2Content • Introduction• Eco-efficiency and sustainability - key points for the design of newproducts and processes• How much do we have to reduce our resource consumption whenglobal population reaches 10 billions => IPAT calculator• Life Cycle Assessment: a powerful tool to evaluate theenvironmental impact of products and processes• What are the most important key factors to be respected in order tobe able to say : ”3-d printing is sustainable”?
45/3/13 4Ø Contaminated sites in Switzerland:2012• 3% have to berehabilitated• 5 % have to be controlled• 24% have to be analyzedin detail
5ParadoxaWe are becoming more energy efficient and are stillconsuming more energyTechnology helps to make things smaller – but needsfor space are increasingWe are producing faster and are more productive – butstill are working moreWe know many natural resources are limited but we arestill spoiling themWe know hunger is a huge global problem but over 30%of the food production ends as waste53.12.12Ressourcen/th
15Ecological footprintsource: Global Footprint NetworkThe Ecological Footprint is an accounting system that tracks, on the demand side(Footprint), how much land and water area a human population uses to provide allit takes from nature. This includes the areas for producing the resource itconsumes, the space for accommodating its buildings and roads, and theecosystems for absorbing its waste emissions such as carbon dioxideSource: http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/footprint_basics_overview/
16mine is: 2.616%: food30%: travelling19%: lodging35%: diverseCheck your personal footprint: http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/personal_footprint/Quelle: COOPEcological footprint……what is yours??
1717Cleantech Masterplan Switzerland(2011)The vision is to reduceSwitzerland’s use of resourcesto a sustainable level (footprint1) and so become a leadingbusiness location and centre forinnovation in the cleantechsector. Switzerland will set aglobal example in resourceefficiency and resourcemanagement.
18Can 3D Prin*ng Go Green? Is 3D Prin*ng sustainable ? …under which condi*ons can 3D Prin*ng become a sustainable technology? 1. seCng the target 2. measure the impact
1919SustainabilitySustainable development is development that meets theneeds of the present without compromising the abilityof future generations to meet their own needs. Itcontains within it two key concepts:The concept of needs, in particular the essential needsof the worlds poor, to which overriding priority shouldbe given; andThe idea of limitations imposed by the state of technologyand social organization on the environments ability tomeet present and future needs.Source: Brundtland Report of 1987The drawback to the Brundtland definition is it’s moreinspirational than practical. It’s not precise andmeasurable
20Eco Efficiency"eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery ofcompetitively priced goods and services that satisfyhuman needs and..bring quality of life, while progressively reducingecological impacts and resource intensitythroughout the life-cycle…to a level at least in line with the Earth’s estimatedcarrying capacity."Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)creating more value with less impact
23 I = PAT is the leFering of a formula put forward to describe the impact of human acKvity on the environment. I = P × A × T Human Impact (I) on the environment equals the product of P= PopulaKon, A= Aﬄuence, T= Technology. This describes how our growing populaKon, aﬄuence, and technology contribute toward our environmental impact. • The variable P represents the populaKon of an area, such as the world. • The variable A stands for aﬄuence. It represents the average consumpKon of each person in the populaKon. • The T variable represents how resource intensive the producKon of aﬄuence is; how much environmental impact is involved in creaKng, transporKng and disposing of the goods, services and ameniKes used. The equaKon was developed in the 1970s during the course of a debate between Barry Commoner, Paul R. Ehrlich and John Holdren. (source Wikipedia) SeCng the target: IPAT calculator
24SeCng the target: IPAT calculator I = PAT is the leFering of a formula put forward to describe the impact of human acKvity on the environment. I = P × A × T
25Source: M. Wuest 2012years from nowpopulation growthdevel. affluencedevel. technologypopulation growthdevel. affluencedevel. technologyimpact
EconomyIt is well known that the purchase price is just one part.-10002000300040005000600070008000Avarage Low HighMileage€/YearCosts of a small passanger car per yearAcquisition-10002000300040005000600070008000Avarage Low HighMileage€/YearCosts of a small passanger car per yearMaintenanceOperationTax, insurancesAcquisitionFor sound decisions the life cycle costs or total costs of ownership (TCO) have to be taken into account.Measure the impact: Life Cycle Assessment
How about ecology?0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Costs Climate CO2 Eco IndicatorEconomy EcologyCosts & impacts for a small car per yearMaintenanceOperationFix costs (taxes resp. roads)Acquisition and disposalThe impacts in the use phase can be even more important.
FiguresTo be manufactured, this product needs:• 12 locations in 5 time zones• 38 main components• Approx. 4500 employees• 27880 km of components travelling by ship,plane, truck and trainA global product
The product is an …electronictoothbrush of161 grams
The whole life cycle of a product or serviceThe relevant impacts like:• toxic emission to the water• climate change• reduction of forests• toxic releases to the air• reduction of soil fertility• water pollution• use of resources .....For a sound decisions it is important totake into account:Life Cycle Analysis LCA is the methodologyfulfilling this tasks
Importance of LCA• Better decision-making for product/production systems• Identifies key impacts and life-cycle stagesof system• Provides a basis for environmentalimprovements of system• Identifies trade offs• Identifies information gaps
LCA framework accordingISO 14040• LCA of product or service iscomplex, it undergoessubjectivity• There was a need in the 90’sto elaborate a standardizedassessment process• It was elaborated by Society ofEnvironmental Toxicology andChemistry (SETAC)• And standardized byInternational StandardizationOrganization (ISO)LCA Methodology
Environmental impacts ofprimary and secondaryaluminium0%20%40%60%80%100%120%140%aluminium, primary EAA, at plant aluminium, secondary, from old scrap, at plant EAA 2005relative environmental impactsCED: non-‐renewableGWP 100aEco-‐indicator 99, (H,A)ReCiPe Endpoint (H,A)ecological scarcity 2006All indicatorsshow that theenvironmentalimpacts ofsecondaryaluminium ismuch lower thanthe impacts ofprimaryaluminium.evaluatingrecycling