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  • 1. CLAP SWITCH A mini project report submitted in the partial fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor of Technology By G.Bhavana : 11004103 Y.Sahiti : 11004160 T.Sravya Sruthi : 11004170 N.Lakshmi Sowmya : 11004215 Under the guidance of Mr.Abhishek Anchal Assistant Proffessor K L UniversityDepartment of Electronics & Communication Engineering i
  • 2. CERTIFICATE It is certified that the work contained in the thesis titled “CLAP SWITCH” byG.Bhavana(11004103), Y.Sahiti( 11004160), T.Sravya Sruthi (11004170), N.Lakshmi Sowmya(11004215) has been carried out in under my supervision and that this work has not beensubmitted elsewhere for a degree.Place :Date :Head of the Department Mini-project Co-ordinator Project Supervisor ii
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We feel great pleasure to acknowledge all those involved in the process of our education andresearch. In the first place we would like to record our deep and sincere gratitude to our incharge,Mr.Abhishek Anchal for his supervision, advice, guidance, and crucial contribution, which made hima backbone of this project. His understanding, encouraging and personal guidance have provided agood basis for the present project. His involvement with his originality has triggered and nourishedour intellectual maturity that we will benefit from, for a long time to come. We wish to express our gratitude towards our all teachers, who helped us throughout ourcourse work. We extend our acknowledgement to our lab mates, lab staff, who are directly orindirectly involved in carrying out the project work. Place : G.Bhavana : 11004103 Y.Sahiti : 11004160 T.Sravya Sruthi : 11004170 N.Lakshmi Sowmya : 11004215 iii
  • 4. CONTENTSS.NO TOPIC PAGE.NO1. CERTIFICATE …………………………………………... (ii)2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………… (iii)3. CONTENTS …………………………………………... (iv)4. ABSTRACT …………………………………………... (v)5. CHAPTER 1 ………………………………………………. 16. CHAPTER 2 ………………………………………………. 37. CHAPTER 3 ………………………………………………. 58. CHAPTER 4 ………………………………………………. 69. CHAPTER 5 ………………………………………………. 810. CHAPTER 6 ………………………………………………. 911. CHAPTER 7 ………………………………………………. 1012. REFERENCES ……………………………………………….. 1113. BIBILIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………….. 12 iv
  • 5. ABSTRACT CLAP SWITCH is a switch which can switch on/off any electrical circuit by thesound of the clap. The basic idea of clap switch is that the electric microphone picks up thesound of your claps, coughs, and the sound of that book knocked off the table. It produces asmall electrical signal which is amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Two transistorscross connected as a bi-stable multi-vibrator change state at each signal. One of thesetransistors drives a heavier transistor which controls a lamp. This circuit is constructed usingbasic electronic components like resistors, transistors, relay, transformer, capacitors. Thiscircuit turns „ON‟ light for the first clap. The light turns ON till the next clap. For the nextclap the light turns OFF. This circuit works with 12V voltage .Therefore a step-downtransformer 12V/300mA is employed . The primary application involves an elderly ormobility-impaired person . It is generally used for a light, television, radio, or similarelectronic device that the person will want to turn on/off from bed. The major disadvantageis that, it is generally cumbersome to have to clap ones hands to turn something ON or OFFand its generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch. v
  • 6. vi
  • 7. CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION This is a project on CLAP SWITCH which can switch on/off any electrical circuit bythe sound of a clap. The operation of the circuit is simple. If we clap the lamp turns on and to switchit off clap again . The condenser microphone picks up the sound of your claps, coughs, and the sound of thatbook knocked off the table. It produces a small electrical signal which is amplified by the succeeding transistorstage. Two transistors cross connected as a bi-stable multi vibrator change state at each signal. One of thesetransistors drives a heavier transistor which controls a lamp. This circuit can switch on and off a light, a fan or aradio etc by the sound of a clap. This circuit is constructed using basic electronic components like resistors, transistors, relay,transformer, capacitors. This circuit turns ‘ON’ light for the first clap. The light turns ON tillthe next clap. For the next clap the light turns OFF. This circuit works with 12V voltage.Therefore a step-down transformer 12V/300mA is employed. This working of this circuit isbased on amplifying nature of the transistor, switching nature of transistor, relay as anelectronic switch .Basically, this is a Sound operated switch. 1
  • 8. BASIC PRINCIPLE The basic principle of this clap switch circuit is that it converts sound signal intoelectrical energy. The input component is a transducer that receives clap sound as input andconverts it to electrical pulse. The basic idea of clap switch is that the electric microphonepicks up the sound of your claps, coughs, and the sound of that book knocked off the table. Itproduces a small electrical signal which is amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Twotransistors cross connected as a bi-stable multi vibrator change state at each signal. One ofthese transistors drives a heavier transistor which controls a lamp. This circuit is constructed using basic electronic components like resistors, transistors,relay, transformer, capacitors. This circuit turns ‘ON’ light for the first clap. The light turnsON till the next clap. For the next clap the light turns OFF. This circuit works with 12Vvoltage .Therefore a step-down transformer 12V/300mA is employed. This working of this circuit is based on amplifying nature of the transistor, switchingnature of transistor, relay as an electronic switch .Basically, this is a Sound operated switch. 2
