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  3. 3. ORBITAL VELOCITY FORMULA • Orbital velocity is the velocity given to the body to keep it in orbit. This velocity is usually given to the artificial satellite so that it revolves round any particular planet. It is given by • Where G is gravitational constant, M is the mass of the body at center, R is radius of orbit.
  4. 4. MOON
  6. 6. HISTORY • The first leap in Lunar observation was made by Galileo Galilei who used his new invention, the telescope to observe mountains and craters on the lunar surface. • The first man-made object to reach the Moon was the unmanned Soviet probe Luna 2 in September 1959. • The first robotic lunar rover to land on the Moon was the Soviet Lunokhod 1 in November 1970 • Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. The first man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil Armstrong, commander of the American mission Apollo 11. The last man to walk on the Moon was in December 1972 by Eugene Cernan during Apollo 17
  7. 7. • Mission.Moon samples have been brought back to Earth by three Russian Luna missions (16, 20, and 24) and the US Apollo missions 11, 12 and 14 through 17. • The European Space Agency has launched European spacecraft SMART-1 on September 27, 2003 to explore the Moon, survey the lunar environment and create an Xray map of the Moon. • Japan has launched the lunar orbiter Kaguya (Selene) on September 14, 2007 . China has launched a lunar probe called Chang'e on October 24, 2007 . • India launch a lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 for simultaneous photogeological mineralogical and chemical mapping of the lunar surface. • The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA Launched on June 18, 2009
  8. 8. CHANDRAYAAN-1 (MOON VEHICLE) • India's first unmanned lunar probe. • It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organization in October 2008, and operated until August 2009. • The mission included a lunar orbiter . • India launched the spacecraft using a PSLV-XL rocket, on 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, about 80 km north of Chennai, at 06:22. • Former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced the project on course in his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2003 • The vehicle was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008.
  9. 9. Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was successfully placed into a missionspecific lunar polar orbit of 100 km above the lunar surface on 12 November 2008
  10. 10. • TMC or the Terrain Mapping Camera • HySI or Hyper Spectral Imager • LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument • HEX is a High Energy aj/gamma x-ray spectrometer • MIP or the Moon Impact Probe
  11. 11. MIP (Moon Impact Probe )
  12. 12. MIP • Moon Impact Probe (MIP) crash-landed on the lunar surface on 14 November 2008, 15:01 near the crater Shackleton at the south pole. • The MIP was one of eleven scientific instruments (payloads) on board Chandrayaan-1. • The MIP separated from Chandrayaan at 100 km from lunar surface and began its nosedive at 14:36 going into free fall for thirty minutes. • As it fell, it kept sending information back to the mother satellite which, in turn, beamed the information back to Earth. • The altimeter then also began recording measurements to prepare for a rover to land on the lunar surface during a second Moon mission – planned for 2017
  13. 13. • Mapping of minerals • Moon Mineralogy Mapper • Mapping of Apollo landing sites • Images acquisition • The craft completed 3000 orbits acquiring 70000 images of the lunar surface • Detection of X-Ray signals • The X-ray signatures of aluminium, magnesium and silicon were picked up by the C1XS X-ray camera • Full Earth image • On 25 March 2009 Chandrayaan beamed back its first images of the Earth in its entirety.
  14. 14. PROBLEMS • ISRO had reported on 25 November 2008 that Chandrayaan-1's temperature had risen above normal to 50 °C ,scientists said that it was caused by higher than normal temperatures in lunar orbit. • The temperature was brought down by about 10 °C by rotating the spacecraft about 20 degrees and switching off some of the instruments. • The spacecraft was experiencing high temperature because of radiation from the Sun and infrared radiation reflected by the Moon.
