Robert Levenson - Emotion and music: A basic affective science perspective

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  • Music and Emotions

    The most difficult problem in answering the question of how music creates emotions is likely to be the fact that assignments of musical elements and emotions can never be defined clearly. The solution of this problem is the Theory of Musical Equilibration. It says that music can't convey any emotion at all, but merely volitional processes, the music listener identifies with. Then in the process of identifying the volitional processes are colored with emotions. The same happens when we watch an exciting film and identify with the volitional processes of our favorite figures. Here, too, just the process of identification generates emotions.

    An example: If you perceive a major chord, you normally identify with the will 'Yes, I want to...'. If you perceive a minor chord, you identify normally with the will 'I don't want any more...'. If you play the minor chord softly, you connect the will 'I don't want any more...' with a feeling of sadness. If you play the minor chord loudly, you connect the same will with a feeling of rage. You distinguish in the same way as you would distinguish, if someone would say the words 'I don't want anymore...' the first time softly and the second time loudly.
    Because this detour of emotions via volitional processes was not detected, also all music psychological and neurological experiments, to answer the question of the origin of the emotions in the music, failed.

    But how music can convey volitional processes? These volitional processes have something to do with the phenomena which early music theorists called 'lead', 'leading tone' or 'striving effects'. If we reverse this musical phenomena in imagination into its opposite (not the sound wants to change - but the listener identifies with a will not to change the sound) we have found the contents of will, the music listener identifies with. In practice, everything becomes a bit more complicated, so that even more sophisticated volitional processes can be represented musically.

    Further information is available via the free download of the e-book 'Music and Emotion - Research on the Theory of Musical Equilibration:

    www.willimekmusic.de/music-and-emotions.pdf

    or on the online journal EUNOMIOS:

    www.eunomios.org

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  • 1. Emotion and musicA basic affective scienceperspectiveRobert W. Levenson, Ph.D.Department of Psychology, UC BerkeleyFeel the Music: Sound and EmotionMay 16, 2013
  • 2. 2What is basic affective science?
  • 3. 3Basic affective science•  Studies thefundamental nature ofemotion–  Structure•  Are there basic emotions?–  How many?•  Discrete or dimensional?•  Neural correlates–  Autonomic nervous system–  Somatic nervous system–  Central nervous system
  • 4. 4Basic affective science•  Studies thefundamental nature ofemotion–  Structure–  Function•  Emotions–  Solve problems–  Mobilize action–  Alert others–  Provide information–  Signal intentions–  Coordinate responsesystems
  • 5. 5Basic affective science•  Studies thefundamental nature ofemotion–  Structure–  Function•  Studies things thatinfluence emotion•  Thoughts•  Genes•  Age•  Gender•  Health•  Other people•  Culture•  Music
  • 6. 6Basic affective science•  Studies thefundamental nature ofemotion–  Structure–  Function•  Studies things thatinfluence emotion•  Studies things thatemotion influences•  Thoughts•  Bodily processes•  Immunity•  Health•  Well-being•  Other people•  Musical performance
  • 7. 7Viewing emotions through theEvolutionary/Functionalist Lens
  • 8. 8What are emotions?How are they activated?What do they do?How do they feel?
  • 9. Interoception &ProprioceptionSubjectiveexperienceMemoriesOther emotionsAntecedentVocalMotorAutonomicFacialAppraisalEmotionBlood injury Decay/DiseaseDisgustnose wrinkle“yuck”withdrawgagSalivationGI motilitysickeningchurningAppraisal
  • 10. Looking under the hood
  • 11. Looking under the hood55 65 75 85 95 105 115SecondsSCLHRFaceAccident
  • 12. 12Emotion processes
  • 13. Emotional reactivity Responding to challengesand opportunitiesEmotion regulation Adjusting emotionalresponses to meetsituational demandsEmotion recognition Detecting & responding tothe emotions of others(includes knowing,feeling, helping, empathy)
  • 14. 14Music and ReactivityGenerating emotion
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16•  38 (50% female) Berkeley and Cornell students•  Listen to six 3-minute excerpts of orchestral music–  Fear•  Holst: Mars-The Bringer of War•  Mussorgsky: Night on Bald Mountain–  Sad•  Albinoni: Adagio in G minor for Strings and Orchestra•  Barber: Adagio for Strings, Op. 11–  Happy•  Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, La Primavera•  Alfven: Midsommarvka•  Dependent measure: Report the intensity of specificemotions (0-8 scale)McCoy, K., & Levenson, R.W. Unpublished manuscriptCan music generate particularemotions?
