Embodied intelligence:    The four messages         With a case study on              ECCERobot                   Swissnex...
Thanks to ...Hajime Asama      Robert Full       LukasRudolf Bannasch   Gabriel Gomez     LichtensteigerJosh Bongard      ...
for their ideasHajime Asama      Robert Full       LukasRudolf Bannasch   Gabriel Gomez     LichtensteigerJosh Bongard    ...
for their ideasHajime Asama      Robert Full       LukasRudolf Bannasch   Gabriel Gomez     LichtensteigerJosh Bongard    ...
Goalsbuzzword “embodiment”seeing things differently“mind set” for design                            5
Contents•   Design principles and “the four    messages of embodiment”•   A bit of background•   Where are we going? — “So...
Getting into the spirit of      embodiment the role of the brain in understanding behavior?                             7
The spirit ofembodiment      8
The spirit ofembodiment      8
The spirit ofembodiment      8
The spirit ofembodiment      8
The spirit ofembodiment      8
“Crazy Bird” —       Morphology, Controlloosely hanging feet      rubber/plastic                           Design and cons...
“Crazy Bird” —       Morphology, Controlloosely hanging feet      rubber/plastic                            Design and con...
Message 1: Physical       embedding Studying brain (or control) not sufficient: Understanding of• embedding of brain into ...
Let me be clearThe brain is important!                          12
Let me be clear The brain is important!but not the whole story ...                              13
Contents•   Design principles and “the four    messages of embodiment”•   A bit of background•   Where are we going? — “So...
Artificial Intelligence —          goals1.Understanding        2.Making  biological             abstractions,  systems     ...
The synthetic          methodologySlogan:“Understanding by building”modeling behavior of interestabstraction of principles...
The synthetic          methodologyNew scientific paradigm (generaltrend)beyond classical, analyticalsciencesnovel types of ...
Zurich AI Lab robots                               Ms. Gloria           Rufus T.                               Teasdale   ...
Zurich AI Lab robots                       Amouse                       SahabotI/II                       Melissa         ...
ZurichAI Lab robots                Stumpy, Monkey, Puppy, Min-dog, Wheeled                Walker, Mini-Stumpy, Wanda, Dumb...
Zurich AI Lab robots                       21
AI Lab Robots(exploration of                  22
Zurich AI LabRobots (EU-Locomorph)                        23
Two views of  intelligenceclassical:cognition ascomputationembodiment:cognition as emergent frommovement, locomotion,manip...
Classical approachview:thinking/brain: centralized controlmodel: input - processing - outputhow else could it be?         ...
Successes and failures   of the classicalsuccesses       failuresapplications    foundations of(e.g. Google)   behaviorche...
Successes and failures   of the classicalsuccesses       failuresapplications    foundations of(e.g. Google)   behaviorche...
Where is the problem?•   inappropriate view of intelligence as:    “input-processing-output”(computer    metaphor)•   negl...
Two views of  intelligenceclassical:cognition ascomputationembodiment:cognition as emergent frommovement, locomotion,manip...
Relation to thinking/intelligence?“Why do plants not have brains?”                                   30
Relation to thinking/intelligence?“Why do plants not have brains? Theanswer is actually quite simple: theydon’t have to mo...
Back to the “four  messages of                    32
Message 2: Real/Artificial        worlds Understanding the differences between artificial/constructed (e.g. industrial) worl...
industrialrobots          natural(“hard”)       systems                (“soft”)                   human                   ...
industrial                      naturalrobots                        systems               principles:                    ...
industrial                      naturalrobots                         systems               principles:               - in...
industrial                      naturalrobots                         systems               principles:               - in...
Transfer of methods?              Sony Qrio:           high stiffness     centralized controlconputationally intensive   38
Transfer of methods?              Sony Qrio:           high stiffness     centralized controlconputationally intensive   38
Transfer of methods?              Sony Qrio:           high stiffness     centralized controlconputationally intensive   38
Transfer of methods?              Sony Qrio:           high stiffness     centralized controlconputationally intensive   38
By comparison: The               “Passive DynamicDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, ...
By comparison: The               “Passive DynamicDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, ...
By comparison: The               “Passive Dynamic                                            self-stabilizationDesign and ...
By comparison: The               “Passive Dynamic                                            self-stabilizationDesign and ...
Overall scheme: Self-stabilization in the Passive                 Pfeifer et al.,Science,                 16 Nov. 2007    ...
Overall scheme: Self-stabilization in the Passive               self-stabilization                  Pfeifer et al.,Science...
Short questionmemory for walking?                      43
Contrast: Full control —           “hard”Honda Asimo                     Sony Qrio                              44
Extending the                    ecological niche           adding a reflexDesign and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft Uni...
Extending the                    ecological niche           adding a reflexDesign and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft Uni...
Implications of embodiment          “Denise”        self-stabilization           Pfeifer et al.,Science,           16 Nov....
Message 3: Task      distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environment   ...
Message 3: Task      distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environment   ...
Message 3: Task      distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environmentno ...
The “robot frog” drivenby pneumatic actuators              Design and construction:              Ryuma Niiyama and        ...
The “robot frog” drivenby pneumatic actuators              Design and construction:              Ryuma Niiyama and        ...
