The Plato scale is an empirically derived hydrometer scale to measure density of beer wort in terms of percentage of extract by weight.
The scale expresses the density as the percentage of sucrose by weight, so a wort measured at 12° Plato has the same density as a water−sucrose solution containing 12% sucrose by weight, denoted as 12% Brix.
It was developed in 1843 by Bohemian scientist Karl Balling, and improved by German Fritz Plato. For the brewer, it has an advantage over specific gravity in that it expresses the measurement in terms of the amount of fermentable materials.
Degrees Plato are more popular in central European brewing, and occasionally feature in beer names—some Slovak or Czech breweries feature 10° and 12° versions of their beers, for instance.
Degrees Lovibond has fallen out of industry use but has remained in use in homebrewing circles as the easiest to implement without a spectrophotometer.
Standard Reference Method or SRM
The method involves the use of a spectrophotometer or photometer to measure the attenuation of light of a particular wavelength, 430 nanometers, as it passes through a sample contained in a cuvette located in the light path of the instrument.
“ I've made this stein using a bench top dewar flask because the former croygenics technician in me won't let me use an inferior quality dewar. I've found dewars still holding good vacuum after 30 years. This is, for all intents and purposes, the very best thermos you're ever going to find. It is quite common to fill these with liquid nitrogen, let it sit on the lab bench, and when you come back three days later there will still be liquid nitrogen in it.
Wort, pronounced /ˈwɜrt/, is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. Wort contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol.
The first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted barley. Grain adjuncts are then added and the malt is ground into grist. In beer making, the wort is known as "sweet wort" until the hops have been added, after which it is then called "hopped wort." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wort
In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture. Mashing allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars, typically maltose to create a malty liquid called wort.
There are two main methods - infusion mashing, in which the grains are heated in one vessel; and decoction mashing, in which a proportion of the grains are boiled and then returned to the mash, raising the temperature. Mashing involves pauses at certain temperatures (notably 45 °C, 62 °C and 73 °C), and takes place in a "mash tun" - an insulated brewing vessel with a false bottom. The end product of mashing is called a "mash".
Each particular ingredient has its own flavor which contributes to the final character of the beverage. In addition, different ingredients carry other characteristics, not directly relating to the flavor, which may dictate some of the choices made in brewing: nitrogen content, diastatic power, color, modification, and conversion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashing
Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking in water  and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.    Malting grains develops the enzymes that are required to modify the grain's starches into sugars including monosaccharides such as glucose or fructose , and disaccharides such as sucrose or maltose . It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms which can be utilized by yeast.
The nitrogen content of a grain refers to the mass fraction of the grain which is made up of protein , and is usually expressed as a percentage ; this fraction is further refined by distinguishing what fraction of the protein is water-soluble , also usually expressed as a percentage; 40% is typical for most beermaking grains. Generally, brewers favor lower-nitrogen grains, while distillers favor high-nitrogen grains.
The diastatic power (DP), also called the "diastatic activity" or "enzymatic power", of a grain generally refers only to malts , grains which have begun to germinate ; the act of germination includes the production of a number of enzymes such as amylase which convert starch into sugar; thereby, sugars can be extracted from the barley's own starches simply by soaking the grain in water at a controlled temperature: this is mashing. Other enzymes break long proteins into short ones and accomplish other important tasks.
Diastatic power for a grain is measured in degrees Lintner ( °Lintner or °L, although the latter can conflict with the symbol °L for Lovibond color); or in Europe by Windisch-Kolbach units (°WK). The two measures are related by
Jon602 on flickr.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/45642115@N07/4192616403/
The 1 st canned craft beer to be available in Italy and Switzerland.
It’s produced in Stabio, a small town in Swiss canton of Ticino on the Italian border.
“ Cans are more practical and can be carried to places where glass is forbidden. Furthermore, craft beer in cans has also a very strong environmental quality that makes it cheaper, lighter and more easily recyclable, and contributes to reduce our carbon footprint in many ways.” Alessandra Modignani, Bad Attitude
Jérôme Rebetez has been making different beers in his small brewery in the Jura hills for 13 years. One of his creations, l'Abbaye de Saint Bon-Chien , now has fans in the United States. In 2009 one New York Times journalist rated it one of the best beers in the world!
It’s an unfiltered, unpasteurized, limited-edition ale brewed by Brasserie des Franches-Montagnes in Switzerland.
Spuyten Duyvil 359 Metropolitan Ave., at Havemeyer St., Williamsburg 718-963-4140 Story: The place for beer geeks, with an impressive range of imported brews, from Switzerland’s sour, sage-flavored La Meule to a smoky Bavarian Schlenkerla Helles or Belgium’s funky, citrusy Fantôme Saison.
The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran .
^ "Earliest Known Chemical Evidence of Beer" . University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology . http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/masca/beer.shtml . Retrieved 4 November 2007.
BY THE 7TH CENTURY AD BEER WAS ALSO BEING PRODUCED AND SOLD BY EUROPEAN MONASTERIES
The American Brewers Guild is now accepting applications for the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation slot in the Intensive Brewing Science & Engineering course that runs from Jan. (2011) through July 1, with the final week of onsite instruction in Sacramento, Calif. The full application must be received no later than Nov. 11,
The scholarship is open to professional brewers and homebrewers from the states of Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Hawaii and California’s northern geographic region (San Francisco/Monterey Bay areas and north). The full-tuition scholarship also includes a $500 stipend to help offset travel and lodging expenses for the residential week. Full details and scholarship applications are available at www.abgbrew.com .
The course is designed for brewers and homebrewers who lack formal training in brewing science and covers all the fundamentals of beer production and quality assurance.
The scholarship is co-sponsored by ABG and the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation, a non-profit organization created to commemorate and celebrate the life, interests, and good works of a well-loved and leading Northwest brewer who died and untimely death in 2002.
Alcohol destroys Vitamin C and Vitamin B complex. Drinking beer that has not filtered out the Vitamin B (such as English "real ale," many microbrewed beers and homebrew) will help combat the effects of alcohol — most notably a hangover.
New Glarus Brewing Co. is located in New Glarus, Wisconsin a.k.a. America’s “Little Switzerland.” New Glarus was originally settled by Swiss immigrants from the Canton of Glarus in 1845 and retains a strong Swiss flavor to this day.
New Glarus Brewing Co. products are available exclusively in Wisconsin, but that didn’t stop them from being honored on the Inc. 500/5000 list – for the 4 th year in a row!
Minhas Craft Brewery is the 10th largest brewery in America. Located in the quaint Swiss town of Monroe,Wisconsin a.ka. the "Swiss Cheese Capital of the U.S.A." The brewery has been located downtown since 1845.
Monstein, Switzerland is home to the world’s highest altitude brewing.
Brewing at 1,600 metres above sea level meant installing a special kettle to account for the difference in atmospheric pressure, which makes water boil at a lower temperature, and finding yeast that would work in the thinner air.
“ Filled with mingled cream and amber I will drain that glass again. Such hilarious visions clamber Through the chambers of my brain –Quaintest thoughts– queerest fancies Come to life and fade away; Who cares how time advances? I am drinking ale today.”
– Edgar Allen Poe
WORLD’S STRONGEST & MOST EXPENSIVE BEER “ THE END OF HISTORY” by Brewdog 55% alcohol stoat GBP500 grey squirrel GBP700