  • 17. 17Results0.01.02.03.04.05.0AmuseAngerDisgustEmbarrassFearSad"Fear" musicHolstMussorgsky0.01.02.03.04.05.0AmuseAngerDisgustEmbarrassFearSad"Sad" musicAlbinoniBarber0.01.02.03.04.05.0AngerAmuseDisgustEmbarrassFearSad"Happy" musicVivaldiAlfven0.01.02.03.04.05.0AngerAmuseContentDisgustEmbarrassFearSadPsycho (shower scene)PsychoAre these emotions in the person, the music, or both?
  • 18. 18Music and RegulationAdjusting emotional responses
  • 19. 19AntecedentVocalMotorAutonomicFacialAppraisalEmotionAttentionfocusedAppraisalfocusedResponsefocusedLullabiesBugle callsBackground musicFilm scores
  • 20. 20•  60 male Indiana University students•  12-minute industrial safety film (finger cut, fingeramputation, board impalement)•  Conditions–  Silent (No music)–  Documentary (“mildly active chord progression based on major7th chords”…composed so as not to draw attention toward oraway from any part of the film)–  Horror (“repetitive figure based on diminished seventh chords andharsh timbres”…placed to draw attention to the accident scenes)•  Dependent measure: Skin conductance measuredthroughout the filmThayer, J.F., & Levenson, R.W. (1983). Effects of music on psychophysiological responses toa stressful film. Psychomusicology, 1, 44-52.Can music regulate emotionalresponse?
  • 21. 21Results024681012141 2 3Accident #Skin conductance levelSilent Horror Documentary
  • 22. 22Music and RecognitionDetecting and responding toemotions
  • 23. 23Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)•  Characteristics–  Degenerative, rapidprogression–  Onset before age 65–  15% of all dementias(often misdiagnosed)–  Involvement of brainareas important foremotion and empathy–  Changes in emotion,personality, socio-emotional behaviorprecede grosscognitive changesFTLDNormal
  • 24. 24A silver bullet into the emotioncenters of the brain
  • 25. 25•  39 frontotemporal dementia , 18 epilepsypatients, 75 normal controls•  Took a 16-item test that assesses aestheticsand sensory judgments–  2 items involved judging happiness in musicalselectionsSimpson, M., Shiota, M., Kirsch, H., & Levenson, R.W. Manuscript in preparationCan neurological disease impair theability to recognize emotion in music?AWhich sound is more HAPPY, A or B?AA B
  • 26. 26Results020406080100FTD Epilepsy NormalPercent correct
  • 27. 27•  Music influences all three primary emotionalprocesses: Reactivity, Regulation, andRecognition•  Music is more strongly connected to certaindiscrete emotions (amusement, calm, fear, pride,sadness) than others (disgust, embarrassment,shame, guilt)•  Neurological diseases of the frontal and temporallobes can disrupt ability to detect the emotionalqualities of musicEmotion and music:A basic affective science approach
  • 28. Research Team and Funding•  Berkeley PsychophysiologyLaboratory–  Elizabeth Ascher–  Lian Bloch–  Jim Casey–  Janet Eckart–  Michaela Gibson–  Madeleine Goodkind–  Anett Gyurak–  Sarah Holley–  Sandy Lwi–  Anita Madan–  Kia Nesmith–  Scott Newton–  Marcela Otero–  Deepak Paul–  Ben Seider–  Jocelyn Sze–  Alice Verstaen–  Patrick Whalen–  Joyce Yuan•  UCSF Memory and Aging Center:–  Bruce Miller–  Howard Rosen–  Adam Boxer–  Bill Seeley–  Virginia Sturm•  Other collaborators–  Kelly Werner (Stanford)Research supported by grants from the National Instituteon Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health
  • 29. Extras
  • 30. 30Generating basic emotions?Negative Positive Self-ConsciousAnger Amusement þ EmbarrassmentDisgust Calm þ GuiltFear þ Contentment Pride þSadness þ Joy þ ShameSurprise þ•  Criteria?–  Facial expressions–  Neural activation•  Autonomic nervous system•  Brain–  Self-report emotional experience
  • 31. 31Which sound is more HAPPY, A or B?A BItems 15&16A B
  • 32. Feeling: Emotional empathy and aging(Sze, Gyurak, Goodkind, & Levenson, in press)•  N=42 young (20-30), 46 middle-age (40-50), 42 old(60-80)•  Two films–  Autistic surfers–  Genocide in Darfur•  Given extra $10 to keep or donate to related charities024ChangeYoungMiddleOld0102030Change(msec)YoungMiddleOldPersonal Distress(self report)Interbeat Interval(Heart rate)**$0$2$4$6YoungMiddleOldDonation*Results: Darfur film
  • 33. What doemotions look like?AntecedentVocalMotorAutonomicFacialAppraisalEmotionBlood injury Decay/DiseaseDisgustnose wrinkle“yuck”withdrawgagSalivationGI motility
  • 34. What do emotions feel like?•  A thought experiment–  What does disgust feellike? Make a list ofcharacteristics–  Cross out everything thatrefers to a bodilysensation orphysiological change–  What’s left?What does disgust feellike?1.2.3.4.5.
