Minerals ACCOMMODATION ZONES Deep-crustal breaks that often become syntectonic volcaniccenters because they localize the magmatic material, thusbecoming an elongated volcanic and plutonic center that intrudesexisting fault zones and provides the thermodynamic energy todrive mineralized fluids Increase in brecciation and the number of faults with a netdecrease in the average fault slip within the accommodation zone Localized compressional stress regime forms anticlinalculminations located structurally up-dip from the normal faults itseparates or "accommodates" on either side
Diagrammatic representation of opposite polarity tilt patterns in extensionalterrenes as separated by a strike-slip or transfer fault (A) or an accommodation zone(B).
Landsat TM 741 color composite image of the southern Colorado Riverillustrating extensional faults and the newly interpreted accommodation zone.
Saline Valley,California —ASTERvisible and near infraredbands 3, 2, and 1 in red,green, and blue (RGB)short wavelengthinfrared bands 4, 6,and 8 as RGBthermal infraredbands 13, 12 and10 as RGB
Valuable data for the planning andexploration program• The advantage of creating large scale area maps which allows them toexamine in single scenes or in mosaics the geological portrayal of Earthon a regional basis.• The ability to analyze multispectral bands quantitatively in terms ofnumbers permits them to apply special image processing techniques todiscern and enhance certain compositional properties of Earth materials.• The capability of merging different types of remote sensing products(e.g., reflectance images with radar or with thermal imagery) orcombining these with topographic elevation data (DEMs) and with otherkinds of information bases (e.g., thematic maps; geophysicalmeasurements and chemical sampling surveys) enables views of existingor planning of proposed mines.• Mapping subregional surface geology.• Creating field exploration maps with detailed views of access roads.
Pleiades-1A (0.5m) Satellite ImageBingham Canyon Copper Mine - Utah, USA
Geological Interpretation using ASTER, DEM and 8-Band MS WorldView-2 Ima
1 Meter DEM Pleiades-1A Triple Stereo Satellite Imagery Bingham Canyon Coppe
Bingham Canyon Copper Mine, Utah, USA — ArcScene 3D View —Pleiades-1A
ASTER (15m) Satellite Images of Escondida open-pit mine in AtacamaDesert, Chile
The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North Americasleading producer of copper.
Exploration• Oil and gas exploration activities for large areasrequire airborne magnetic or ground gravity surveysto facilitate detailed geological interpretations forsubsurface features.• By utilizing orthorectified high resolution satelliteimage data and Digital Terrain Models (DTMs)generated from Stereo Satellite or Airborne sensors,SIC delivers detailed computer visualizationenvironments for desktop programs such as ArcGIS9.x with Spatial Analyst and 3D Analyst withDSM/DEM posting intervals from 3m to 90m.
utch Harbor - ArcScene 3D Terrain Computer Environment - IKONOS and5m DEM
ArcGIS Exploration and Production - Albania
Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill
METHODOLOGY• Pre-field• Literature Survey and data Collection• Image interpretation and creation of spatial database• Field Reconnaissance• Ground truthing for spatial database• Finalization of the spatial database• Field Work• Spatial Analysis of Data• Recommended recharge structures
Flowchart for groundwater exploration
IRS LISS II standard FCC (Geo corrected) image of Dhanbad District.
Ground Water Table depth map (after CGWB Report, 2000).
SRTM -Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Dhanbad District
Vertical Electrical Sounding Resistivity curve and modeled section