are more engaged in teaching- learning process. The learners formulate the generalization or rule.  Learning becomes more interesting at the outset because teachers begin with the experiences of the students. Teachers begin with what they know.  It helps the development of the learners’ higher order thinking skills. To see patterns and analyze the same in order to arrive at generalizations requires analytical thinking.
  • 23. Disadvantages of Inductive Method  It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered. Teacher needs much time to lead students to the formulation of generalizations.  It demands expert facilitating skills on part of the teacher. Teacher got to ask the right questions, organize answers and comments to pave the way to the derivation of generalizations/principles.
  • 24. Deductive Method Inductive Method 1. It does not give any new knowledge. 1. It gives new knowledge 2. It is a method of verification. 2. It is a method of discovery. 3. It is the method of instruction. 3. It is a method of teaching. 4. Child gets ready made information and makes use of it. 4.Child acquires first hand knowledge and information by actual observation. 5. It is quick process. 5. It is a slow process. 6. It encourages dependence on other sources. 6. It trains the mind and gives self confidence and initiative. 7. There is less scope of activity in it. 7. It is full of activity. 8. It is a downward process of thought and leads to useful results. 8. It is an upward process of thought and leads to principles.
  • 25. Let’s Review our Understanding: Between the deductive and the induction method, - which method is more teacher-directed? - which one engages more the learners in conceptual understanding? - which demands more teacher’s skillful questioning?
  • 26. Between the deductive and the induction method, - which tend to depth retention of learning? - which learning method is more predictable? - which engage to learn faster for large number of facts and concrete concepts? Let’s Review our Understanding:
  • 27. Demonstration Method  Demonstration is a learning activity which is performed by a student, a group of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers.  Teacher-dominated  Teachers show how to operate, manipulate an equipment while the class observes
  • 28. Demonstration Method  Teacher should be knowledgeable in preparing the apparatus needed according to the steps to be followed  The rest of the class becomes focused on the activity and concentration on the subject is assured
  • 29. Advantages of Demonstration Method  It follows a systematic procedure, students will be able to learn from a well-tired procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudged to be skilled  The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized  Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well-planned in advance
  • 30. Advantages of Demonstration Method  It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens with unplanned learning activities  Findings are reliable and accurate since the procedures has been tried before  The value of confidence is developed among the demonstrators for such hands-on demonstrators for such hands-on demonstration  Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers
  • 31. Examples:  How to focus a microscope  Preserving flowers and other specimens  Performing First-Aid  How to mix ingredients for a menu
  • 32. Let’s Review: 1. Modeling… a. is a direct teaching activity. b. is seldom used by effective teachers. c. allows students to imitate from demonstration or infer from observation the behavior to be learned. d. both a and c.
  • 33. 2. Direct Instruction is more appropriate when… a. cooperative learning is not an option. b. the teacher needs to arouse or heighten student interest. c. attempting to achieve content mastery and overlearning of fundamental facts. d. both b and c.
  • 34. 3. This method of teaching presents a general concept by first defining it and then providing examples or illustrations that demonstrate the idea until it achieve the concept mastery. a. Inductive b. Deductive c. Directive d. Demonstrative
  • 35. 4. Mr. Cruz is very careful in his classroom about using his class time efficiently and having active student practice. To do this, Mr. Cruz uses an instructional sequence of review, presenting new content, practice, feedback, and reteaching. He is attempting to achieve the goals of… a. mastery learning b. indirect instruction c. lecturing d. cooperative learning
  • 36. 5. Among the methods/approaches discussed, which teaching method/s is use in Guided/Exploratory Approach? a. Direct Instruction b. Deductive Method c. Inductive Method d. both b & c
  • 37. Thank you! Prepared by: Marilou Florentino