Introduction to a cyborg-• In this presentation we basically want to throw light on how exactly the cyborgdom is achieved and what are the future aspects and prospects?• Are we witnessing a true revolution in human futuristic or is it going to be just a flight of fantasy?• In the years ahead we will witness machines with intelligence more powerful than that of humans. This will mean that robots, not humans, make all the important decisions. It will be a robot dominated world with dire consequences for humankind. The question is - Is there an alternative way ahead?
• A cyborg, short for "cybernetic organism", is a being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) enhancements.• The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extra- terrestrial environments and the advantages of self regulating human-machine systems.
• In MedicineThere are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorativeand the enhanced. Restorative technologies "restore lost function,organs, and limbs". The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is therepair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or averagelevel of function.On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg "follows a principle, and it is theprinciple of optimal performance: maximising output (the information ormodifications obtained) and minimising input(the energy expended inthe process)". Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normalprocesses or even gain new functions that were not originally present.Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body partswith the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicineallow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function moreclosely
• Identity ReproductionThe celebrity is an example of the production of identity throughtechnology. Ones identity can be endlessly reproduced and distributed.One perfect moment can be stretched out over a long period of time.• Celebrity as CyborgThe celebrity is the ultimate form of cyborg. It exists on an Actor Networkof technosocial connections attached to a system of production,reproduction and distribution. The celebrity consists of a series of perfectmoments augmented by makeup, lighting, and video that are expanded totake up space and time in the minds of consumers. Many celebrity networks are made up of many identity-producing agents,each having expertise in a specific area of identity production: hairstylistsand producers, creative directors and billboard designers, agents,filmmakers and directors, advertisers and salespeople make up thisnetwork. The other part of the network is the viewer network, or fannetwork. The fans do not see the unprocessed human at any moment.Rather, they see the cybernetically produced product formattedspecifically for their consumptive pleasure.
• In popular cultureCyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literatureand other media. Although many of these characters may betechnically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Examplesinclude RoboCop, Terminators.• In the militaryMilitary organizations research has recently focused on the utilisationof cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage.DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" totransmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupalstage. The insects motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey anenvironment or detect explosives and gas. Similarly, DARPA isdeveloping a neural implant to remotely control the movement ofsharks. The sharks unique senses would then be exploited to providedata feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwaterexplosives.The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increasedresearch and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology
• In ArtWafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head,Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the headwas to make an "allegorical statement about the things we dont see andleave behindMachines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself,with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drummachines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This isperhaps most notable in generative art and music.• In body modificationAs medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques andinnovations are adopted by the body modification community., technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,augmented reality and QR codes are bridging the disconnect betweentechnology and the body
• Cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism, part human part machine; it thrives on the inputs both from the living senses and from the machine interface, which acts as an enhancement module.• Harnesses the ever increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone.• Supplements lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice.• Bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely..
• Donna Haraways cyborg is an attempt to break away from Oedipal narratives and Christian origin doctrines like Genesis; the concept of the cyborg is a rejection of rigid boundaries, notably those separating "human" from "animal" and "human" from "machine."• In the Cyborg Manifesto, she writes: "The cyborg does not dream of community on the model of the organic family, this time without the oedipal project. The cyborg would not recognize the Garden of Eden; it is not made of mud and cannot dream of returning to dust.• Collapse of several dichotomies: life/death, artificial/natural, virtual/real, male/female, space/place, human/animal/computer, and the like.• Heightened dependence on the technology.• Maintenance of the cyborg device.• Appearance issues.
• In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Jens was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute. Jens Naumann being interviewed for his vision BCI on CBN The Early Show.• In 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired in to his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the Internet. With this in place he successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the Internet to control a robotic hand, a loudspeaker and amplifier. This is a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans.
In 2004, under the heading Bridging theIsland of the Colorblind Project, a British andcompletely color-blind artist, Neil Harbisson,started wearing an eyeborg on his head inorder to hear colors. His prosthetic devicewas included within his 2004 passportphotograph which has been claimed toconfirm his cyborg status. In 2012 atTEDGlobal, Harbisson explained that hedidnt feel like a cyborg when he started touse the eyeborg, he started to feel like acyborg when he noticed that the softwareand his brain had united and given him anextra sense. Neil Harbisson is sometimes clamied to be a cyborg.
• A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.
• In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the users natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation. Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real- world cyborg applications.
• Days have come to witness hybrids of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction.• People are rapidly shifting from the stereotyped views to acquire a state of trans-human and next the superhuman.• The ethics and desirability of "enhancement prosthetics" have been debated; their proponents include the trans-humanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence.• Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favour of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.