“Stumpy”: task           distribution       almost brainless: 2 actuated joints       springy materials       surface prop...
The dancing robot          “Stumpy”Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore   ...
The dancing robot          “Stumpy”Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore   ...
Outsourcing            functionalityMini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda                      ...
Outsourcing            functionalityMini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda                      ...
Specifically:    Orchestration of•     stably grasping hard object•        other manipulation tasks•                morphol...
Exploiting morphology:  managing complex               pictures and ideas:               courtesy Roy Ritzmann            ...
Exploiting morphology:  managing complex               pictures and ideas:               courtesy Roy Ritzmann            ...
“Outsourcing”               functionality:•   brain: 1 Million neurons    (rough estimate)•   descending neurons: 200 (!)•...
Effects of morphology        change  descending              brainneurons: 200 (!)   1 Million neurons                   57
Climbing over obstacles•   CPG on flat ground•   get hight estimate from antenna•   change configuration of shoulder joint  ...
Towards “cognitive”     robots                      59
Adding sensors: generation of sensory stimulation through            action •   knowledge about environment:     pressure,...
Message 4: Physical     dynamics andInduction of patterns of sensorystimulation through physical interactionwith environme...
Message 4: Physical     dynamics andInduction of patterns of sensorystimulation through physical interactionwith environme...
Essence •   self-structuring of sensory data through     — physical — interaction with world •   physical process — not co...
Sensory-motor            coordination“We begin not with a sensory stimulus, but with a     (“active perception”)sensory-mo...
Contents•   “The four messages of    embodiment”•   A bit of background•   Where are we going? — “Soft    robotics”•   Tak...
“Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead ...
Application areas•   safe interaction with humans•   next level factory automation•   manipulation for assembly and surger...
“Soft Robotics”Soft to touchSoft movement oft interaction Emotions                         S                              ...
“Soft Robotics”Soft to touch Soft movement                          Soft interaction Emotions- materials - elastic       -...
“Soft Robotics”Soft to touch Soft movement                          Soft interaction Emotions- materials - elastic       -...
The super-compliant “soft”       robot ECCE                     Design and construction:                    Rob Knight — r...
The super-compliant“soft” robot ECCEECCE — Embodied Cognition in aCompliantly Engineered Robot                            ...
Techfest 2011, IIT        BombayEmbodied Intelligence   Switzerland                         73
i-Days, LucernSwitzerland          74
Hannover Fair, ICTBrussels, Science Fair St.                             75
ECCE at ChineseAcademy of Science,                      76
ECCE in Singapore, 2011   UBS and Nanyang                          77
ECCE with former presidentof Switzerland: Innovation Fair                  Design and construction:der “bionische Roboter”...
The super-compliant “soft”       robot ECCE                   Anthropomo                   rphic design                   ...
The super-compliant “soft”       robot ECCE                   Anthropomo                   rphic design                   ...
“Soft robotics”: sample                 applications          Receptionist at World Expo - Design and                     ...
“Soft robotics”: sample                 applications          Receptionist at World Expo - Design and                     ...
Support Suits  Exoskeletonsparalyzed individual toclimbBreithorn (Switzerland)                81                   HAL, th...
The “power: of                  materials:design and construction:Marc Ziegler, AI Lab, UZHmaterials!                     ...
The “power: of                  materials:design and construction:Marc Ziegler, AI Lab, UZHmaterials!                     ...
Exploiting materials:Octopus (EU Project)           Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA)    Cecil...
Octopusarm movements      Octopus Arm      Design and      construction:      Matteo Cianchetti      (SSSA)      Cecilia L...
Octopusarm movements      Octopus Arm      Design and      construction:      Matteo Cianchetti      (SSSA)      Cecilia L...
Grasping a bottle        Octopus Arm        Design and        construction:        Matteo Cianchetti        (SSSA)        ...
Grasping a bottle        Octopus Arm        Design and        construction:        Matteo Cianchetti        (SSSA)        ...
Pulling a string          Octopus Arm          Design and          construction:          Matteo Cianchetti          (SSSA...
Pulling a string          Octopus Arm          Design and          construction:          Matteo Cianchetti          (SSSA...
87
The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee                    88
The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee                    89
The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee                    89
Implications for  automation?                   90
Food handling•   considerable variation    —> unpredictability•   extremely delicate•   materials crucial                 ...
Recall: industrial robots(“hard”) vs. natural systems             Prinzipien:             - high predictability           ...
New manipulation skills                          93
Outsourcing?Insourcing?               Chinese textile                  workers               discover their               ...
The next “industrial                    revolution”       beyond traditional manufacturing:       new manipulation skills ...
Contents•   “The four messages of    embodiment”•   A bit of background•   Where are we going? — “Soft    robotics”•   Tak...
Summary and       conclusionsKey to “soft robotics”:understanding of “embodiment”—> the “four messages”                   ...
“Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead ...
“Soft robotics”•   central role of materials!•   new notion of control    (morphological computation;    “orchestration”)•...
“Soft robotics”•   central role of materials!•   new notion of control    (morphological computation;    “orchestration”)•...
“Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead ...
Summary: The four        messages ofMessage 1: Physical embeddingUnderstanding brain not enough;morphology materials; embe...
Like to know more?                     103
Visit usin Zurich            104
105
Locomor             Research program phMorpho-function                                               Octopus              ...
