Swiss Energy Policy Jean-Christophe Füeg Head Int‘l Energy Affairs ThinkSwiss Study Tour on Energy USA  3 May 2010
<ul><li>Much oil, little industry... </li></ul>Switzerland Energy Mix (2008)  Oil (stationary use) Transport fuels Residen...
Electricity production (2008) Hydro (run of river) Hydro (dams) Nuclear Thermal & renewables
Electricity Market Opening in 2 Steps Partial market opening Full market opening 2009 2014 facultative referendum 2. step ...
<ul><li>Looming Electricity Supply Gap </li></ul>Energy Policy Challenges 0 20 40 60 80 100 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 ...
Energy Policy  Three Guiding Principles <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss Constitution, Energy Law (1999) </l...
CO2-Law and Tax (adopted in 2000)   <ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Minus 10% CO2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>2 sub-targe...
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energies From Programmes to Legal Instruments <ul><li>Program “Energy2000” (1991-2000) Lesso...
Energy Strategy of Federal Council (adopted February 2007)  <ul><li>Four pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable energies ...
Renewable Energy Share of Total final consumption (2008) 8. Biotreibstoffe 0.06% Non-Renewable 81.73% Wind 0.01% Waste inc...
Renewable Energy: Electricity  <ul><li>Electricity Supply Law (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Target: +5.4 TWh p.a. by 2030 </li>...
Renewable Energy: Heat and Transport <ul><li>Action Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should raise share of RES in total final en...
Energy Efficiency  Legal Instruments and Programmes since 1990 <ul><li>Buildings Refurbishment Programm  </li></ul><ul><li...
Buildings: 40% of Final Energy Consumption   Example: Building Stock Canton Graubünden Potential Tech. Refurbishment   MIN...
Nuclear power plants in Switzerland 1165 MW Boiling water 1984 Leibstadt 970 MW, Pressurized water 1978 Gösgen 355 MW, Boi...
Switzerland Europe’s electricity hub and battery 2’000 MW under construction 2’000-3’000 MW projected Additional pump-stor...
Public Energy R&D Efficiency Renewables Nuclear Economics
Switzerland Energy R&D Int‘l Ranking  Global Innovation Index (GII) and Report 2009-2010 … … . USA Korea (4.98) Netherland...
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Swiss Energy Policy - May 2010 Study Tour

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  • Die rund 16,5% an erneuerbarer Energie verdanken wir vor allem der traditionell wichtigen Wasserkraft. Die übrigen, so genannt neuen erneuerbaren Energien leisten mit knapp 5% einen noch sehr bescheidenen Beitrag. Unter den erneuen erneuerbaren Energien steht Holzenergie an erster Stelle, gefolgt vom biogenen Anteil im Kehricht. Zunehmend trägt auch die übrige Biomasse zur Strom- und Wärmeversorgung bei.
  •  Hauptaussagen: – Der grenzüberschreitende Handel mit Strom hat für die Schweiz Tradition . Möglich macht dies ihre Energie aus Speicherkraftwerken . Auch sie eine vorausblickende Pionierleistung der Schweiz. – Die Schweiz handelt in grossem Stil mit dem Rohstoff Strom. Dies verleiht ihr in Europa eine Sonderstellung als zentrale Stromdrehscheibe, als zentrales Transitland auf der Nord-Süd-Achse. – Die eindrücklichen Fakten : Bei einem Anteil am gesamten Energieverbrauch im europäischen Verbundnetz von etwas über 2% hält sie einen Anteil von mehr als 10% an den Grenzflüssen und von etwas mehr als 22% an der installierten Grenzkapazität . – Die Schweizer Stromindustrie denkt international und nutzt ihre Chancen seit Jahren geschickt: Sie baute ihre Netze ausgerichtet auf den grenzüberschreitenden Handel und investiert im grenznahen Ausland in Kraftwerke. – Beispielhaft: der mit Schweizer Beteiligung in Frankreich erzeugte Atomstrom, der durch die Schweiz importiert und nach Italien exportiert wird. – Der grenzüberschreitende Handel mit Strom wurde so zu einem Geschäft von erheblicher volkswirtschaftlicher Bedeutung . &lt;Zahlen von Herrn Bessire&gt; – Die Ausrichtung der Schweiz auf den grenzüberschreitenden Stromhandel hat grosse Vorteile für die Schweizer Stromindustrie und für unser Land. – Der Wermutstropfen: Der Netzausbau im Inland hatte in der Vergangenheit für die Schweizer Stromwirtschaft sekundäre Bedeutung. Es besteht klarer Nachholbedarf. – Und: Soll die installierte Grenzkapazität weiter ausgeschöpft werden, braucht es zusätzliche Investitionen in das grenznahen Netz im Ausland .
