Multiscale Building Physics - EMPA

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Multiscale Building Physics - EMPA

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Jan Carmeliet Chair of Building Physics, ETH Zürich Head Lab. of Building Science and Technology, EMPA Paul Klee Multiscale building physics from nano to urban scale
  2. 2. nano New sustainable Porous materials materials micron Building components mm Sustainable Buildings Buildings m Built environment Sustainable cities km
  3. 3. densification of the Zürich area 1847 1912 1990 10 km ORL-Institut ETH, www.rzu.ch, 2008
  4. 4. Correlation with global population evolution Is the measure of 50% reduction sufficient when considering the global population growth www.worldclimatereport.com
  5. 5. Masdar City, Abu Dhabi dream or reality Dongtan Ecocity near Shanghai
  6. 6. End energy use in Switzerland 2006 Industry, Services, agriculture: 24% Mobility: 28% Buildings: 48% 69% fossil energy Source: BfE
  7. 7. Heating demand until 2100 7000 6000 Davos 5000 Heizgradtage (Kd) Zürich Genf 4000 3000 2000 Lugano 1000 θg = 10°C Projected global 0 temperature 1900 1950 2000 2050 increase until Jahr 2100 (IPPC) Christenson, Manz, Gyalistras, 2006 1.8 to 4 K
  8. 8. Cooling demand until 2100 1200 θ = 18.3°C bal 1000 Kühlgradtage (Kd) 800 Lugano Genf Davos 600 Zürich 400 200 0 Projected global 1900 1950 2000 2050 temperature Jahr increase until 2100 (IPPC) Christenson, Manz, Gyalistras, 2006 1.8 to 4 K
  9. 9. Increasing energy demand for cooling higher comfort expectations higher solar gains (highly glazed buildings) higher internal gains (electrical appliances, lighting) climate warming heat island effect [Adnot, 2003] Air-conditioned floor area in the EU
  10. 10. -9 10 -6 10 -3 10 -1 10 l ria 1 1 ate 10 m 2 10 g 3 din 10 il bu 4 10 s s ic 5 y ph 10 i n g ild 6 u 10 b n al io d it tra ter me
  11. 11. Swiss Building Energy Codes and primary energy consumption Primary Energy Consumption MJ/m2y HFA 1400 1200 1000 800 600 2000W 400 Target 200 0 Swiss Average SIA380/1 Minergie Minergie-P Heating Hot Water Electricity Construction Renewal
  12. 12. CCEM Innovative Building Technologies for a 2000 Watt society Scope: Integrated solution approach Use of advanced building materials and components Use of soft heating / cooling technologies (minimized use of fossil energies) Use of smart control systems and user interfaces
  13. 13. Forum Chriesbach „Zero Energy Building“ Concept 2002 02.03.07 / AB
  14. 14. Forum Chriesbach vacuum heat pipe solar Photovoltaic energy collectors 60 MWh/a, 77 kWp, 460 m2 24 MWh/a, 50 m2
  15. 15. Forum Chriesbach Night cooling
  16. 16. Climatic potential for night-time ventilation Degree-hours method to quantify the climatic cooling potential (CCP) Building temperature CCP (Kh) External air 24.5 ± 2.5 °C temperature Climatic cooling potential Definition of the climatic cooling Mean climatic cooling potential in potential July (data source: Meteonorm).
  17. 17. Thermally activated ceiling panel with phase change material (PCM) tabsRetrofit D tabs in new building panels in retrofit/ light weight buildings
  18. 18. 10 times higher storage capacity than concrete 1.6 times lower density than concrete 30 cm concrete corresponds to 3 cm PCM with 6% of the concrete mass
  19. 19. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  20. 20. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  21. 21. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  22. 22. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  23. 23. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  24. 24. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  25. 25. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  26. 26. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  27. 27. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  28. 28. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000) SELF is not just a house. It is also … a power station a seasonal energy storage a fueling station a water supply system
  29. 29. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000)
  30. 30. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000) Basel, Swissbau, January, 2010
  31. 31. Innovative Building Technologies for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000) Energy collected and consumed (Zurich) kWh/d 30 PV generation heating, ventilation 20 hot water energy gap H2-cooking 10 50 kWh appliances 0 Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dez Jan Feb Mar Apr Mai Jun
  32. 32. Innovative Building Technologies for Innovative Building Technologies the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000) for the 2000-Watt Society (House 2000) Applied technologies High performance insulation: vacuum insulation, aerogels Smart windows (switchable) Passive cooling / heating (phase change materials) Integrated unit for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water Solar electricity (PV) Seasonal energy storage with lithium-Ion batteries (50 kWh) Intelligent electricity management Hydrogen system for peak loads and cooking Water treatment plants for water purification and recycling