NCCR: 12 year perspective       EPFLUniversity of Zurich    ETH Zurich                       107
follow the “Robot                    Companion for Citizens”                            initiative                     (“s...
109
or joinThe ShanghAI Lectures                        109
or join    The ShanghAI Lectures•   global lecture series on natural and    artificial intelligence•   video conference wit...
Started at Shanghai Jiao    Tong University,with the generous support of                               110
Participating sites 2009–2010                                                HamburgTallinn             Michigan          ...
112
or read THE              113
or read THEwhat book?!??                114
Popular scienceRolf Pfeifer and Josh BongardHow the body shapes the way wethink — a new view of intelligence(popular scien...
Chinese translationTranslated byWeidong ChenShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityandWenwei YuChiba University, JapanForeword byLin...
How                   Howthe body              the bodyshapes                shapes             translated bythe way      ...
Short e-bookversionDesigningIntelligenceWhy BrainsAren’t EnoughRolf PfeiferJosh BongardDon Berry                118
The Zurich AI Lab                    119
Funding•   University of Zurich, Switzerland•   Swiss FNS:    - From locomotion to cognition    - Dynamical coupling in mo...
The Zurich AI Lab —             Spin-offs•   Neuronics•   Dynamic Devices•   Starmind Innovation•   Enexra inc.           ...
“Embodied Perception”                        122
Thank you for your    attention!                     123
th         te                                                                    co eo                                    ...
First hand                         prototype                      soft movements,                      materials        De...
First hand                         prototype                      soft movements,                      materials        De...
Wheel chair: controlled   by brain waves         recognition of          subject’s          intentions based          on a...
Fitness center of          ten, nine,                           eight, …the future?              Robot development by     ...
Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg PressDesign andconstruction:Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid                  ...
Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press       Design and     construction:   Max Lungarella  and Raja Dravidw...
Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press       Design and     construction:   Max Lungarella  and Raja Dravidw...
Let me be clear  The brain is important!— but not the  whole story“... if we want to understand how the braincontributes t...
Overview: Challenges                         ACTUATIO CONTROL/ MANUFACT                                       APPLICATI CO...
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Embodied Intelligence: The four messages

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with a case study on ECCERobot.
Design principles and “the four messages of embodiment”
A bit of background
Where are we going? — “Soft robotics”

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  • Cognition as computation: many problems, e.g.\n- perception\n- manipulation\n- movement\n- locomotion (walking, running)\nhas lead to the problems mentioned (symbol grounding, frame problem, etc.). \nIn general: neglect of interaction with real world\n\n
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  • need for an embodied approach\n
  • need for an embodied approach\n
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  • Cognition as computation: many problems, e.g.\n- perception\n- manipulation\n- movement\n- locomotion (walking, running)\nhas lead to the problems mentioned (symbol grounding, frame problem, etc.). \nIn general: neglect of interaction with real world\n\n
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  • always need entire organism\nhas to interact with environment in order to survive\nbody: only means of interacting with environment \n
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  • Application to human walking: forward swing of leg - largely passive. During forward swing phase: low stiffness, during impact: high stiffness.\nknee joint not directly controlled: self-organizes into proper trajectory\n
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  • The fact that the passive dynamic walker has no sensors for the mechanical feedback does not imply that it’s not there!\n
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  • Reflex: pressure sensors on feet —> trigger forward swing of other leg;\nbecause the proper passive dynamics is already in place, very little additional mechanism is required to achieve stable walking\n
  • The fact that the passive dynamic walker has no sensors for the mechanical feedback does not imply that it’s not there!\n
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  • By cooperating with the local neural circuits at the legs, cockroaches manage to climb over obstacles and to appropriately change the trajectories of the individual joints: Rather than re-calculating the trajectories of all the joints (which would be impossible, anyhow), the mechanical configuration of the shoulder joint is modified. The action of the local circuits at the legs remains the same, but because now the mechanical configuration has been changed, their effect on the behavior is different (this is speculative and it is not known whether this is actually the case).\n
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  • Adding sensors to make robots more intelligent is the obvious thing to do. What’s important here is that each action has a consequence in terms of sensory stimulation (see also John Dewey’s quote, below). And this is one of the fundamental differences to a computer which, in essence, “waits” for input, i.e. for someone to push a key or click a mouse button. Also: extremely impoverished sensory system.\n
