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    Hitler Hitler Presentation Transcript

    • The Rise of Adolf HitlerThe Rise of Adolf Hitler
    • The Early YearsThe Early Years Born April 20Born April 20thth, 1889 in Austria, 1889 in Austria ParentsParents– Alois Hitler – fatherAlois Hitler – father Wanted Hitler to be a civil servantWanted Hitler to be a civil servant– Hitler wanted to be an artistHitler wanted to be an artist– Klara Polzl – motherKlara Polzl – mother Perhaps the only loving relationship Hitler hadPerhaps the only loving relationship Hitler had
    • Hitler’s EducationHitler’s Education Elementary = goodElementary = good High School = bad (no diploma)High School = bad (no diploma) Moved to Vienna after his father died toMoved to Vienna after his father died tobecome an artistbecome an artist
    • Viennese Academy of Fine ArtsViennese Academy of Fine Arts Passes day 1 of entrance examPasses day 1 of entrance exam Fails day 2 – can’t draw humansFails day 2 – can’t draw humans– Panel denied him acceptancePanel denied him acceptance Suggest architecture (no diploma)Suggest architecture (no diploma) Hitler felt it was a Jewish conspiracyHitler felt it was a Jewish conspiracy– Majority of the panel was JewishMajority of the panel was Jewish
    • Death of KlaraDeath of Klara December 1907December 1907 Some believe Hitler blamed the doctorSome believe Hitler blamed the doctor– Doctor was JewishDoctor was Jewish Evidence shows Hitler was grateful for trying toEvidence shows Hitler was grateful for trying tosave hersave her– Evidence suggest Klara and doctor wereEvidence suggest Klara and doctor werefriendsfriends
    • Increasing Anti-SemitismIncreasing Anti-Semitism After the death of Klara, Hitler returned toAfter the death of Klara, Hitler returned toViennaVienna– In 2 years is brokeIn 2 years is broke– Hitler would end up in a shelter for menHitler would end up in a shelter for men Would be introduced to new levels of Anti-Would be introduced to new levels of Anti-SemitismSemitism
    • Forms of Anti-Semitism in GermanyForms of Anti-Semitism in Germany ReligiousReligious – Jews blamed for the death of– Jews blamed for the death ofJesusJesus EconomicEconomic – Jews took advantage of the– Jews took advantage of theCatholic Church’s ban on usuryCatholic Church’s ban on usury RacialRacial – Jews were impurities in the– Jews were impurities in theGerman populationGerman population PoliticalPolitical – Jews were able to infiltrate the– Jews were able to infiltrate thegovernmentgovernment
    • Influences on HitlerInfluences on Hitler Lanz von LiebenfelsLanz von Liebenfels– Wrote about the superiority of the Aryan raceWrote about the superiority of the Aryan race– Detailed ways to eliminate Jews and otherDetailed ways to eliminate Jews and otherinferior racesinferior races Genetic selection, sterilization, deportation, forcedGenetic selection, sterilization, deportation, forcedlabor, direct liquidationlabor, direct liquidation Richard WagnerRichard Wagner– Wrote plays that portrayed the rise of theWrote plays that portrayed the rise of theunderdogunderdog– This is where Hitler would adopt his speakingThis is where Hitler would adopt his speakingstylestyle
    • Draft DodgerDraft Dodger To avoid Austrian draft, he moved toTo avoid Austrian draft, he moved toMunichMunich Would be arrested and sent backWould be arrested and sent back Dismissed from Austrian military- tooDismissed from Austrian military- too“sickly” looking“sickly” looking Moved back to Munich and sold paintingsMoved back to Munich and sold paintingson the streeton the street
    • WWIWWI Hitler would sign up with the BavarianHitler would sign up with the BavarianArmy during WWIArmy during WWI– show the dominance of the Aryan raceshow the dominance of the Aryan race dispatch runner in the trenchesdispatch runner in the trenches– Wounded many times and awarded the IronWounded many times and awarded the IronCross First ClassCross First Class
    •  Nov. 11, 1918 - Germany surrendersNov. 11, 1918 - Germany surrenders Weimar Government = democratic govt.Weimar Government = democratic govt.– Had replaced the KaiserHad replaced the Kaiser ““Stabbed in the Back” mythStabbed in the Back” myth– Germany didn’t lose, they were betrayed byGermany didn’t lose, they were betrayed bytheir governmenttheir government– ““November CriminalsNovember Criminals ” - nickname given to” - nickname given tomembers of the Weimar Governmentmembers of the Weimar Government