  • 35. Bonus topic 1Emotions and health in long-termmarriages
  • 36. 1989 1995 2001 2008Studying Emotion in Marriage•  15-minute unrehearsedconversations (Events of day,Problem area, Pleasurable activity)•  Continuous measures ofemotion :–  Physiology: autonomic andsomatic measures–  Behavior: coding ofvideotape–  Subjective experience:rating dial while watchingvideotapeInteraction Session Rating Session20 years of marriage
  • 37. Emotion and health in marriage:Angry marriages, damaged hearts•  Emotion–  Behavioral coding ofconflict conversations in1989•  Health symptoms–  Cornell medical index in1989, 1995,2001, 2008•  Covariates–  Demographics (age,gender, education)–  Health behaviors (sleepproblems, lack ofexercise, caffeine andalcohol consumption)–  Marital satisfactionAnger codesper 15 min5557
  • 38. 45!50!55!60!65!70!75!80!85!90!95!100!1989/90! 1995/96! 2001/02! 2008/09!Atleastonecardiovascularsymptom(in%)!No anger behavior 1989/90(0% anger seconds; n = 65)!Moderate anger behavior 1989/90(>0-10% anger seconds; n = 177)!High anger behavior 1989/90(>= 10% anger seconds, n = 67)!Angry marriages, damaged hearts•  No differences in heart symptoms in 1989•  Anger in 1989 associated with increased cardiovascular symptomsover time (risk odds ratio = 1.5)•  Specific to anger (not fear or sadness)•  Specific to the heart (not musculoskeletal or respiratory)Research team led by: Claudia Haase and Lian Bloch
  • 39. 39The Three Horsemen of theAffectolypseThe Reactor The Regulator The Recognizer
  • 40. To do•  Add any needed layout, sample forms, etc. to experimentsto make them more participatory•  Add a slide toward the end on the confluence of factorsthat influence our emotional lives as we mature–  Brain biology•  Differential effects of aging in different brain regions (find imagefrom one of the Buckner papers)•  Result in things we don’t do as well, but also the emergence of thingswe might do more–  E.g., don’t dual task as well, don’t ignore things as well, trust our “gut”feelings (and may have more access to them)•  Life experience–  View things in perspective–  Wisdom•  Greater value on social relationships, more “we”, less “me”
  • 41. Bonus topic 2Is there a genetic basis for maritalsuccess?