  • grasping a bottle\n
  • grasping a bottle\n
  • illustration: drinking from a glass\nno knowledge of shape required\nforce control; passive adaptation to shape of glass\ndeformable tissue on finger tips\n
  • Interestingly, Dewey’s quote reads like an argument against the computer metaphor.\n
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  • movements of a first prototype arm\n
  • movements of a first prototype arm\n
  • movements of a first prototype arm\n
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  • Ground coffee in the pack in the supermarket is hard like a rock. Once you open it, it gets really soft. This effect can be exploited for grasping.\n
  • The global control parameter is the hardness of the sack - this can be manipulated through a vacuum pump: soft when balloon adapts to shape of object, hard when it has to pick it up (apply vacuum pump to increase stiffness of material). \n
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  • what is it about these manipulation skills that make it cheaper for Foxconn to outsource their production of the iPhone and the IPad to China rather than automating the process and produce in their home country?\n
  • default strategy?\n
  • If, with the advent of “soft robotics” the degree of automation in manufacturing can be substantially increased, this may well - according to a number of people - lead to a new industrial revolution. \n
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  • Embodied Intelligence: The four messages

    1. 1. Embodied intelligence: The four messages With a case study on ECCERobot Swissnex San Francisco ... 19 January 2012Rolf Pfeifer, NCCR National Competence Center Robotics, Switzerland
    2. 2. Thanks to ...Hajime Asama Robert Full LukasRudolf Bannasch Gabriel Gomez LichtensteigerJosh Bongard Fumio Hara Hod LipsonSimon Bovet Alejandro Max LungarellaRodney Brooks Hernandez Ren LuoWeidong Chen Owen Holland Barbara MazzolaiSteve Collins Koh Hosoda Shuhei MiyashitaHolk Cruse Fumiya Iida Toshi NakagakiPaolo Dario Auke Ijspeert Norman PackardRaja Dravid Takashi Ikegami MikeRodney Douglas Masayuki Inaba RinderknechtPeter Akio Ishiguro Roy RitzmannEggenberger Oussama Kathib Andy RuinaAndreas Engel Alois Knoll Giulio SandiniMartin Fischer Maarja Kruusma Olaf SpornsDario Floreano Yasuo Kuniyoshi Luc SteelsToshio Fukuda Cecilia Laschi Kasper Stoy
    3. 3. for their ideasHajime Asama Robert Full LukasRudolf Bannasch Gabriel Gomez LichtensteigerJosh Bongard Fumio Hara Hod LipsonSimon Bovet Alejandro Max LungarellaRodney Brooks Hernandez Ren LuoWeidong Chen Owen Holland Barbara MazzolaiSteve Collins Koh Hosoda Shuhei MiyashitaHolk Cruse Fumiya Iida Toshi NakagakiPaolo Dario Auke Ijspeert Norman PackardRaja Dravid Takashi Ikegami MikeRodney Douglas Masayuki Inaba RinderknechtPeter Akio Ishiguro Roy RitzmannEggenberger Oussama Kathib Andy RuinaAndreas Engel Alois Knoll Giulio SandiniMartin Fischer Maarja Kruusma Olaf SpornsDario Floreano Yasuo Kuniyoshi Luc SteelsToshio Fukuda Cecilia Laschi Kasper Stoy
    4. 4. for their ideasHajime Asama Robert Full LukasRudolf Bannasch Gabriel Gomez LichtensteigerJosh Bongard Fumio Hara Hod LipsonSimon Bovet Alejandro Max LungarellaRodney Brooks Hernandez Ren LuoWeidong Chen Owen Holland Barbara MazzolaiSteve Collins Koh Hosoda Shuhei MiyashitaHolk Cruse Fumiya Iida Toshi NakagakiPaolo Dario Auke Ijspeert Norman PackardRaja Dravid Takashi Ikegami MikeRodney Douglas Masayuki Inaba RinderknechtPeter Akio Ishiguro Roy RitzmannEggenberger Oussama Kathib Andy RuinaAndreas Engel Alois Knoll Giulio SandiniMartin Fischer Maarja Kruusma Olaf SpornsDario Floreano Yasuo Kuniyoshi Luc SteelsToshio Fukuda Cecilia Laschi Kasper Stoy
    5. 5. Goalsbuzzword “embodiment”seeing things differently“mind set” for design 5
    6. 6. Contents• Design principles and “the four messages of embodiment”• A bit of background• Where are we going? — “Soft robotics”• Take home message 6
    7. 7. Getting into the spirit of embodiment the role of the brain in understanding behavior? 7
    8. 8. The spirit ofembodiment 8
    9. 9. The spirit ofembodiment 8
    10. 10. The spirit ofembodiment 8
    11. 11. The spirit ofembodiment 8
    12. 12. The spirit ofembodiment 8
    13. 13. “Crazy Bird” — Morphology, Controlloosely hanging feet rubber/plastic Design and construction: Mike Rinderknecht 9
    14. 14. “Crazy Bird” — Morphology, Controlloosely hanging feet rubber/plastic Design and construction: behavior of “Crazy Mike Rinderknecht Bird”: emergent 10
    15. 15. Message 1: Physical embedding Studying brain (or control) not sufficient: Understanding of• embedding of brain into organism• organism’s morphological and material properties• interaction with environment required 11
    16. 16. Let me be clearThe brain is important! 12
    17. 17. Let me be clear The brain is important!but not the whole story ... 13
    18. 18. Contents• Design principles and “the four messages of embodiment”• A bit of background• Where are we going? — “Soft robotics”• Take home message 14
    19. 19. Artificial Intelligence — goals1.Understanding 2.Making biological abstractions, systems developing theory humans animals 3.Applications beer-serving robot 15 vacuum cleaner
    20. 20. The synthetic methodologySlogan:“Understanding by building”modeling behavior of interestabstraction of principlesrobots as tools for scientificinvestigation 16
    21. 21. The synthetic methodologyNew scientific paradigm (generaltrend)beyond classical, analyticalsciencesnovel types of experiments 17
    22. 22. Zurich AI Lab robots Ms. Gloria Rufus T. Teasdale Firefly Didabot Famez Sita Morpho
    23. 23. Zurich AI Lab robots Amouse SahabotI/II Melissa Tripp Samurai Analogrob Dexterolator Stumpy Eyebot Mindstorms Kheperas Mitsubishi Forkleg
    24. 24. ZurichAI Lab robots Stumpy, Monkey, Puppy, Min-dog, Wheeled Walker, Mini-Stumpy, Wanda, Dumbo, Rabbit