    • Post War DutiesPost War Duties Hitler would remain as one of the 100,000Hitler would remain as one of the 100,000soldiers in the Germany militarysoldiers in the Germany military– Information officerInformation officer Performed patriotic trainingPerformed patriotic training Covert spy to investigate political partiesCovert spy to investigate political parties
    • Introduction to PoliticsIntroduction to Politics September 12, 1919September 12, 1919– Hitler would be at a beer hall investigating theHitler would be at a beer hall investigating theDAPDAP (German Worker’s Party)(German Worker’s Party) Openly NationalistOpenly Nationalist Anti-SemiticAnti-Semitic Anti-WeimarAnti-Weimar– Hitler resigns from the military to join the DAPHitler resigns from the military to join the DAP Military members can’t be in political partiesMilitary members can’t be in political parties
    • DAP MembershipDAP Membership Hitler became the propaganda officerHitler became the propaganda officer– Organized meetingsOrganized meetings– Recruit new membersRecruit new members
    • Hitler the OratorHitler the Orator February 25February 25thth, 1920, 1920 Hufbrauhaus Beer HallHufbrauhaus Beer Hall– 2000 people in attendance2000 people in attendance Hitler is the primary speaker of theHitler is the primary speaker of themeetingmeeting– Intends to announce the “25 Point Platform”Intends to announce the “25 Point Platform” Co-written by Hitler and Anton DrexlerCo-written by Hitler and Anton Drexler
    • 25 Point Platform25 Point Platform Abolish the Treaty of VersaillesAbolish the Treaty of Versailles Only German blood people could beOnly German blood people could becitizenscitizens– Jews were specifically excluded fromJews were specifically excluded fromcitizenshipcitizenship In support of other religions as long asIn support of other religions as long asthey don’t harm the statethey don’t harm the state Economy need resources to surviveEconomy need resources to survive– LebensraumLebensraum – “living space”– “living space”
    • Changing NamesChanging Names DAP becomes the NSDAPDAP becomes the NSDAP– National Socialist German Workers PartyNational Socialist German Workers Party Hitler eventually forces Drexler outHitler eventually forces Drexler out Hitler is now known as theHitler is now known as the FuhrerFuhrer
    • Organizing the PartyOrganizing the Party Hitler saw propaganda as a key to successHitler saw propaganda as a key to success1.1. SwastikaSwastika– official symbol of the partyofficial symbol of the party1.1. Heil SaluteHeil Salute– Out stretch arm that dates back to the RomansOut stretch arm that dates back to the Romans1.1. ParadesParades– Would be held before meetings – at least once aWould be held before meetings – at least once aweekweek– Hitler would often be keynote speakerHitler would often be keynote speaker
    • ParamilitaryParamilitary SA – “Storm Troopers” or “Brownshirts”SA – “Storm Troopers” or “Brownshirts”– Paramilitary of the Nazi PartyParamilitary of the Nazi Party– Former members of the German militaryFormer members of the German military By 1923 – 15,000 membersBy 1923 – 15,000 members
    • Ernst RohmErnst Rohm Active member of theActive member of theGerman militaryGerman military Supported theSupported theNSDAPNSDAP connection betweenconnection betweenthe SA and thethe SA and theGerman militaryGerman military
    • Reasons for Early Growth of the PartyReasons for Early Growth of the Party People felt betrayed after WWIPeople felt betrayed after WWI Hitler fed off this angerHitler fed off this anger– Never offered solutionsNever offered solutions– Echoed problems and pointed fingersEchoed problems and pointed fingers
    • March on BerlinMarch on BerlinHitler will copy an idea fromHitler will copy an idea fromMussolini and stage a march onMussolini and stage a march onBerlin.Berlin.
    • Beer Hall Putsch – Nov. 8Beer Hall Putsch – Nov. 8thth-9-9thth19231923 Hitler surrounds the beer hallHitler surrounds the beer hallwith 2000 SA troopswith 2000 SA troops Hitler and 50 troops enter theHitler and 50 troops enter thebeer hallbeer hall Hitler announces that theHitler announces that the“National Revolution” has“National Revolution” hasbegunbegun
    • BetrayedBetrayed Hitler begins the mini-march on MunichHitler begins the mini-march on Munich Supporters betray Hitler and create a trapSupporters betray Hitler and create a trap– Hitler is supposedly shot, and later arrestedHitler is supposedly shot, and later arrested
    • The Trial of HitlerThe Trial of HitlerAgainst all odds, Hitler uses hisAgainst all odds, Hitler uses hisown trial for his benefit.own trial for his benefit.