  • 9. BLOCK DIAGRAMDESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM:AUDIO AMPLIFIER: when we clap our hands , the sound is received by by AUDIO AMPLIFIER.Here the given sound signal is converted into electrical signal and then amplified by usingtransistors. 3
  • 10. FLIP FLOP CIRCUIT: After amplifying the given input signal (sound of a clap) ,it is fed to flip flopcircuit. It consists of two transistors, one for the on position and the other for the off position.For this reason it is also known as bi-stable multi vibrator.CIRCUIT AMPLIFIER: The signal after this process the outcome electric signal becomes very weak. So,it is amplified using another transistor and given to relay, it acts as a mechanical switch. 4
  • 11. CHAPTER 2CIRCUIT COMPONENTSRESISTORS Resistors are the most common passive electronic component (one that does notrequire power to operate). They are used to control voltages and currents. While a resistor is avery basic component, there are many ways tomanufacture them. Each style has its owncharacteristics that make it desirable in certaintypes of applications. Choosing the right type ofresistor is important to making high-performanceor precision circuits work well. This bonus chaptercovers the resistor types and helps with picking the right one for your project. All resistors are basically just a piece of conducting material with a specificvalue of resistance. For that piece of conducting material to be made into a practical resistor,a pair of electrodes and leads are attached so current can flow. The resistor is then coatedwith an insulating material to protect the conducting material from the surroundingenvironment and vice versa. There are several different resistor construction methods andbody styles (or packages) that are designed for a certain range of applied voltage, powerdissipation, or other considerations. The construction of the resistor can affect its 5
  • 12. performance at high frequencies where it may act like a small inductor or capacitor has beenadded, called parasitic inductance or capacitance.CAPACITORS Capacitor has ability to store charge and releasethem at a later time. Capacitance is the measure of theamount of charge that a capacitor can store for a givenapplied voltage. The unit of capacitance is the farad (F) ormicrofarad. The capacitors used in the circuit areelectrolytic-capacitor.In the circuit the electrolytic capacitor is used as a bypass capacitor. Any noise variation inthe circuit is removed by the capacitor.BATTERY In electricity, a battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniel cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery 6
  • 13. industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which aredesigned to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries),which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes,from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size ofrooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centres.TRANSISTOR A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signalsand electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminalsfor connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of thetransistors terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Becausethe controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistorcan amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more arefound embedded in integrated circuits. 7
  • 14. RELAYA relay isan electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switchingmechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used whereit is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must becontrolled by one signal. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and earlycomputers to perform logical operations.A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motoror other loads is called a contactor . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no movingparts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibratedoperating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electricalcircuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions areperformed by digital instruments still called "protective relays". 8
  • 15. CHAPTER 3CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 9
  • 16. CHAPTER 4WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT Clap switch is a circuit that can switch ON & OFF a light, fan, radio etc. by thesound of clap. The sound of clap is received by a small microphone that is shown biased byresistor R1 in the circuit. The microphone changes sound wave in to electrical wave which isfurther amplified by Q1.Transistor Q1 is used as common emitter circuit to amplify weaksignals received by the microphone. Amplified output from the collector of transistor Q1 isthen feed to the bi-stable multi vibrator circuit also known as flip-flop. Flip-flop circuit ismade by using two Transistors, in our circuit Q2 and Q3. In a flip-flop circuit, at a time only one transistor conduct and other cut off and whenit gets a trigger pulse from outside source then first transistor is cut off and 2nd transistorconducts. Thus output of transistor is either logic-0 or logic-1 and it remains in one state 0or 1 until it gets trigger pulse from outer source. The pulse of clap which is a trigger for flip-flop which makes changes to the outputwhich is complementary (reverse).Output of flip-flop which is in the low current form isunable to drive relay directly so we have used a current amplifier circuit by using Q4 which isa common emitter circuit. Output of Q4 is connected to a Relay (Electromagnetic switch),works like a mechanical switch. With the help of a relay it is easy for connecting otherelectrical appliance. The relay contact is connected to the power line and hence turns on/offany electrical appliance connected all the way through relay. 10