    25. 25. Zurich AI Lab robots 21
    26. 26. AI Lab Robots(exploration of 22
    27. 27. Zurich AI LabRobots (EU-Locomorph) 23
    28. 28. Two views of intelligenceclassical:cognition ascomputationembodiment:cognition as emergent frommovement, locomotion,manipulation Illustrations 24 by Shun Iwasawa
    29. 29. Classical approachview:thinking/brain: centralized controlmodel: input - processing - outputhow else could it be? 25
    30. 30. Successes and failures of the classicalsuccesses failuresapplications foundations of(e.g. Google) behaviorchess natural forms of intelligenceconsumerelectronics interaction with real worldmanufacturing 26
    31. 31. Successes and failures of the classicalsuccesses failuresapplications foundations of(e.g. Google) behaviorchess natural forms of intelligenceconsumerelectronics interaction with real worldfactory 27
    32. 32. Where is the problem?• inappropriate view of intelligence as: “input-processing-output”(computer metaphor)• neglect of interaction with real world what to do? 28
    33. 33. Two views of intelligenceclassical:cognition ascomputationembodiment:cognition as emergent frommovement, locomotion,manipulation Illustrations 29 by Shun Iwasawa
    34. 34. Relation to thinking/intelligence?“Why do plants not have brains?” 30
    35. 35. Relation to thinking/intelligence?“Why do plants not have brains? Theanswer is actually quite simple: theydon’t have to move.” Lewis Wolpert, UK—> evolutionary perspective 31
    36. 36. Back to the “four messages of 32
    37. 37. Message 2: Real/Artificial worlds Understanding the differences between artificial/constructed (e.g. industrial) worlds and real worlds (e.g. downtown area, school, home) —> different requirements for robots 33
    38. 38. industrialrobots natural(“hard”) systems (“soft”) human s industrial robots 34
    39. 39. industrial naturalrobots systems principles: (“soft”) - high predictability - strong, fast, precise motors - centralized control - optimization industrial robots 35
    40. 40. industrial naturalrobots systems principles: - inprecise (“soft”) human - compliant s - reactive - coping with uncertainty industrial robots 36
    41. 41. industrial naturalrobots systems principles: - inprecise (“soft”) human - compliant s - reactive - coping with uncertainty no direct transfer of methods 37
    42. 42. Transfer of methods? Sony Qrio: high stiffness centralized controlconputationally intensive 38
    43. 43. Transfer of methods? Sony Qrio: high stiffness centralized controlconputationally intensive 38
    44. 44. Transfer of methods? Sony Qrio: high stiffness centralized controlconputationally intensive 38
    45. 45. Transfer of methods? Sony Qrio: high stiffness centralized controlconputationally intensive 38
    46. 46. By comparison: The “Passive DynamicDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York The “brainless” robot”: walking without control 39
    47. 47. By comparison: The “Passive DynamicDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York The “brainless” robot”: walking without control 39
    48. 48. By comparison: The “Passive Dynamic self-stabilizationDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York The “brainless” robot”: walking without control 40
    49. 49. By comparison: The “Passive Dynamic self-stabilizationDesign and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York The “brainless” robot”: walking without control 40
    50. 50. Overall scheme: Self-stabilization in the Passive Pfeifer et al.,Science, 16 Nov. 2007 41
    51. 51. Overall scheme: Self-stabilization in the Passive self-stabilization Pfeifer et al.,Science, 16 Nov. 2007 42
    52. 52. Short questionmemory for walking? 43
    53. 53. Contrast: Full control — “hard”Honda Asimo Sony Qrio 44
    54. 54. Extending the ecological niche adding a reflexDesign and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft Universityompare: human walking self-stabilization 45
    55. 55. Extending the ecological niche adding a reflexDesign and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft Universityompare: human walking self-stabilization 45
    56. 56. Implications of embodiment “Denise” self-stabilization Pfeifer et al.,Science, 16 Nov. 2007 46
    57. 57. Message 3: Task distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environment Principle of ecological balanceof Principle cheap design 47
    58. 58. Message 3: Task distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environment morphological computation 48
    59. 59. Message 3: Task distributionTask distribution between brain(control), body (morphology,materials), and environmentno clear separation betweencontrol and hardware (“softrobotics”) rethink classical control 49
    60. 60. The “robot frog” drivenby pneumatic actuators Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo Kuniyoshi University of Tokyo 50
    61. 61. The “robot frog” drivenby pneumatic actuators Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo Kuniyoshi University of Tokyo 50
    62. 62. “Stumpy”: task distribution almost brainless: 2 actuated joints springy materials surface properties of feet Design and construction: Raja Dravid, Chandana Paul, Fumiya Iidaself-stabilization 51
    63. 63. The dancing robot “Stumpy”Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Movie: Dynamic Devices and 52 AILab, Zurich
    64. 64. The dancing robot “Stumpy”Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers,Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Movie: Dynamic Devices and 52 AILab, Zurich
    65. 65. Outsourcing functionalityMini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda soft, flexible, elastic materials 53
    66. 66. Outsourcing functionalityMini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda soft, flexible, elastic materials 53
    67. 67. Specifically: Orchestration of• stably grasping hard object• other manipulation tasks• morphological computation: exploiting morphology/ materials for control Design and construction: Koh Hosoda 54
