Bulgaria forum presentationPresentation Transcript
Climate change as a development challenge JariVayrynen, Sr. Environmental Specialist, World Bank Meeting the challenge is not a choice between growth and climate change… a climate smart world is within reach if we act now, act together and act differently… … and build on new finance, technology and capacity at scale.
WB Strategic Framework for Climate Chance and Development Objectives:
Enable WBG to effectively support sustainable development and poverty reduction, as climate risks and climate-related economic opportunities arise
Facilitate global action and interactions among all countries
Working in partnerships guided by UNFCCC process
Country-led, country-driven, “no regrets” actions
Approach tailored to specific needs of diverse clients
Knowledge & Capacity Bottom Up Momentum MDB & UN Partnerships Resource Mobilization Climate Investment Funds Regional / Country Strategies
Financing Climate Change Mitigation Scale of financing needs for mitigation estimated by UNFCCC at $200 billion annually Concessional resources are very limited for low carbon investments in developing countries and transition economies Mobilizing private sector finance is crucial Market mechanisms can play a central role
Finance scaled-up demonstration, deployment, and transfer of low carbon technologies Country Investment Plans:
Support country development strategies
Leverage financial products of International Financial Institutions
Stimulate private sector engagement
Clean Technology Fund (CTF) ± $5 billion Targeted programs with dedicated funding to pilot new approaches with potential for scaling up
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience: Mainstream climate resilience into core development planning
Forest Investment Program: Reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries
Strategic Climate Fund (SCF) ±$1 billion
Investmentplans endorsed with a total funding envelope of US$1.85 billion Average leverage US$ 1 to 10 Pledges (+/-) US$5 billion Energy Efficiency - Replacing inefficient lighting and appliances; expected emissions reductions of 4 million tons of CO2 per year Urban Transport - 20 bus rapid transit corridors with low-carbon bus technologies Renewable Energy Proposed CTF » $500 million leverages » $6.2 billion Mexico Turkey Renewable Energy - Implementing "intelligent" grid management and control systems to support large-scale integration of wind power Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency - Promoting private sector development through credit lines to local development banks Proposed CTF » $250 million leverages » 2.1 billion Wind Power - From <1,000 MW to 2,500 MW of electricity from wind Urban Transport - Six bus rapid transit corridors and five light rail route Proposed CTF » $300 million leverages » $1.9 billion Egypt
6 World Bank Carbon Market initiatives World Kyoto Funds under implementation reaching over $2 billion in funding and about 130 ER purchase agreements signed Progress with new facilities: Exploring possibilities for further engagement
Carbon in Agriculture sector
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Operational since June 2008 - current donor pledges at $107 million 37 Developing Country Participants Carbon Asset Development Fund (CADF) operational at €7 million Carbon Fund currently €100 million (minimumtarget €200 million) Carbon Partnership Facility (CPF)
How do carbon markets work? What is the underlying principle? Cost-effectiveness: a ton of CO2 emitted anywhere in the world has exactly the same impact on climate change and should therefore be reduced/ mitigated where the cost of doing so is lowest. Units = tons of carbon dioxide (or equivalent) allocated as part of an emission cap or “reduced” by a project or program activity. These units are labeled based on the market segment in which they are traded : AAUs, CERs, ERUs, EUAs, VERs, etc. What is traded?
Lowers compliance costs for meeting emission reduction obligations; ;
Catalyzes financial and technology flows to developing countries to facilitate low-carbon growth;
Creates a global and long-term price signal to lower carbon intensity.
What are the benefits?
Significant new investments and financial flows
Application of new technologies and financial instruments to reduce emissions at lower costs; and
Transition to a lower carbon economy better tuned to cope with future resource and environmental constraints.
Why should this be of interest?
Kyoto Protocol-based carbon markets “Business as-usual” projected emissions by 2008 Project-based Offsets (CDM/JI) Projected emissions increase between 1990 and 2008-2012 Sources of reduction CDM: Offsets obtained from a non-Annex I country JI: Offsets obtained from another Annex-I country; Allowances from IET Domestic actions 1990 Baseline IET: Kyoto allowances obtained from another Annex-I country Baseline emissions Kyoto target Kyoto allowed emissions A significant amount of the reduction must be achieved through domestic measures 1990 2008-12 Beyond domestic actions to reduce emissions, a country can use trading to purchase reductions in another country to achieve compliance with its Kyoto obligations. Examples of trading options include:
Buying emissions ALLOWANCES (called AAUs) from other countries with commitments which are below their Kyoto cap (International Emissions Trading)
Purchasing carbon OFFSETS from projects which reduce emissions
In developing countries (Clean Development Mechanism – CDM)
In economies in transition (Joint Implementation – JI)
Purchase of ERs Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) ERU Baseline emissions Project emissions Baseline Scenario ProjectScenario How does Joint Implementation (JI) work? Industrialized country with an emissions cap Domestic action Purchase of allowances $ Emissions target $ Project benefits from increased cash flow
EU Emission Trading Scheme 91,910 Carbon Market Values in 2008 (in M US$) Project-Based Transactions Allowance Markets Assigned Amount Units 210 JI 300 SecondaryCDM CDM 6,500 26,300
World Bank Carbon Finance Projects in Bulgaria Joint Implementation projects: Sofia District Heating Pernik District Heating Svilosa Biomass Green Investment Scheme (GIS)–options study GIS is a system where revenues from AAU trades are reinvested in environmental projects To our knowledge Bulgarian Government has not yet concluded any GIS transactions 11
12 Conclusions Climate change is fundamentally a development issue, not only an environmental issue Huge financing needs Carbon markets will continue to be play a major role in catalyzing low carbon investments in developing countries and transition economies The World Bank, through a range of financial instruments and capacity building activities, is deeply engaged in this effort
Thank You. JariVayrynen firstname.lastname@example.org Please visit us online at www.carbonfinance.org