    • Trial of HitlerTrial of Hitler Feb. and Mar. of 1924Feb. and Mar. of 1924 Hitler is tried for treasonHitler is tried for treason Hitler justified his actionsHitler justified his actions– Was working for the German peopleWas working for the German people– He was a German patriotHe was a German patriot– Opposing the Weimar RepublicOpposing the Weimar Republic Verdict = GuiltyVerdict = Guilty– 5 years in prison with possibility of parole5 years in prison with possibility of parole
    • Period of WaitingPeriod of Waiting Name used by historians to describeName used by historians to describeHitler’s time in prison.Hitler’s time in prison. Hitler served 9 months at a minimumHitler served 9 months at a minimumsecurity prisonsecurity prison
    • Three Lessons Learned in PrisonThree Lessons Learned in Prison If Nazis were to come to power, he aloneIf Nazis were to come to power, he alonewould have to lead themwould have to lead them Would have to create an alliance with theWould have to create an alliance with theGerman armyGerman army If he was to come to power, he wouldIf he was to come to power, he wouldhave to do it legally.have to do it legally.
    • Mein Kampf – “My Struggle”Mein Kampf – “My Struggle” Book that Hitler wrote inBook that Hitler wrote inprisonprison Outlined three main pointsOutlined three main points1.1. The right of the strong inThe right of the strong inracial conflictracial conflict2.2. Right of superior nations toRight of superior nations togaingain lebensraumlebensraum3.3. Right of superior individualsRight of superior individualsto establish authoritarianto establish authoritarianleadership over the massesleadership over the masses
    • Hitler Reclaims PowerHitler Reclaims Power Upon release Hitler quickly reclaims powerUpon release Hitler quickly reclaims powerof the Nazi partyof the Nazi party– Had left it in the hands of a lesser individualHad left it in the hands of a lesser individualso that it would not grow without Hitlerso that it would not grow without Hitler
    • Political OpponentsPolitical Opponents Gregor StrassorGregor Strassor– Member of the NSDAP since 1921Member of the NSDAP since 1921– Leader of the “National Socialist WorkingLeader of the “National Socialist WorkingAssc.”Assc.” Assisted by Joseph GoebbelsAssisted by Joseph Goebbels Bamberg ConferenceBamberg Conference – 1926– 1926– Strassor = 45 minutesStrassor = 45 minutes– Hitler = 5 hours and emerges victoriousHitler = 5 hours and emerges victorious Goebbels would join HitlerGoebbels would join Hitler
    • Depression and PoliticalDepression and PoliticalConsequencesConsequences
    • Dawes PlanDawes Plan Fall of 1923Fall of 1923 Charles DawesCharles Dawes– plan to extend reparation payments and lowerplan to extend reparation payments and lowerthe payment amountthe payment amount– Would also start massive loans by US banksWould also start massive loans by US banks– When Great Depression hits US recalls loansWhen Great Depression hits US recalls loans Germany dives into a depression tooGermany dives into a depression too
    • Unemployment in GermanyUnemployment in Germany 1928 – 1.8 million unemployed1928 – 1.8 million unemployed 1932 – 6 million unemployed1932 – 6 million unemployed– Lower class is affected the mostLower class is affected the most– Causes people to polarizeCauses people to polarize
    • Article 48Article 48 Section of Weimar ConstitutionSection of Weimar Constitution– In times of “national emergency” the presidentIn times of “national emergency” the presidentwould turn legislative power over to thewould turn legislative power over to thechancellor until there are new electionschancellor until there are new elections– Idea = get new blood in governmentIdea = get new blood in government ChancellorChancellor = leader of Reichstag= leader of Reichstag ReichstagReichstag = German parliament= German parliament
    • ReichstagReichstag Total of 595 seats at the timeTotal of 595 seats at the time By 1930, Nazis held 107 of the seatsBy 1930, Nazis held 107 of the seats– Didn’t hold a majorityDidn’t hold a majority– Acted as obstructionistsActed as obstructionists GOAL = get as many seats as possible in theGOAL = get as many seats as possible in thenew electionsnew elections
    • Joseph GoebbelsJoseph Goebbels“Minister of Propaganda”“Minister of Propaganda”1.1. Monthly DirectivesMonthly Directives– Identifiable themes and slogansIdentifiable themes and slogans1.1. Nazi Speaker SchoolNazi Speaker School– train people how to give speechestrain people how to give speeches1.1. Saturation AdvertisingSaturation Advertising– massive increase in campaigning beforemassive increase in campaigning beforeelectionselections
    • Hitler and the Nazis onHitler and the Nazis onthe Eve of Powerthe Eve of Power
