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NASA | Mars Evolution MAVEN
CASSINI SOLSTICE MISSION
ORBITAL VELOCITY FORMULA
• Orbital velocity is the velocity given to the body to keep it in
orbit. This velocity is usually given to the artificial satellite so
that it revolves round any particular planet.
It is given by
• Where G is gravitational constant,
M is the mass of the body at center,
R is radius of orbit.
• The first leap in Lunar observation was made by Galileo
Galilei who used his new invention, the telescope to observe
mountains and craters on the lunar surface.
• The first man-made object to reach the Moon was the
unmanned Soviet probe Luna 2 in September 1959.
The first robotic lunar rover to land on the Moon was the
Soviet Lunokhod 1 in November 1970
• Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. The first
man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil Armstrong,
commander of the American mission Apollo 11. The last man
to walk on the Moon was in December 1972 by Eugene
Cernan during Apollo 17
• Mission.Moon samples have been brought back to Earth
by three Russian Luna missions (16, 20, and 24) and the
US Apollo missions 11, 12 and 14 through 17.
• The European Space Agency has launched European
spacecraft SMART-1 on September 27, 2003 to explore
the Moon, survey the lunar environment and create an Xray map of the Moon.
• Japan has launched the lunar orbiter Kaguya (Selene) on
September 14, 2007 . China has launched a lunar probe
called Chang'e on October 24, 2007 .
• India launch a lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 for
simultaneous photogeological mineralogical and chemical
mapping of the lunar surface.
• The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA
Launched on June 18, 2009
• India's first unmanned lunar probe.
• It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organization in
October 2008, and operated until August 2009.
• The mission included a lunar orbiter .
• India launched the spacecraft using a PSLV-XL rocket, on 22
October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota,
Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, about 80 km north of Chennai,
Former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced the
project on course in his Independence Day speech on 15 August
• The vehicle was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8
into a missionspecific lunar polar
orbit of 100 km
above the lunar
surface on 12
• TMC or the Terrain Mapping Camera
• HySI or Hyper Spectral Imager
• LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging
• HEX is a High Energy aj/gamma x-ray
• MIP or the Moon Impact Probe
• Moon Impact Probe (MIP) crash-landed on the lunar surface on
14 November 2008, 15:01 near the crater Shackleton at the
• The MIP was one of eleven scientific instruments (payloads) on
• The MIP separated from Chandrayaan at 100 km from lunar
surface and began its nosedive at 14:36 going into free fall for
• As it fell, it kept sending information back to the mother satellite
which, in turn, beamed the information back to Earth.
• The altimeter then also began recording measurements to
prepare for a rover to land on the lunar surface during a second
Moon mission – planned for 2017
• Mapping of minerals
• Moon Mineralogy Mapper
• Mapping of Apollo landing sites
• Images acquisition
• The craft completed 3000 orbits acquiring 70000 images of the
• Detection of X-Ray signals
• The X-ray signatures of aluminium, magnesium and silicon
were picked up by the C1XS X-ray camera
• Full Earth image
• On 25 March 2009 Chandrayaan beamed back its first images
of the Earth in its entirety.
• ISRO had reported on 25 November 2008 that
Chandrayaan-1's temperature had risen above
normal to 50 °C ,scientists said that it was caused
by higher than normal temperatures in lunar orbit.
• The temperature was brought down by about
10 °C by rotating the spacecraft about 20 degrees
and switching off some of the instruments.
• The spacecraft was experiencing high temperature
because of radiation from the Sun and infrared
radiation reflected by the Moon.
SEVERAL TECHNICAL ISSUES
• Chandrayaan operated for 312 days as opposed to
the intended two years but the mission achieved
95 percent of its planned objectives.
• Among its many achievements was the discovery
of the widespread presence of water molecules in
• Orbit raised to 200 km due to malfunctions
• Attitude sensor failure
• Radar scans
• Failure of the star sensors and poor thermal
shielding, Chandrayaan stopped sending radio
signals at 01:30 on 29 August 2009 ,ISRO
officially declared the mission over.
• Curiosity is a car-sized robotic rover
exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of
NASA's Mars Science Laboratory
• launched from Cape Canaveral on
November 26, 2011, at 10:02 EST aboard
the MSL spacecraft and successfully
landed on Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater on
Mars on August 6, 2012, 05:17
MSL Has Eight Main Scientific
– Determine the nature and inventory of organic carbon compounds
– Investigate the chemical building blocks of life (carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur)
– Identify features that may represent the effects of biological
• Geological and geochemical
– Investigate the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical composition of
the Martian surface and near-surface geological materials
– Interpret the processes that have formed and modified rocks and soils
• Planetary process
– Assess long-timescale (i.e., 4-billion-year) Martian atmospheric
– Determine present state, distribution, and cycling of water and
• Surface radiation
– Characterize the broad spectrum of surface radiation, including
galactic and cosmic radiation, solar proton events and
Sample Analysis At Mars (SAM)
• The SAM instrument suite will analyze organics and
gases from both atmospheric and solid samples.
• The three main instruments are a Quadrupole
Mass Spectrometer (QMS), a gas chromatograph
(GC) and a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). These
instruments will perform precision measurements of
oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide
(CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars
in order to distinguish between their geochemical or
• Dust Removal Tool (DRT)
• Radiation assessment detector (RAD)
• Robotic arm
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile
Evolution Mission (MAVEN),
• The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission
(MAVEN), set to launch in 2013 Nov. 18 will explore the
planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with
the sun and solar wind.
• NASA's MAVEN spacecraft, inside a payload fairing, is
hoisted to the top of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V
rocket at the Vertical Integration Facility at Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex
• Scientists will use MAVEN data to determine the role that
loss of volatile compounds—such as carbon dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide, and
• NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory will navigate the
spacecraft. CU/LASP will provide science operations and
• MAVEN will carry three instrument suites.
• The Particles and Fields Package
– Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA)
– Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA)
– SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC)
– Solar Energetic Particle (SEP)
– Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW)
– Magnetometer (MAG)
• The Remote Sensing Package
– built by CU/LASP, will determine global characteristics of
the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.
• Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) Package
– Measures the composition and isotopes of neutral gases and
• MAVEN is expected to reach Mars in
September 2014. By then, the
Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)
instrument suite on board the
Curiosity rover will have made similar
surface measurements from Gale crater,
which will help guide the interpretation
of MAVEN's upper atmosphere
• The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM),
informally called Mangalyaan
• Mars orbiter that was successfully launched
into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
• The mission is a "technology demonstrator"
project aiming to develop the technologies
required for design, planning, management
and operations of an interplanetary mission
• On June 30, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft entered
orbit around Saturn
• We're looking at a string of remarkable discoveries
-- about Saturn's magnificent rings, its amazing
moons, its dynamic magnetosphere and about
Titan's surface and atmosphere.
• Cassini's observations of Saturn's largest moon,
Titan, have given scientists a glimpse of what Earth
might have been like before life evolved. They now
believe Titan possesses many parallels to Earth,
including lakes, rivers, channels, dunes, rain, snow,
clouds, mountains and possibly volcanoes.
• Other 3 moons Inuit, Gallic and Norse .
– Cassini discovered
an icy plume shooting from this moon
– the spacecraft revealed vast methane lakes and
widespread stretches of wind-sculpted
hydrocarbon sand dunes .
– From a distance the rings look ordered and tidy.
But up close ring particles jostle and collide.
• Magnetic Environment
– Saturn’s magnetosphere
• Titan flash v.12
Power of each nation.
Development in science
Achievement of mankind
Finding life source on other planets
Future of earth
Past of earth
Answers to many questions