    68. 68. Exploiting morphology: managing complex pictures and ideas: courtesy Roy Ritzmann Case Western Reserve University 55
    69. 69. Exploiting morphology: managing complex pictures and ideas: courtesy Roy Ritzmann Case Western Reserve University 55
    70. 70. “Outsourcing” functionality:• brain: 1 Million neurons (rough estimate)• descending neurons: 200 (!)• brain: - cooperation with local circuits - morphological changes (shoulder joint) Watson, Ritzmann, Zill & Pollack, 2002, J Comp Physiol A 56
    71. 71. Effects of morphology change descending brainneurons: 200 (!) 1 Million neurons 57
    72. 72. Climbing over obstacles• CPG on flat ground• get hight estimate from antenna• change configuration of shoulder joint —> morphological computation• CPG continue to function as before (don’t “know” about climbing)• brain-body cooperation 58
    73. 73. Towards “cognitive” robots 59
    74. 74. Adding sensors: generation of sensory stimulation through action • knowledge about environment: pressure, haptic, acceleration, vision, ... • knowledge about own body: angle, torque, force, vestibular, … the super-compliant “soft” robot ECCE
    75. 75. Message 4: Physical dynamics andInduction of patterns of sensorystimulation through physical interactionwith environmentraw material for information processingof brain (control)induction of correlations (informationstructure) through sensory-motor 61
    76. 76. Message 4: Physical dynamics andInduction of patterns of sensorystimulation through physical interactionwith environmentraw material for information processingof brain (control)induction of correlations (information Principle of informationstructure) through sensory-motor 62 self-structuring
    77. 77. Essence • self-structuring of sensory data through — physical — interaction with world • physical process — not computational pre-requisite for learningInspiration:John Dewey, 1896 (!)Merleau-Ponty, 1963 63Bajcsy, 1963; Aloimonos, 1990; Ballard, 1991Sporns, Edelman, and co-workers
    78. 78. Sensory-motor coordination“We begin not with a sensory stimulus, but with a (“active perception”)sensory-motor coordination […] In a certain sense it is the movement which is primary, and the sensation which is secondary, the movement of the body, head, and eye muscles determining the quality of what is experienced. In other words, the real beginning is with the act ofthe stimulations which thenot a sensation of“Since all seeing; it is looking, and organism receives light.” (“Thebeen possiblepsychology,” John Dewey,have in turn reflex arc in only by its preceding 1896)movements which have culminated in exposing thereceptor organ to external influences, one could alsosay that behavior is the first cause of all thestimulations.” (“The structure of Behavior,” Maurice 64Merleau-Ponty, 1963)
    79. 79. Contents• “The four messages of embodiment”• A bit of background• Where are we going? — “Soft robotics”• Take home message 65
    80. 80. “Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead to a quantum leap in intelligentrobotics.Theoretical underpinnings: The key to“soft robotics” will be anunderstanding of embodiment. 66
    81. 81. Application areas• safe interaction with humans• next level factory automation• manipulation for assembly and surgery• therapy and human assistance• mobility over different terrain• companion robot• entertainment 67• many others
    82. 82. “Soft Robotics”Soft to touchSoft movement oft interaction Emotions S 68
    83. 83. “Soft Robotics”Soft to touch Soft movement Soft interaction Emotions- materials - elastic - soft movements friendly -- soft skin compliant - social and interaction- deformable materials for cognitive skills with human tissue muscles and - reactive - facial- fur tendons - soft materials expression - variable compl. - body actuators posture - expl. passive dynamics 69
    84. 84. “Soft Robotics”Soft to touch Soft movement Soft interaction Emotions- materials - elastic - soft movements friendly -- soft skin compliant - social and interaction- deformable materials for cognitive skills with human tissue muscles and - reactive - facial- fur tendons - soft materials expression - variable compl. - body actuators posture - expl. passive dynamics 70
    85. 85. The super-compliant “soft” robot ECCE Design and construction: Rob Knight — robotstudio, Geneva Richard Newcombe — Imperial College ECCE — Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot Anthropomor 71 phic design
    86. 86. The super-compliant“soft” robot ECCEECCE — Embodied Cognition in aCompliantly Engineered Robot 72
    87. 87. Techfest 2011, IIT BombayEmbodied Intelligence Switzerland 73
    88. 88. i-Days, LucernSwitzerland 74
    89. 89. Hannover Fair, ICTBrussels, Science Fair St. 75
    90. 90. ECCE at ChineseAcademy of Science, 76
    91. 91. ECCE in Singapore, 2011 UBS and Nanyang 77
    92. 92. ECCE with former presidentof Switzerland: Innovation Fair Design and construction:der “bionische Roboter” Rob Knight — robotstudio, Geneva Richard Newcombe — Imperial College Owen Holland — Essex/Sussex University ECCE — Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot Anthropomor 78 phic design
    93. 93. The super-compliant “soft” robot ECCE Anthropomo rphic design 79
    94. 94. The super-compliant “soft” robot ECCE Anthropomo rphic design 79
    95. 95. “Soft robotics”: sample applications Receptionist at World Expo - Design and construction: Osaka University, and Kokoro Dreams Robot Teacher Saya - Design and construction:Hiroshi Kobayashi, Univ. of Science, Tokyo 80
    96. 96. “Soft robotics”: sample applications Receptionist at World Expo - Design and construction: Osaka University, and Kokoro Dreams Robot Teacher Saya - Design and construction:Hiroshi Kobayashi, Univ. of Science, Tokyo 80
    97. 97. Support Suits Exoskeletonsparalyzed individual toclimbBreithorn (Switzerland) 81 HAL, the “Hybrid Exoskeleton Assistive Limb ®” Cyberdyne Inc.
