1. Electronic AuthenticationMore Than Just a Password Nicholas Davis Information Security Cardinal Stritch Interview Session May 20, 2009
2. Session Overview• What electronic authentication is and why it is important• Definitions• Different types of authentication factors (username/password)• Benefits and drawbacks of various authentication technologies• “Strong Authentication”• Question and Answer Session
3. Presentation Style• Blue = Topic• Black = Informational Details• Red = Discussion• Audience participation is encouraged. Anytime you see red, you can begin to think about the discussion topic at hand
4. Authentication Defined Authentication is the process of providing proof to a person or system that you are indeed who you claim to be. Can you think of some examples? Electronic authentication is similar in that provides a level of assurance as to whether someone or something is who or what it claims to be in a digital environment. Can you think of some examples?
5. Authentication Factors• Three types of electronic authentication• Something you know – username/password• Something you have – One time password device• Something you are – Voiceprint or retinal scan• Let’s examine these in detail!
6. Username and PasswordSomething that you know • Sometimes has rules associated with it, such as length, or has an expiration date. • Can you think of some other password rules? • Why do you think password rules are enforced?
7. Username and Password - Benefits • Most widely used electronic authentication mechanism in the world. People understand how to use it. • Low fixed cost to implement and virtually no variable cost • Fairly good for low assurance applications • No physical device required
8. Username and Password - Drawbacks • Can be easily shared on purpose • Can be easily stolen via Shoulder Surfing, Keyboard Logger Packet Sniffer • Can be guessed • Can be hard to remember • Password code is easy to hack
9. Make Your Passwords Strong • Be as long as possible (never shorter than 6 characters). • Include mixed-case letters, if possible. • Include digits and punctuation marks, if possible. • Not be based on any personal information. • Not be based on any dictionary word, in any language. • Expire on a regular basis and may not be reused • May not contain any portion of your name, birthday, address or other publicly available information
10. One Time Password (OTP) Devices Something That You Have • Have an assigned serial number which is tied to my userid • Device generates a new password every 30 seconds • Server on other end knows what to expect from the device assigned to me, at any point in time
11. One Time Password Device - Benefits • Difficult to share • Constantly changing password means it can’t be stolen, shoulder surfed or sniffed • Coolness factor! • Let’s try to circumvent the technology! • What would happen if I generated a one time pass code, wrote it down and then tried to use it later?
12. One Time Passwords - Drawbacks • Cost! • Rank very low on the washability index • Uncomfortable • Expiration • Battery Life • Can be forgotten at home
13. Biometrics Something That You Are• Use a unique part of your body to authenticate you, such as your voice pattern, your retina, or your fingerprint
14. Biometrics Benefits• Harder to steal than even a One Time Password since it is part of the user, not simply in their possession like and OTP device• Absolute uniqueness of authentication factor• Coolness factor
15. Biometrics Drawbacks• Cost• Complexity of Administration• Highly invasive• Not always reliable – false negatives• Not foolproof• The Gummi Bear thief!
16. Single Factor vs. Multifactor vs Dual Factor • Single Factor – Using one method to authenticate. • Dual Factor – Using two different types of authentication mechanism to authenticate • Multifactor – Using multiple forms of the same factor. (Password + identifying an image that only you would know) • Some people claim multi factor is just a way around industry regulations. Good test is to ask, could I memorize both of these?
17. Key Concepts• Current online password based authentication techniques are weak at best: Most rely on multiple single factors• Password Credentials are easily stolen from consumers, and rarely change• Lack of consistency in authentication processes confuse consumers
18. Summary• There are three types of authentication technologies: – Something you know – Something you have – Something you are Password is the weakest Biometrics is the strongest
19. Audience Discussion and Q&A• Describe which types of authentication technologies are incorporated into your ATM card• How do you feel about the use of biometrics?• Name a situation in which you think biometrics should be used for authentication