  • 42. Emotion in neurodegenerative diseaseImagine a disease that robbed us of thevery aspects of emotional life that normalaging preserves and strengthens
  • 43. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)•  Characteristics–  Degenerative, rapidprogression–  Onset before age 65–  15% of all dementias(often misdiagnosed)–  Involvement of brainareas important foremotion and empathy(e.g., amygdala,insula, anteriorcingulate, anteriortemporal lobes,frontal lobes)–  Changes in emotion,personality, socio-emotional behaviorprecede grosscognitive changesFTLDNormal
  • 44. FTLD versus Alzheimer’s:Contrasting anatomyAlzheimer’sFrontotemporalDegenerativeOnset before 65Initial changes inemotion,personality, socialbehavior,empathyAffectsamygdala, insula,temporal pole,frontal lobesDegenerativeOnset after 65Initial changes inmemory, spatialabilitiesAffectshippocampus,entorhinal cortex,posteriorcingulate
  • 45. Change in Brain MorphologyTime 1 Time 2 (15 months later)Frontotemporal Lobar DegenerationPrimary Progressive Aphasia
  • 46. Loss of self-conscious emotional reactivity(Sturm et al., Emotion, 2009)Baseline Sing Watch Baseline Watch Self SingxControl FTLD
  • 47. Loss of self-conscious emotional reactivity(Sturm et al., Emotion, 2009)Watch Self Sing(Skin Conductance)-0.200.20.40.60 40 80 120160200SecondsuMhosControlFTLDWatch Self Sing(Happiness + Amusement Behavior)051015202530Controls FTLDIntensityXDuration*Karaoke II: New Sample•  FTLD show less self-conscious emotional responding thanControls–  Less self-conscious emotional responding correlated with smallerrostral anterior cingulate volume
  • 48. Loss of spontaneous emotion regulation00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8EmotionalFacialExpressionCompositeControl (N=25)FTLD(N=32)Startle: Instructed down-regulationUnwarnedSuppressionStartle stimulus:115 db, 110 mswhite noise burstControl FTLD**00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8EmotionalFacialExpressionCompositeControl (N=25)FTLD(N=32)Startle: Spontaneous down-regulationUnwarnedWarned*
  • 49. 020406080100% CorrectNormal FTLDDetect Main Characters Emotion(Negative Films)Loss of cognitive empathy(Werner et al., Neurology, 2007)020406080100%Normal FTLDReport Content Correctly(All Films)*RightAmyg-dalaLeftAmyg-dalaRightTem-poralLeftTem-poralRecog-nizeNegativeemotion.80* NS NS NS
  • 50. Loss of cognitive empathy:Where does it begin?Gaze-tracker Normal control
  • 51. Processing an emotional faceNormal Control Early-FTLD? Full-blown FTLD
  • 52. Loss of emotional functioning inFTLD: Real-world examplesReactivity (self consciousemotion)Regulation (inhibition)Reactivity (paralinguistics)Empathy
  • 53. Different dementias:Different effects on cognition and emotionFTLD AD
  • 54. See me: Are you feeling it?Feel me: Are you healing it?Heal me: Are you feeling it?O hateful O jealousO arrogant O panickedSeparable?What’s the trigger?
  • 55. Empathy: Background•  Individuals of many species will act toterminate another’s distress•  Perception-Action model (Preston & deWaal, 2002)–  Attended perception of object’s stateautomatically activates subject’srepresentation of the state plusassociated autonomic and somaticresponses–  Subserved by neural network thatincludes•  Mirror neurons in left premotor andright anterior parietal areas that areactivated by movements by self andothers•  Right parietal areas that receivekinesthetic sensory feedback•  Brain stem projections to facial nervethat produce facial expressions•  Insula areas that relay information frompremotor mirror neurons to theamygdala•  Temporal areas that store memories ofobects, places, and people•  Fusiform face area of temporal lobe thatprocesses face and eye gaze information•  Amygdala areas that potentiate memoryconsolidation in hippocampus•  Hypothalamic areas that controlautonomic responses and projections tothese areas from amygdala
  • 56. •  Cingulate (yellow): error monitoring, reward, autonomicresponses•  Mirror neurons: imitation, simulation, empathy•  Plus: Visual association cortices, hypothalamus, thalamus,brainstem•  Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (green): social decision-making, planning, inhibition•  Amygdala (red): fear conditioning, processingemotionally-relevant stimuli including social stimuli;social “judgments”; approach/avoid “decisions”•  Right somatosensory cortex (blue): decoding complexemotional expressions via “simulation”, empathy•  Insula (purple): processing bodily signals, self-regulation;•  Fusiform face area (green): face processingBottom line: It’s a fronto-temporal worldThe social brain: anatomical suspects(based on Adolphs, 1999)
  • 57. The respiratory theme•  Wilson (1924) proposed a “facio-respiratory”center in brainstem that was dysfunctional•  Laughing and crying only: no other emotions–  Yawning sometimes•  In ALS, associated with bulbar symptoms (speechand swallowing difficulties)•  Benefits from treatment with Neurodex(Dextromethorphan + Quinidine Sulfate)–  Dextromethorphan is a commonly used coughsuppressant
  • 58. FTLD patient withrelatively sparedfrontal lobesControlsLoss of Cognitive Empathy in FTLDFTLD patient withreduced frontallobesControlsPositiveNegativePositiveNegativeFrontallobeAnteriorTemporalLobe AmygdalaRightLeftr = 0.61*r = 0.49*r = 0.19r = 0.14 r = -0.38r = 0.21Correlations:Regional Volumes &Tracking Accuracy ScoresGreater frontal loss associated with poorer dynamic tracking
  • 59. Pseudobulbar Affect in ALSLaughter episodeWatching amusing filmCrying episodeWatching sad film
  • 60. Change in PersonalityInterpersonal Adjective ScalesPremorbid NowSubmissiveDominantWarmColdSubmissiveDominantWarmColdRankin, K. P., Kramer, J. H., Mychack, P., & Miller, B. L. (2003). Double dissociation ofsocial functioning in frontotemporal dementia. Neurology, 60(2), 266-271.