  • Die langfristigen, ökologisch vertretbaren Potenziale der erneuerbaren Energien sind um Faktoren oder gar Grössenordnungen höher als was heute ausgeschöpft wird. Technologien, welche kurzfristig noch nicht viel beitragen (Solarenergie, Geothermie) werden in 20 bis 30 Jahren neue Schwergewichte bei den Erneuerbaren sein. Die Nutzung von Umgebungswärme mit Wärmepumpen, die schon heute neben dem Holz Zugpferd ist, wird längerfristig die dominierende Heizungsrat werden. Diese langzeitig absehbare Verschiebung der Beitragsgewichte gilt es bereits bei der heutigen Unterstützung zu berücksichtigen: Ohne eine minimale Förderung insbesondere der Solarenergie würden die entsprechenden Technologien und Systeme erst später als erforderlich für eine breite Anwendung bereit sein. Beitrag Forschung der Privatwirtschaft: 1992: 900 Mio. Fr. 2005: 740 Mio. Fr. Es sind Daten für 2007 vorhanden (angegeben 2005). Leider hat sich an der Budgetsituation nichts geändert.
  • Transcript of "Swiss Energy Policy - May 2010 Study Tour"

    1. 1. Swiss Energy Policy Jean-Christophe Füeg Head Int‘l Energy Affairs ThinkSwiss Study Tour on Energy USA 3 May 2010
    2. 2. <ul><li>Much oil, little industry... </li></ul>Switzerland Energy Mix (2008) Oil (stationary use) Transport fuels Residential Statist. difference
    3. 3. Electricity production (2008) Hydro (run of river) Hydro (dams) Nuclear Thermal & renewables
    4. 4. Electricity Market Opening in 2 Steps Partial market opening Full market opening 2009 2014 facultative referendum 2. step 1. step < 100MWh with default service provider Eligible customers < 100MWh: choice bw. market and default service provider Eligible customers
    5. 5. <ul><li>Looming Electricity Supply Gap </li></ul>Energy Policy Challenges 0 20 40 60 80 100 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 TWh Hydro Nuclear Fossil Imported Nuclear New RES (Solar, Wind, Biomass) Electricity Demand
    6. 6. Energy Policy Three Guiding Principles <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss Constitution, Energy Law (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art. 89 Constitution: “domestic and renewable energy… economising and rational use of energy…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal State: appliances, vehicles, installations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cantons: buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Subsidiarity”: i.e. voluntary action and self-regulation first, state regulation as last resort if voluntary action fails </li></ul><ul><li>Direct democracy: Referendum and Popular Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 votes at federal level since 2000: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000: rejection of 3 proposals for promotion of renewables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2001: rejection of energy “incentive” tax/ecological tax reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2002: rejection of Electricity Market Law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2003: rejection of two nuclear phase-out proposals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2011?: climate policy, SUV ban </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2013/14?: new nuclear plant </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. CO2-Law and Tax (adopted in 2000) <ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Minus 10% CO2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>2 sub-targets: Stationary emissions: -15%, transport emissions: -8% </li></ul><ul><li>In-line with Kyoto (-8%) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Subsidiarity” </li></ul><ul><li>If industry measures insufficient, CO2 tax as from 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Transport sector: Privately-run “Climate Cent” since 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 CH ¢/liter  CHF 100M fund per year: 0.4Mt/y domestic reduction; 2 Mt/y CDM. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stationary sector: CO2 tax as from 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Until 2009: revenues fully recycled (CHF 220M p.a.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries under cap & trade, exempted if fulfilling agreed target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As from 2010: part of revenues (CHF 200M out of CHF 650M p.a. earmarked for building refurbishment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-Kyoto </li></ul><ul><li>-20% (-30% depending on large emitters). Like EU. </li></ul>CHF 12/t CO2 CHF 24/t CO2 CHF 36/t CO2 2008 2009 2010 If 2006 emissions > 94% vs 1990 (actual: 95.4%) If 2007 emissions > 90% vs 1990 If 2008 emissions > 86.5% vs 1990 Not implemented
    8. 8. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energies From Programmes to Legal Instruments <ul><li>Program “Energy2000” (1991-2000) Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary measures not sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Need for harmonisation of cantonal policies & measures </li></ul><ul><li>Program SwissEnergy (2001-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Budget cutbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Co-financing by cantons, huge cantonal variations </li></ul><ul><li>New renewable energy: + 0.5 TWh electricity, + 3 TWh heat: +/- on track </li></ul><ul><li>Cap electricity demand growth at 5% during 2001-2010: + 9.7% 2007 vs 2000! </li></ul><ul><li>Economic stimulus packages (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>CHF 100M for building refurbishment </li></ul><ul><li>CHF 30M for district heating </li></ul><ul><li>CHF 10M for replacement of electric heating systems </li></ul><ul><li>CHF 10M for solar PV </li></ul>