    98. 98. The “power: of materials:design and construction:Marc Ziegler, AI Lab, UZHmaterials! 82
    99. 99. The “power: of materials:design and construction:Marc Ziegler, AI Lab, UZHmaterials! 82
    100. 100. Exploiting materials:Octopus (EU Project) Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) Tao Li (UZH)
    101. 101. Octopusarm movements Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 84
    102. 102. Octopusarm movements Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 84
    103. 103. Grasping a bottle Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 85
    104. 104. Grasping a bottle Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 85
    105. 105. Pulling a string Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 86
    106. 106. Pulling a string Octopus Arm Design and construction: Matteo Cianchetti (SSSA) Cecilia Laschi (SSSA) control: Kohei Nakajima (AI 86
    107. 107. 87
    108. 108. The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee 88
    109. 109. The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee 89
    110. 110. The Jaeger/Lipson“coffee 89
    111. 111. Implications for automation? 90
    112. 112. Food handling• considerable variation —> unpredictability• extremely delicate• materials crucial 91
    113. 113. Recall: industrial robots(“hard”) vs. natural systems Prinzipien: - high predictability - strong, precise, fast motors - centralized control - optimizationindustrial —> reduced robots predictability 92
    114. 114. New manipulation skills 93
    115. 115. Outsourcing?Insourcing? Chinese textile workers discover their power 94
    116. 116. The next “industrial revolution” beyond traditional manufacturing: new manipulation skills new manufacturinghard robotics softbots technology new industrial revolution OCTOPUS arm prototype Rodney Brooks U-Tokyo 95 robot “frog”Festo Bionic ECCEHandling assistant the super-compliant robot
    117. 117. Contents• “The four messages of embodiment”• A bit of background• Where are we going? — “Soft robotics”• Take home message 96
    118. 118. Summary and conclusionsKey to “soft robotics”:understanding of “embodiment”—> the “four messages” 97
    119. 119. “Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead to a quantum leap in intelligentrobotics.Theoretical underpinnings: The key to“soft robotics” will be anunderstanding of embodiment. 98
    120. 120. “Soft robotics”• central role of materials!• new notion of control (morphological computation; “orchestration”)• no clear separation between controller and to-be-controlled 99
    121. 121. “Soft robotics”• central role of materials!• new notion of control (morphological computation; “orchestration”)• no clear separation between better robots controller and to-be-controlled better life 100
    122. 122. “Soft robotics”Hypothesis: The next generation ofrobots will be of the “soft” kind.Advances in “soft technology” willlead to a quantum leap in intelligentrobotics.Theoretical underpinnings: The key to“soft robotics” will be anunderstanding of embodiment. 101
    123. 123. Summary: The four messages ofMessage 1: Physical embeddingUnderstanding brain not enough;morphology materials; embeddingMessage 2: Real/Artificial worldsFundamental differences industrial and real-world environmentsMessage 3: Task distributionCooperation - brain, body, environment 102Message 4: Physical dynamics and informationstructure Induction of information structure;
    124. 124. Like to know more? 103
    125. 125. Visit usin Zurich 104
    126. 126. 105
    127. 127. Locomor Research program phMorpho-function Octopus artificial dynamic movement Scalable morphogenesis Locognit NCCR Robotics iCub evolution and locomotion biorobotics self- ion assemby Started: Dec. ECCERobot theory of self- intelligence learning, development organization, neural modeling PACE robotics Amarsi 2010 self-assembly grand goal grand goal humanoid robots modular g vision Robodoc assistive roboticsp l in REAL educational (Switzerland) interfacingP prosthetics ou neural and . C L tic technology “life as it could be” y n A e EU-Cog II “life as it D th The could be” s d ro an P h ShanghAI applications to design Lectures Industrial business design art, entertainment in Lab Artists design 106 Interactive installations
    128. 128. NCCR: 12 year perspective EPFLUniversity of Zurich ETH Zurich 107
    129. 129. follow the “Robot Companion for Citizens” initiative (“sentient machines”) FET - Future and Emerging Technologies“Flagships”: € 100 Mio per year for 10108
    130. 130. 109
    131. 131. or joinThe ShanghAI Lectures 109
    132. 132. or join The ShanghAI Lectures• global lecture series on natural and artificial intelligence• video conference with 20 universities• 3D virtual collaborative environments for classwork with over 40 universities• intercultural cooperation on interdisciplinary topic The ShanghAI Lectures, Sept to Dec 2011 109 (from the University of Zurich, Manchester
    133. 133. Started at Shanghai Jiao Tong University,with the generous support of 110