  • 17. WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT COMPONENTSTRANSFORMER 230 V ac is converted to 12 V ac by transformer and this ac current is converted to dcby diode.MICROPHONE Sound energy received by microphone is converted to electrical signals. Microphonesare types of transducers, they convert acoustic energy i.e. sound signal. Basically, amicrophone is made up of a diaphragm, which is a thin piece of material that vibrates when itis struck by sound wave. This causes other components in the microphone to vibrate leadingto variations in some electrical quantities thereby causing electrical current to be generated.The current generated in the microphone is the electrical pulse. The current generated by amicrophone is very small and this current is referred to as mic level and typically measured inmilli-volts. Before it is usable, the signal must be amplified, usually to line level, with typicalvalue within (0.5 – 2) volts, which is stronger .So the signal produced by microphone isamplified by transistor Q1. The basic action of this transistor Q1 is to receive an input signal from the inputtransducer (microphone), control the amount of power that the amplifier takes from powersource (Vs) and converts it into power needed to energize the load. 11
  • 18. FLIP-FLOP ARRANGEMENT The transistors Q2,Q3 arranged like flip flop acts as counter and produces a singleoutput pulse when triggered .So, it is also known as the triggered pulse producer .If it doesn’treceives 2 claps within 3 minutes the diode D4 doesn’t receives any signal from flip floparrangement and the bulb B1 doesn’t glow and in the other case diode D4 acts as switch andallows electric signals .RELAY The relay is an electrically operated switch. It is also called as mechanical switch . Ifa small voltage is applied to its input terminal, it activates an electromagnet and closes itscontacts. These contacts can then switch on larger amounts of current and voltage safely. Buta low power transistor is also needed to switch the current for the relay’s coil. Here thetransistor Q4 is a low power transistor. As a result the bulb B1 glows. 12
  • 19. CHAPTER 5ADVANTAGES1. The primary application involves an elderly or mobility-impaired person.2. We can turn something (e.g. a lamp) on and off from any location in the room (e.g. while lying in the bed) simply by clapping our hands.3. Low cost and reliable circuit.4. Complete elimination of man power.5. Energy efficient.DISADVATAGES1. It is generally cumbersome to have to clap one’s hands to turn something on or off and it is gerally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch.2. Unless we use a filter in the circuit , it is not that advantageous. So that circuit activates only for clap of particular frequencies and then it becomes accurate. 13
  • 20. CHAPTER 6APPLICATIONS 1. Clap activated switch device will serve well in different phono-controlled applications. 2. Clap switch is generally used for a light, television, radio or similar electronic device that the person will want to turn on/off from bed. 3. This circuit functions on using the sound energy provided by the clap which is converted into electrical energy by condenser microphone . Using this converted electrical energy which is used to turn on relay (an electronic switch). 4. The primary application involves an elderly or mobility-impaired person. 5. The major advantage of a clap switch is that you can turn something (e.g. a lamp) on and off from any location in the room (e.g. while lying in bed) simply by clapping your hands. 6. The major disadvantage is that its generally cumbersome to have to clap ones hands to turn something on or off and its generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch 14
  • 21. CHAPTER 7CONCLUSIONThe clap activated switching device function properly by responding to both hand claps atabout three to four meter away and finger tap sound at very close range, since both are lowfrequency sounds and produce the same pulse wave features. The resulting device isrealizable, has good reliability and it’s relatively inexpensive. Assemble the circuit on ageneral-purpose PCB and enclose it in a suitable box. This circuit is very useful in field ofelectronic circuits. By using some modification it area of application can be extended invarious fields. It can be used to raised alarm in security system with a noise ,and also used atthe place where silence needed. FUTURE SCOPE 1. We can increase the range of this equipment by using better Mic. 2. We can use this as Remote Controller. 15
  • 22. RESULTWe constructed the circuit as per circuit diagram . And we verified the clap switch circuit.i.e when sound occurs near by the circuit the led in the circuit glows and for the second clap itis in off condition . 16
  • 23. REFERENCES1. www.scribd.com2. www.electronicschematics.in3. www.circuiteasy.com4. www.kpsec.com5. www.buildcircuit.com6. www.electronicsforu.com 17
  • 24. BIBILIOGRAPHY1. Edward Hughes, Hughes electrical technology. Addition Wesley Longman(Singapore) plc ltd, India, seventh edition, (pp 395-399). (2001).2. Paul Horonitz and Weinbeild hill, the art of electronics, second addition,Cambridge university ulc. (1995).3. Ray Marston, relay output circuits, electronics now magazine, July 1994. 18