    • Presidential Elections of 1932Presidential Elections of 1932 Paul von Hindenburg –Paul von Hindenburg –84 years old84 years old– president since 1925 andpresident since 1925 andwants to retirewants to retire Hitler runs against himHitler runs against him
    • First Ballot – April 11First Ballot – April 11thth19321932 Hindenburg receives 49.45% of the voteHindenburg receives 49.45% of the vote– Not a majority so there is a run off among theNot a majority so there is a run off among thetop three candidatestop three candidates Hindenburg – no party (military officer)Hindenburg – no party (military officer) Hitler – NSDAP (Nazis)Hitler – NSDAP (Nazis) Thaelman – KPD (Communist)Thaelman – KPD (Communist)
    • Second BallotSecond Ballot Hindenburg – 53%Hindenburg – 53% Hitler – 37%Hitler – 37% Thaelman – 10%Thaelman – 10% Hindenburg is upset about runoffHindenburg is upset about runoff
    • New Chancellor and New ElectionsNew Chancellor and New Elections Reichstag Elections of 1932Reichstag Elections of 1932– Nazis won 37.3% of the seatsNazis won 37.3% of the seats– Since they are the largest party, Hitler believes he should be theSince they are the largest party, Hitler believes he should be theChancellorChancellor Hindenburg refusesHindenburg refuses– Hindenburg offers Hitler the chance to be Vice-Hindenburg offers Hitler the chance to be Vice-ChancellorChancellor Hitler refusesHitler refuses Chancellor Von Papen dissolves the Reichstag and holds newChancellor Von Papen dissolves the Reichstag and holds newelectionselections– Believes the Nazis are worn outBelieves the Nazis are worn out Nazis go from 37.3% to 33.1%Nazis go from 37.3% to 33.1%
    • Hitler as ChancellorHitler as Chancellor Von Papen proves ineffectiveVon Papen proves ineffective– Hindenburg is persuaded to give Hitler a chanceHindenburg is persuaded to give Hitler a chance Hitler became Chancellor because of ineffectiveness ofHitler became Chancellor because of ineffectiveness ofthe previous Chancellorsthe previous Chancellors January 30, 1933– Hitler dissolves the Reichstag andJanuary 30, 1933– Hitler dissolves the Reichstag andcalls for new electionscalls for new elections– Wanted a majority in the ReichstagWanted a majority in the Reichstag– Wanted to make sure that nothing would get done soWanted to make sure that nothing would get done sothat Article 48 would be decreedthat Article 48 would be decreed
    • Burning of the ReichstagBurning of the Reichstag Feb. 28Feb. 28thth1933 – the Reichstag is set on1933 – the Reichstag is set onfirefire– Marinus von der Lubbe is blamed for the fireMarinus von der Lubbe is blamed for the fire Dutch CommunistDutch Communist Tried and executed in 2 daysTried and executed in 2 days– Communists are now seen as a threatCommunists are now seen as a threat Election in March now increase NaziElection in March now increase Nazipower from 33.1% to 43.9%power from 33.1% to 43.9%
    • Enabling ActEnabling Act would give Hitler complete dictatorialwould give Hitler complete dictatorialpower for 4 yearspower for 4 years– Would no longer need the ReichstagWould no longer need the Reichstag– Would be able to pass what ever legislativeWould be able to pass what ever legislativeacts he wantedacts he wanted
    • Enabling ActEnabling Act Hitler wanted this act passed in order to getHitler wanted this act passed in order to getmore powermore power Need support from the DNVP and the ZentrumNeed support from the DNVP and the Zentrum(Catholics)(Catholics)– DNVP support was guaranteedDNVP support was guaranteed– Zentrum agreed under 2 termsZentrum agreed under 2 terms1.1. Catholic Church would not be touchedCatholic Church would not be touched2.2. Zentrum would still be allowed to participate in govt.Zentrum would still be allowed to participate in govt. Enabling Act passes 444-94Enabling Act passes 444-94– Within 3 months all political parties except the NazisWithin 3 months all political parties except the Nazisare outlawedare outlawed
    • Possible ThreatsPossible Threats1.1. Paul von HindenburgPaul von Hindenburg– Had power to remove ChancellorHad power to remove Chancellor– However, pleased with Hitler’s performanceHowever, pleased with Hitler’s performance1.1. German MilitaryGerman Military– Conflicted with SA over who was more importantConflicted with SA over who was more important1.1. SA – leader Ernst RohmSA – leader Ernst Rohm– Advocated a second revolutionAdvocated a second revolution– Possible removal of HitlerPossible removal of Hitler
    • Concerns About the SA and RohmConcerns About the SA and Rohm Were the SA loyal to Rohm or Hitler?Were the SA loyal to Rohm or Hitler? Were the leaders of the SA necessary forWere the leaders of the SA necessary forthe success of the Nazis?the success of the Nazis? Rohm was openly homosexual – was thisRohm was openly homosexual – was thisan image the Nazis wanted?an image the Nazis wanted?