  15. 15. SEVERAL TECHNICAL ISSUES • Chandrayaan operated for 312 days as opposed to the intended two years but the mission achieved 95 percent of its planned objectives. • Among its many achievements was the discovery of the widespread presence of water molecules in lunar soil. • Orbit raised to 200 km due to malfunctions • Attitude sensor failure • Radar scans • Failure of the star sensors and poor thermal shielding, Chandrayaan stopped sending radio signals at 01:30 on 29 August 2009 ,ISRO officially declared the mission over.
  16. 16. Animated Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=ipBOotJDJ1k
  17. 17. MARS
  20. 20. CURIOSITY • Curiosity is a car-sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL). • launched from Cape Canaveral on November 26, 2011, at 10:02 EST aboard the MSL spacecraft and successfully landed on Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater on Mars on August 6, 2012, 05:17
  21. 21. MSL Has Eight Main Scientific Objectives • Biological – Determine the nature and inventory of organic carbon compounds – Investigate the chemical building blocks of life (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur) – Identify features that may represent the effects of biological processes (biosignatures) • Geological and geochemical – Investigate the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical composition of the Martian surface and near-surface geological materials – Interpret the processes that have formed and modified rocks and soils • Planetary process – Assess long-timescale (i.e., 4-billion-year) Martian atmospheric evolution processes – Determine present state, distribution, and cycling of water and carbon dioxide • Surface radiation – Characterize the broad spectrum of surface radiation, including galactic and cosmic radiation, solar proton events and secondary neutrons
  22. 22. Sample Analysis At Mars (SAM) • The SAM instrument suite will analyze organics and gases from both atmospheric and solid samples. • The three main instruments are a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), a gas chromatograph (GC) and a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). These instruments will perform precision measurements of oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars in order to distinguish between their geochemical or biological origin • Dust Removal Tool (DRT) • Radiation assessment detector (RAD) • Robotic arm
  23. 23. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), • The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013 Nov. 18 will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. • NASA's MAVEN spacecraft, inside a payload fairing, is hoisted to the top of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket at the Vertical Integration Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex • Scientists will use MAVEN data to determine the role that loss of volatile compounds—such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and • NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory will navigate the spacecraft. CU/LASP will provide science operations and data packaging.
  24. 24. • MAVEN will carry three instrument suites. • The Particles and Fields Package – Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) – Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) – SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) – Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) – Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) – Magnetometer (MAG) • The Remote Sensing Package – built by CU/LASP, will determine global characteristics of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. • Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) Package – Measures the composition and isotopes of neutral gases and ions
  25. 25. • MAVEN is expected to reach Mars in September 2014. By then, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on board the Curiosity rover will have made similar surface measurements from Gale crater, which will help guide the interpretation of MAVEN's upper atmosphere measurements
  26. 26. MARS ORBITER MISSION • The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally called Mangalyaan • Mars orbiter that was successfully launched into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) • The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project aiming to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission
  27. 27. Animated Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=8gzjn0DfF4E
  28. 28. SATURN
  30. 30. • On June 30, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft entered orbit around Saturn • We're looking at a string of remarkable discoveries -- about Saturn's magnificent rings, its amazing moons, its dynamic magnetosphere and about Titan's surface and atmosphere. • Cassini's observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, have given scientists a glimpse of what Earth might have been like before life evolved. They now believe Titan possesses many parallels to Earth, including lakes, rivers, channels, dunes, rain, snow, clouds, mountains and possibly volcanoes. • Other 3 moons Inuit, Gallic and Norse .
  31. 31. • Enceladus – Cassini discovered an icy plume shooting from this moon • Titan – the spacecraft revealed vast methane lakes and widespread stretches of wind-sculpted hydrocarbon sand dunes . • Rings – From a distance the rings look ordered and tidy. But up close ring particles jostle and collide. • Magnetic Environment – Saturn’s magnetosphere
  32. 32. Animated Video • Titan flash v.12 http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/flash/Titan/index.html
  33. 33. CONCLUSION • • • • • • • Power of each nation. Development in science Achievement of mankind Finding life source on other planets Future of earth Past of earth Answers to many questions
  34. 34. THE END