    9. 9. Energy Strategy of Federal Council (adopted February 2007) <ul><li>Four pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable energies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity Supply Law: Feed-in tariffs as from 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan (February 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan (February 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large power plants inevitable, i.e. gas and/or nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speedier permitting (mainly power lines) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas-power plants: full CO2 compensation, 70-100% domestic (EU ETS-compatibility?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 nuclear power plant applications filed in 2008: likely referendum in 2013/14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Energy Relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EU main partner. Electricity negotiations since end 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Renewable Energy Share of Total final consumption (2008) 8. Biotreibstoffe 0.06% Non-Renewable 81.73% Wind 0.01% Waste incineration 1.35% Sewage plants 0.20% Ambient heat 0.79% Solar 0.14% Wood & biogas 3.58% Hydro 12.14% Renewable 18.27%
    11. 11. Renewable Energy: Electricity <ul><li>Electricity Supply Law (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Target: +5.4 TWh p.a. by 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-covering feed-in tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Financed through 0.45 cent/kWh grid levy (legal cap at 0.6 cent/kWh, to be lifted to 0.9 cent/kWh from 2013) </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve-fold increase of feed-in tariffs as from 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-specific caps </li></ul><ul><li>Debate about lifting cap on PV </li></ul>0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Small hydro Solar PV Wind Biomass Total Million CHF Approved Feed-In Tariffs Legal Cap
    12. 12. Renewable Energy: Heat and Transport <ul><li>Action Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should raise share of RES in total final energy consumption from 16 to 24% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU compatibility? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earmarking of CO2-tax: CHF 200M p.a. for building refurbishment, 1/3 of which for renewables in buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biofuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiscal incentive, no target </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Energy Efficiency Legal Instruments and Programmes since 1990 <ul><li>Buildings Refurbishment Programm </li></ul><ul><li>(2010-2020) </li></ul><ul><li>Part-earmarking of CO2-tax revenues: CHF 200M + 100 M from cantons leveraging CHF 1 billion p.a. </li></ul><ul><li>10’000 refurbishments p.a. over 2010-2019 </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing CO2-emissions by 2.2 Mt/y </li></ul><ul><li>“ SwissEnergy” (2001-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap electricity demand growth at 5% during 2001-2010: + 9.8% 2009 vs 2000! </li></ul><ul><li>Action Plan (February 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Max. 10% electricity demand increase by 2020 vs. 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>-20% fossil energy demand by 2020 vs. 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Tightening norms and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Building codes, labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Cars: Bonus-malus taxation, fleet norm? </li></ul>Switzerland: Heating systems 83.4% 6.1% 4.3% 3.4% 2.8% Heating oil, natural gas Heat pumps CHP Electricity Wood
    14. 14. Buildings: 40% of Final Energy Consumption Example: Building Stock Canton Graubünden Potential Tech. Refurbishment MINERGIE Refurbishment
    15. 15. Nuclear power plants in Switzerland 1165 MW Boiling water 1984 Leibstadt 970 MW, Pressurized water 1978 Gösgen 355 MW, Boiling water 1972 Mühleberg 365 MW, Pressurized water 1972 Beznau II 365 MW, Pressurized water 1969 Beznau I Capacity, Type Year in operation Plant
    16. 16. Switzerland Europe’s electricity hub and battery 2’000 MW under construction 2’000-3’000 MW projected Additional pump-storage: 29‘709 MW (21.3% of UCTE) Cross-border capacity: 67.1 TWh (10% of UCTE) Cross-border flows: 9‘724 MW (2.5% of UCTE) Peak load:
    17. 17. Public Energy R&D Efficiency Renewables Nuclear Economics
    18. 18. Switzerland Energy R&D Int‘l Ranking Global Innovation Index (GII) and Report 2009-2010 … … . USA Korea (4.98) Netherlands Luxemburg Germany Japan (5.44) Schweiz (26) Schweiz (25) Denmark Schweiz (4.91) Austria Singapore Sweden Finland(5.65) Taiwan Norway Japan Sweden (6.19) Germany Hong Kong Schweiz Israel (7) Intensity of Local Competition Venture Capital Availability Companies Spending on R&D Public R&D Expenditure (%GDP)

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