    134. 134. Participating sites 2009–2010 HamburgTallinn Michigan Edinburgh Warsaw Moscow Vermont Sheffield Salford Berlin Karlsruhe Munich Burlington Essex ZurichSan Francisco St. Gallen New York Madrid Sachseln Beijing Tohoku Irvine Seoul Tokyo Tehran Xian Stanford Herzliya Osaka Chiba Algiers San Diego Shanghai Nagoya Jeddah Ain Al Taipei Singapore Sao Paulo Launceston Hobart 5
    135. 135. 112
    136. 136. or read THE 113
    137. 137. or read THEwhat book?!?? 114
    138. 138. Popular scienceRolf Pfeifer and Josh BongardHow the body shapes the way wethink — a new view of intelligence(popular science)MIT Press, 2007Illustrations by Shun Iwasawa 115
    139. 139. Chinese translationTranslated byWeidong ChenShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityandWenwei YuChiba University, JapanForeword byLin Chen 116
    140. 140. How Howthe body the bodyshapes shapes translated bythe way the way Koh Hosoda, Osaka University andwe thinkIshiguro, Tohoku University Akio : we think :a new view to appeara new view of of soonintelligence intelligence 117
    141. 141. Short e-bookversionDesigningIntelligenceWhy BrainsAren’t EnoughRolf PfeiferJosh BongardDon Berry 118
    142. 142. The Zurich AI Lab 119
    143. 143. Funding• University of Zurich, Switzerland• Swiss FNS: - From locomotion to cognition - Dynamical coupling in motor-sensory function substitution - From morphology to functionality - Swiss National Competence Center, for Research (NCCR) Robotics• EU-FET: - Locomorph - Octopus - Extended Sensory-Motor Contingencies - iCub (finished)• EU-Cognitive Systems: - ECCERobot - Amarsi - EU-Cog II/III• Private funding/others: - CIAN (Club of Intelligent Angels) 120 - Maxon Motor - Festo - Hasler Foundation
    144. 144. The Zurich AI Lab — Spin-offs• Neuronics• Dynamic Devices• Starmind Innovation• Enexra inc. Enexra 121
    145. 145. “Embodied Perception” 122
    146. 146. Thank you for your attention! 123
    147. 147. th te co eo nc re co em l “o n bo ep tica “t rc tro d og ra h l im tua l te c d e t ic nd o in s he en l a o n g tr o tal s ct n- tin s ati ry st so co ua dr ge pa on - ac e r e ft m te iv nc ce ” tc se p m e a c d en ie s sy , u s ” so hab ns one st n ft le ing nt en tu le (sk s em de no rial rs ics ch ate rgy to tron in) s r- soft robots behaviors environment sophisticatedrapidly changing m or ph si c o sy m o lo de ac s nt ula -ev gy h le ce ira in et tion olu and en ga p bl m te ic /r tio c vi l is tan ity et rdi me ea n on et ron su ce hi m es ho sc th l ro of tro so l ca en l t do iplin odo bo ci lo ary log ts et g y al al ic
    148. 148. First hand prototype soft movements, materials Design and construction: Konstantinos 125Dermitzakis, AILab, UZH
    149. 149. First hand prototype soft movements, materials Design and construction: Konstantinos 125Dermitzakis, AILab, UZH
    150. 150. Wheel chair: controlled by brain waves recognition of subject’s intentions based on analysis of non-invasive EEG signals 126 Design and construction: Jose del Millan, EPFL, Switzerland
    151. 151. Fitness center of ten, nine, eight, …the future? Robot development by Osaka 127 University and Kokoro
    152. 152. Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg PressDesign andconstruction:Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid 128
    153. 153. Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press Design and construction: Max Lungarella and Raja Dravidwichtig:“soft interaction” 129
    154. 154. Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press Design and construction: Max Lungarella and Raja Dravidwichtig:“soft interaction” 129
    155. 155. Let me be clear The brain is important!— but not the whole story“... if we want to understand how the braincontributes to consciousness, we need to look atthe brain’s job in relation to the larger nonbrainbody and the environment in which we findourselves.” (Alva Noë, Out of our heads, 2009) 130
    156. 156. Overview: Challenges ACTUATIO CONTROL/ MANUFACT APPLICATI COMMUNITMODELING SENSING ORCHESTR ENERGY MATERIALS N U-RING ONS IES AT-ION physical deformable artificial acquisition design metabolis functional manipulati materialsimulation structures muscles of control tools, m mat. on for science, methodolo changeable assembly/ soft- theory, variable gy properties surgery matter growing assembly, entertainm neurosciencompliance structures compliance model-free growth storage skin-line ent physics ce hard to actuactors model system space and self- growing/ therapy, biomechani power decentralizidentificati time density ed assembly healing human cs and bio- on resolution multi-layer self-repair assistance engineerin deposition gimplement large-scale embedding morpholog building understand manufactur ical composite ing process at-ion distributed technology blocks ing life computatio engineerin embedding n underactua g organic technologi ted/ mobility ALife/AI materials? es overactuat other ed systems human/ smart comp. sensor robot programm science modalities interaction, able electrical (e.g. emotion materials engineerin 131

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