  33. 33. Vacuum glazing: new seal technology Sn-based soft solder anodic bonding Cu-electrode (0V) Glass pane Metal seal (+1000V) Glass pane Cu-electrode (0V) p ~ 10-4 Torr, T = 250 - 350˚C Solid Molten solder glass solder ∆T Ultrasonic image
  34. 34. CCEM CCEM historical retrofit buildings Carmeliet et al. 2009 Zimmermann et al. 2007 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 kWh/m²a 200 150 100 new buildings 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 Mio m2 floor area Heat Energy Demand and Heated Floor Area of Dwellings in Zurich
  35. 35. CCEM : centre of competence in energy and mobility Protected historical monuments Historical buildings (not protected) ca. 1850-1920 Prefab retrofit CCEM-Retrofit General residential buildings ca. 1920-1970
  36. 36. Existing buildings offer the largest available energy saving potential Low energy technologies are available for new buildings but often not appropriate and inefficient for existing buildings Prefabrication of advanced modules for low energy renovation
  37. 37. CCEM Retrofit Swiss demonstration buildings Renovation of apartment building (1952) completed 2009, Beat Kaempfen Architects
  38. 38. Energy performance
  39. 39. Installation and renewable energy • Space heating (cooling) and warm water supplied by ground-heat source heat pump and vacuum solar collectors on roof and balcony – 75% of hot water by solar – 7% of space heating by solar – Two storage containers of 1600 liters • PV system on upper roof: – 115 m2 – 15 KWp
  40. 40. Energy performance
  41. 41. Prefab Building Renovation
  42. 42. High performance retrofit insulation systems Prefabrication of advanced renovation modules Innovative system integration solar, heat pumps, heat re-covery control strategies for renovated buildings Retrofit advisor economic, environmental, social issues
  43. 43. Costs • Cost renovation: – 1.85 mil CHF, 1.3 mil. Euro – 60 % of cost new building – Subsidy: 110 kCHF, 77’000 Euro • Increase of rentable space • Increase of comfort • Increase of value
  44. 44. Part of RAP-RETRO Protected historical monuments Sustainable Historical buildings renovation of CCEM-SuRHiB (not protected) historical ca. 1850-1920 buildings General residential buildings ca. 1920-1970
  45. 45. nano New sustainable Porous materials materials micron Building components mm Sustainable Buildings Buildings m Built environment Sustainable cities km
  46. 46. Need to scale up -9 10 -6 10 -3 10 -1 10 l ria 1 1 ate 10 m 2 10 g 3 din 10 il bu 4 k 10 s ic s oc bl 5 y y ph 10 g cit ild i n b an ur 6 u 10 b n al io d it tra rth ter ea me
  47. 47. Height (m) Urban scale (10 -100 km) wind 300 200 100 suburban area urban area
  48. 48. Heat island circulation Height (m) Urban scale (10 -100 km) 300 200 lake breeze 100 suburban area urban area
  49. 49. Heat island effect ºC rural city Town, City Heat island intensity Biel, Fribourg 5K Basel, Bern 6K Zürich 7K Wanner & Hertig, 1983
  50. 50. Heat island circulation city block urban area Height (m) Urban scale (10 -100 km) 300 200 lake breeze 100 suburban area urban area
  51. 51. Heat island circulation city block urban area 40 m 40 m 40 m Niederdorf Bahnhofstrasse Neu-Oerlikon
  52. 52. What are the causes of the heat island effect ? A. Hoyano surface temperatures in two different designs of the same street
  53. 53. reduced albedo of urban surfaces heat storage in urban structure
  54. 54. anthropogenic heat release transportation industry people reduced albedo of urban surfaces heat storage in urban structure
  55. 55. [Ali-Toudert, 2005] reduced long-wave radiation loss during night sky view factor in cities
  56. 56. reduced convective heat losses due to wind-sheltering reduced (cross) ventilation potential
  57. 57. K. Vaes, S. Van Praet, B. Blocken and J. Carmeliet, 2007
  58. 58. reduced evapotranspiration (latent heat)
  59. 59. R. Ooka et al.
  60. 60. Multiscale approach building model room scale human scale (3-30m) human (1 m) sensation model micro- climate model building scale (30-100 m) city block scale (1 km) meso-meteorological urban scale (10 -100 km) model
  61. 61. Athmospheric boundary layer flow around a building Detached eddy simulation Defraeye, Blocken and Carmeliet, 2008 Heat surface coefficient Defraeye, Blocken and Carmeliet, 2009
  62. 62. Air pollutant dispersion in street canyons Kastner-Klein
  63. 63. Health: air pollutant aerodynamics Pollutant dispersion by chimney Pollutant dispersion by exhaust hosp ital Blocken et al. 2008 Blocken and Carmeliet, 2006
  64. 64. Comfort: wind, thermal Present and future wind comfort in and around the arena, Amsterdam Wind stability of the roof Thermal comfort inside when roof is closed during concerts J. Persoon, de Wit, Blocken and Carmeliet, 2008
  65. 65. Design of intelligent materials for controlling leaching of biocides from facades
  66. 66. Microclimate around buildings Run-off of rain droplets on glass Carmeliet and Blocken, 2006 Particle tracking of rain particles Blocken and Carmeliet, 2004 - 2008 Rain droplet impact on porous material: spreading, uptake and drying Abuku, 2009
  67. 67. Paul Klee THANK YOU

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