  • 61. Emotional ExpertiseAccuracy Judging Marital Satisfaction0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8Long-term marriagesNewlywedsRecent divorceesPastoral counselorsClinical graduate studentsUndergraduatesMarital therapistsMarital researchersMethod: View video of 10 couples discussinga marital problem for 3 minutes.Answer two questions:(1) Will they still be married five years later;(2) Rate their marital satisfaction at the timeof the taping on a 1-10 scale.Ebling & Levenson (2003)
  • 62. 6. Emotions can be activated “inreverse”AntecedentVocalMatch toPrototypeMotorAutonomicFacial“…the emotion both begins and ends with what we call its effects ormanifestations…any voluntary arousal of the so-called manifestations of aspecial emotion ought to give us the emotion itself” (James, 1884)
  • 63. Change in Brain MorphologyTime 1 Time 2 (15 months later)Frontotemporal Lobar DegenerationPrimary Progressive Aphasia
  • 64. Loss of Empathy with Preservation of InsightPossible early Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration?Cat Accident
  • 65. Loss of empathy with preservation of insight
  • 66. Empathy: Background•  Many species--including non-human primates and rodents—will act to terminate another’sdistress (Preston & de Wall,2002)–  Possible basis: selectionadvantages for individual andspecies–  Process: Attended perceptionof another’s emotional stateautomatically activatesrepresentation of the state plusassociated autonomic andsomatic responses in theobserver•  Mirror neurons--a critical partof the empathy circuit?–  Involved in understandingaction and imitation (Rizzolatti& Craighero, 2004)–  Found in premotor cortex (F5)and superior temporal sulcus inmonkeys—respond whenmonkey performs an action orobserves another monkey (orhuman) performing a similaraction•  Strong indirect evidence fortheir existence and extendedrole in humans (e.g., imitationlearning, language learning)
  • 67. “Words, words, words”Hamlet, Act II, Scene II
  • 68. Empathy: The idealAttention Capture → Knowing/Feeling→ HelpingSocial interest Mimicry Contagion Theory of mind Compassion
  • 69. Less than ideal•  Narcissistic personality disorder–  “Lacks empathy”•  Antisocial personality disorder–  “Reckless disregard for thesafety of … others”•  Autism–  “Lack of social or emotionalreciprocity”–  “Marked impairments in …eye-to-eye gaze, facialexpression… and gestures toregulate social interaction”–  Theory of mind theme…Frontotemporal lobar degeneration–  “Loss of sympathy andEmpathy” (SD)–  “Indifference to others” (FTD)Neuropathology unknown Neuropathology known
  • 70. More than ideal?•  Predators–  "I think its easy to mistakeunderstanding forempathy--we want empathyso badly. …Its hard andugly to know somebody canunderstand you withouteven liking you. When yousee understanding just usedas a predators tool, that theworst" (p 55)•  Clarice Starling inHannibal (Harris, 1999)•  Williams Syndrome–  “unusually strong interest inother people…engaging andempathetic personality”–  Skwerer et al, 2006: muchworse at identifyingemotion from eyes andfaces than age/language/IQmatched controls–  Too much of a good thing?
