Not just blind and deaf …Avoid motion on screen.Keyboard accessible and don’t make fine motor control necessary.
In general terms …The beautyof the standards is that you don’t have to keep in mind every conceivable disability when you are coding your site.
Captions, screen reader, Braille display
Chunking appropriately, avoiding jargon or institutional languageDifferent learning modalities, visual versus verbalDon’t changenav and layout structureCareful with AJAX-y elements, pop-upsConsiderate form validation; especially important for ITS
AccessibleWebScott WilliamsOffice of Institutional Equityswims@umich.edu
Disabilities and the web Visual: blindness, low-vision, color-blindness Hearing: partial to total deafness Motor: inability to use a mouse, slow response time, limited fine motor control Cognitive: Learning disabilities, distractibility, dyslexia, inability to remember or focus on large amounts of information
1in 5 people have a disability People with disabilities in the U.S: 60 million People age 15 and older having difficulty hearing a normal conversation: 8 million People who cannot hear at all: 1 million People age 15 and older having difficulty reading ordinary newsprint (even with glasses): 8 million Number of people being completely unable to see: 2 million
A diverse population Cognitive disabilities Greater number than physical and perceptual disabilities combined Adults with ADD/ADHD: 16 million 38% of soldiers, 31% of Marines and 49% of National Guard members returning from combat report psychological conditions such as TBI and PTSD Mobility issues—8 million Americans have difficulty using their arms or hands 11 million people 6 and older need assistance with everyday activities
Legal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991, both of which prohibit colleges and universities from discriminating against students, faculty, and staff with disabilities Users with disabilities must have the full and equal enjoyment of all goods, programs, and activities If users with disabilities are forced to use separate access, it must be equally effective
What is web accessibility? Making the web accessible for the widest possible audience Inseparable from usability, mobile, and SEO: improve one and you improve the others Best way to accomplish accessibility? Adherence to standards The beauty of standards: you don’t have to code for every conceivable disability when you are producing your site.
WCAG 2.0 W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines De facto standard world-wide. Cited in U.S case law. Adopted by governments. Future basis for ADA and Section 508 compliance. WCAG 2.0 is principle-, not technology-based The four principles (POUR): Perceivable Operable Understandable Robust
Perceivable Provide text alternatives for images and form elements Provide captions and transcripts for video and audio Use correct semantic markup so content can be presented in different ways Make it easier for users to see content by using good color contrast Avoid movement and distractions on page
Operable All functionality is available from the keyboard! Users have control over timing and limits Do not cause seizures (don’t flash content) Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are
Understandable Economical and plain use of language Text supplemented with illustrations, videos, and other formats where appropriate (i.e., support various learning modalities) Navigation, information structure are discernable and consistent Make pages operate in predictable ways Help users avoid and correct mistakes
Robust Functional across various technologies Syntax errors that don’t affect visual presentation may hamper assistive technology and accessibility evaluation tools Adhering to W3C standards ensures future compatibility Validate your code at validator.w3c.org
Biggest barriers to AT users CAPTCHA – images, presenting Screens or parts of screens that text used to verify that you are change unexpectedly a human user (&reCAPTCHA) Missing or improper headings Inaccessible Flash content Too many links or navigation Cryptic Links or buttons items Images with missing or improper Complex data tables descriptions (alt text) Lack of "skip to main content" Complex or difficult forms or "skip navigation" links Lack of keyboard accessibility Inaccessible or missing search functionality
VoiceOver Tutorial ctrl + opt + cmd + f8 (3 keys to the left of the space bar plus f8 key) Or: Cmd + f5 Ctrl + opt + h (help) Arrow down to tutorial in menu Web tutorial: http://goo.gl/so6bx
VO commands CONTROL+OPTION+U -- start web item rotor to interact with lists of headings, links, etc. CONTROL+OPTION+SPACEBAR -- select an option CONTROL+OPTION+SHIFT+UP_ARROW -- stop interacting with object CONTROL+OPTION+SHIFT+DOWN_ARROW -- interact with object CONTROL+OPTION+RIGHT_ARROW -- next item CONTROL+OPTION+LEFT_ARROW -- previous item
VO Commands (cont’d) CONTROL+OPTION+DOWN_ARROW -- read down column CONTROL+OPTION+UP_ARROW -- read up column CONTROL+OPTION+R -- read entire row CONTROL+OPTION+C -- read column header CONTROL+OPTION+H -- help (tutorial is help item) CONTROL -- toggles reading/stopping ESCAPE -- leave menu
Best Practices Make sure your web interface is POUR: http://umich.edu/webaccess/best/quickguide.html Testing with VoiceOver: http://.umich.edu/webaccess/eval/voiceover.html Make sure your MS Word and PDF files are accessible: http://umich.edu/webaccess/best/pdf.html Caption your videos. Use SSD or other resources: http://umich.edu/webaccess/best/caption.html
Accessibility Resources For assistance, email: firstname.lastname@example.org U-M: http://umich.edu/webaccess/ Gmail and Calendar: http://goo.gl/YolQn Google Docs: http://goo.gl/UOyFT WebAIM: http://webaim.org Online accessibility checkers: http://www.achecker.ca/ http://wave.webaim.org/