    • Fake RevolutionFake Revolution Heinrich HimmlerHeinrich Himmler– Leader of the SSLeader of the SS– Considered to be a more elite military forceConsidered to be a more elite military force However, still considered a subordinate forceHowever, still considered a subordinate forceunder the SAunder the SA Himmler and Goebbels created a fakeHimmler and Goebbels created a fakeplan that said Rohm was planning a coupplan that said Rohm was planning a coup– Hitler agreed regardless of informationHitler agreed regardless of informationagainst itagainst it
    • Night of the Long KnivesNight of the Long KnivesBlood Purge of the SA - Rohm PurgeBlood Purge of the SA - Rohm Purge SA leaders are sent on a vacationSA leaders are sent on a vacationtogethertogether Hitler has the leaders arrested and sent toHitler has the leaders arrested and sent toa prisona prison Many leaders would then be killedMany leaders would then be killed Rohm, Strassor, and von Kahr are allRohm, Strassor, and von Kahr are allkilledkilled– Hundreds more as wellHundreds more as well– Seen as traitors or threatsSeen as traitors or threats
    • Supporters of the Purge and WhySupporters of the Purge and Why HindenburgHindenburg– Brought radicals under controlBrought radicals under control Germany MilitaryGermany Military– SA no longer demanded a take over of theSA no longer demanded a take over of themilitarymilitary Himmler and SSHimmler and SS– SS becomes an independent organizationSS becomes an independent organization
    • Nuremburg Rallies of Sep. 1934Nuremburg Rallies of Sep. 1934 Explained the reasons for the purgeExplained the reasons for the purge– SA leaders were corrupt and had to beSA leaders were corrupt and had to beremovedremoved Maintained the support of the SAMaintained the support of the SA– Overall goal was to maintain a unifiedOverall goal was to maintain a unifiedGermanyGermany
    • Hitler Become Fuhrer of GermanyHitler Become Fuhrer of Germany Paul von Hindenburg dies on August 2Paul von Hindenburg dies on August 2ndnd19341934 Hitler gives public speeches recognizing theHitler gives public speeches recognizing thegreatness of Hindenburggreatness of Hindenburg– The people loved HindenburgThe people loved Hindenburg announces that he will merge offices ofannounces that he will merge offices ofPresident and ChancellorPresident and Chancellor– Enabling ActEnabling Act Referendum is supported by the peopleReferendum is supported by the people– Hitler wanted to make sure that it was legalHitler wanted to make sure that it was legal
    •  People had lost faith in democracyPeople had lost faith in democracy Nazis were willing to use force when necessaryNazis were willing to use force when necessary Momentum – people liked being on the winning side –Momentum – people liked being on the winning side –“band wagon effect”“band wagon effect” Hitler had been promising a national RegenerationHitler had been promising a national Regeneration Role of Hitler himselfRole of Hitler himself– Very clever and ruthlessVery clever and ruthless– Used the fact that most people believed he could be controlledUsed the fact that most people believed he could be controlledagainst themagainst themReasons for SuccessReasons for Success
    • Hitler is Supreme RulerHitler is Supreme Ruler Because of Hitler creativeness,Because of Hitler creativeness,determination, ruthless, and cunning he isdetermination, ruthless, and cunning he isable to become the supreme leader ofable to become the supreme leader ofGermany and the German MilitaryGermany and the German Military The stage is set for WWIIThe stage is set for WWII