  • 71. Emotional Understanding: Neural SubstratesRightAmyg-dalaLeftAmyg-dalaRightTem-poralLeftTem-poralRecog-nizePositiveemotion.75* NS NS NSRecog-nizeNegativeemotion.80* NS NS NSFTLD Patient’s Recognition of Emotions in Photos:Correlations with Brain Volumes* p < .05 (Rosen et al, 2002)
  • 72. FTLD: Loss of Empathic Accuracy(Goodkind, Ascher, Sturm, & Levenson, in preparation)00.511.52AccuracyNegativeemotionsPositiveemotionsSelf-consciousemotionsEmpathic Accuracy(Identify Emotion in Films)ControlsFTLD***
  • 73. FTLD: Marital InteractionCommunication Anger
  • 74. Emotional expertiseAccuracy Judging Marital Satisfaction0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8Long-term marriagesNewlywedsRecent divorceesPastoral counselorsClinical graduate studentsUndergraduatesMarital therapistsMarital researchersMethod: View video of 10 couples discussinga marital problem for 3 minutes.Answer two questions:(1) Will they still be married five years later;(2) Rate their marital satisfaction at the timeof the taping on a 1-10 scale.Ebling & Levenson (2003)
  • 75. Marital InteractionFrontotemporal Dementia Alzheimer’s Disease
  • 76. See me, feel me, heal me:Empathy in normal adult developmentand dementiaRobert W. LevensonIHD, November 5, 2009
  • 77. Emotion regulation in normal aging(Shiota & Levenson, 2009)•  48 young (20-29), 48middle-age (40-49),and 48 elderly (60-69)participants watcheddisgusting and sadfilms•  Measured reduction ofsubjective experienceand reduction ofphysiological response-1.4-1.2-1-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.200.20.4DetachmentReappraisalPositiveReappraisalChange in Target Emotion20s40s60s-0.2-0.15-0.1-0.0500.050.10.15DetachedReappraisalPositiveReappraisalChange in Physiological Composite20s40s60sDown-regulation
  • 78. Background•  Many species--including non-human primates and rodents—will act to terminate another’sdistress (Preston & de Wall,2002)–  Lowering the bar (Rice &Gainer, 1962)–  Chain of love (Masserman etal., 1964)–  Cry me a river (Zahn-Waxler& Radke-Yarrow, 1982)•  The Perception-Action model(Preston & de Wall, 2002)–  Attended perception ofobject’s state automaticallyactivates subject’srepresentation of the state plusassociated autonomic andsomatic responsesAttention →Mimicry/Contagion/Activation →Processing →Action (Empathy)•  Involvement of mirror neurons inaction and imitation (Rizzolatti &Craighero, 2004)?
  • 79. Less than ideal•  Narcissistic personality disorder–  “Lacks empathy”•  Antisocial personality disorder–  “Reckless disregard for thesafety of … others”•  Autism–  “Lack of social or emotionalreciprocity”–  “Marked impairments in …eye-to-eye gaze, facialexpression… and gestures toregulate social interaction”–  Theory of mind theme…Frontotemporal lobar degeneration–  “Loss of sympathy andEmpathy” (SD)–  “Indifference to others” (FTD)Neuropathology unknown Neuropathology known
  • 80. More than ideal?•  Predators–  "I think its easy to mistakeunderstanding forempathy--we want empathyso badly. …Its hard andugly to know somebody canunderstand you withouteven liking you. When yousee understanding just usedas a predators tool, that theworst" (p 55)•  Clarice Starling inHannibal (Harris, 1999)•  Williams Syndrome–  “unusually strong interest inother people…engaging andempathetic personality”–  Skwerer et al, 2006: muchworse at identifyingemotion from eyes andfaces than age/language/IQmatched controls–  Too much of a good thing?
  • 81. See me, feel me, heal meSee me, feel me, heal me:Empathy in sickness and in health
  • 82. Three processes: “See me, feel me,touch me, heal me” (Tommy, 1973)•  See me–  Empathic accuracy/Cognitive empathy•  Knowing what someone isfeeling•  Cold route: Process cues,apply algorithm•  Feel me–  Emotional empathy•  Feeling what someone isfeeling•  Hot route: Contagion,mimicry, read out ownemotional reaction•  Touch me/Heal me–  Sympathy/ProsocialBehavior•  Concern for anotherperson/Acting to reducetheir distress•  Knowing what other isfeeling and feeling whatother is feeling neithernecessary nor sufficient
  • 83. Who are you?