21Focuses in Social PsychologySocial psychology scientifically studies how wethink about, influence, and relate to one another.“We cannot live for ourselves alone.”Herman Melville
22Social ThinkingSocial thinking involves thinking about others,especially when they engage in doing thingsthat are unexpected.1. Does his absenteeism signify illness,laziness, or a stressful work atmosphere?2. Was the horror of 9/11 the work ofcrazed evil people or ordinary peoplecorrupted by life events?
23Attributing Behavior to Persons or toSituationsAttribution Theory: FritzHeider (1958) suggestedthat we have a tendencyto give causalexplanations forsomeone’s behavior,often by crediting eitherthe situation or theperson’s disposition.http://www.stedwards.eduFritz Heider
24Attributing Behavior to Persons or toSituationsA teacher may wonder whether a child’shostility reflects an aggressive personality(dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stressor abuse (a situational attribution).http://www.bootsnall.orgDispositions are enduringpersonality traits. So, if Joeis a quiet, shy, andintroverted child, he islikely to be like that in anumber of situations.
25Fundamental Attribution ErrorThe tendency to overestimate the impact ofpersonal disposition and underestimate theimpact of the situations in analyzing thebehaviors of others leads to the fundamentalattribution error.We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted mostof the time, but with friends he is very talkative,loud, and extroverted.
26Effects of AttributionHow we explain someone’s behavior affectshow we react to it.
27Attitudes & ActionsA belief and feeling that predisposes a person torespond in a particular way to objects, otherpeople, and events.If we believe a person is mean, we may feeldislike for the person and act in an unfriendlymanner.
28Attitudes Can Affect ActionsOur attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectlybecause other factors, including the externalsituation, also influence behavior.Democratic leaders supported Bush’s attack onIraq under public pressure. However, they hadtheir private reservations.
29Actions Can Affect AttitudesNot only do people stand for what they believe in(attitude), they start believing in what they standfor.Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs).D.MacDonald/PhotoEdit
30Small Request – Large RequestIn the Korean War, Chinese communistssolicited cooperation from US army prisonersby asking them to carry out small errands. Bycomplying to small errands they were likely tocomply to larger ones.Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon: The tendencyfor people who have first agreed to a smallrequest to comply later with a larger request.
31Role Playing Affects AttitudesZimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guardsand prisoners to random students and foundthat guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes.OriginallypublishedintheNewYorkerPhillipG.Zimbardo,Inc.
32Actions Can Affect AttitudesWhy do actions affect attitudes? Oneexplanation is that when our attitudes andactions are opposed, we experience tension.This is called cognitive dissonance.To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring ourattitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957).
35Conformity & ObedienceBehavior is contagious, modeled by onefollowed by another. We follow behavior ofothers to conform.Other behaviors may be an expression ofcompliance (obedience) toward authority.Conformity Obedience
36The Chameleon EffectConformity: Adjusting one’s behavior orthinking to coincide with a group standard(Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).
37Group Pressure & ConformitySuggestibility is a subtle type of conformity,adjusting our behavior or thinking towardsome group standard.
38Group Pressure & ConformityAn influence resulting from one’s willingness toaccept others’ opinions about reality.WilliamVandivert/ScientificAmerican
39Conditions that StrengthenConformity1. One is made to feel incompetent or insecure.2. The group has at least three people.3. The group is unanimous.4. One admires the group’s status andattractiveness.5. One has no prior commitment to a response.6. The group observes one’s behavior.7. One’s culture strongly encourages respect for asocial standard.
40Reasons for ConformingNormative Social Influence: Influence resultingfrom a person’s desire to gain approval or avoidrejection. A person may respect normativebehavior because there may be a severe price topay if not respected.Informational Social Influence: The group mayprovide valuable information, but stubbornpeople will never listen to others.
41ObediencePeople comply to socialpressures. How wouldthey respond to outrightcommand?Stanley Milgramdesigned a study thatinvestigates the effects ofauthority on obedience.Stanley Milgram(1933-1984)CourtesyofCUNYGraduateSchoolandUniversityCenter
44Individual ResistanceA third of the individuals in Milgram’s studyresisted social coercion.An unarmed individual single-handedlychallenged a line of tanks at Tiananmen Square.AP/WideWorldPhotos
45Lessons from the Conformity andObedience StudiesIn both Aschs and Milgrams studies,participants were pressured to choose betweenfollowing their standards and being responsiveto others.In Milgram’s study, participants were tornbetween hearing the victims pleas and theexperimenter’s orders.
46Group InfluenceHow do groups affect our behavior? Socialpsychologists study various groups:1. One person affecting another2. Families3. Teams4. Committees
47Individual Behavior in the Presenceof OthersSocial facilitation: Refersto improvedperformance on tasks inthe presence of others.Triplett (1898) noticedcyclists’ race times werefaster when theycompeted against othersthan when they justraced against the clock.MichelleAgnis/NYTPictures
48Social LoafingThe tendency of an individual in a group toexert less effort toward attaining a commongoal than when tested individually (Latané,1981).
49DeindividuationThe loss of self-awareness and self-restraint ingroup situations that foster arousal andanonymity.Mob behavior
50Effects of Group InteractionGroup Polarizationenhances a group’sprevailing attitudesthrough a discussion.If a group is like-minded, discussionstrengthens itsprevailing opinionsand attitudes.
51GroupthinkA mode of thinking that occurs when the desirefor harmony in a decision-making groupoverrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives.Attack on Pearl HarborKennedy and the Cuban Missile CrisisWatergate Cover-upChernobyl Reactor Accident
53Social RelationsSocial psychology teaches us how we relate toone another through prejudice, aggression, andconflict to attraction, and altruism andpeacemaking.
54PrejudiceSimply called “prejudgment,” a prejudice is anunjustifiable (usually negative) attitude towarda group and its members. Prejudice is oftendirected towards different cultural, ethnic, orgender groups.1. Beliefs (stereotypes)2. Emotions (hostility, envy, fear)3. Predisposition to act (to discriminate)Components of Prejudice
55Reign of PrejudicePrejudice works at the conscious and [more at]the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice ismore like a knee-jerk response than a consciousdecision.
56How Prejudiced are People?Over the duration of time many prejudicesagainst interracial marriage, gender,homosexuality, and minorities have decreased.
57Racial & Gender PrejudiceAmericans today express much less racial andgender prejudice, but prejudices still exist.
58RaceNine out of ten white respondents were slowwhen responding to words like “peace” or“paradise” when they saw a black individual’sphoto compared to a white individual’s photo(Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003).
59GenderMost women still live in more poverty thanmen. About 100,000,000 women are missing inthe world. There is a preference for malechildren in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed.
60GenderAlthough prejudice prevails against women, more peoplefeel positively toward women than men. Women ratedpicture b [feminized] higher (66%) for a matrimonial ad(Perrett & others, 1998).ProfessorDavePerrett,St.AndrewsUniversity
61Social Roots of PrejudiceWhy does prejudice arise?1. Social Inequalities2. Social Divisions3. Emotional Scapegoating
62Social InequalityPrejudice develops when people have money,power, and prestige, and others do not. Socialinequality increases prejudice.
63Us and ThemIngroup: People with whom one shares acommon identity. Outgroup: Those perceived asdifferent from one’s ingroup. Ingroup Bias: Thetendency to favor one’s own group.Scotland’s famed “Tartan Army” fans.MikeHewitt/GettyImages
64Emotional Roots of PrejudicePrejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion]by providing someone to blame. After 9/11many people lashed out against innocentArab-Americans.
65Cognitive Roots of PrejudiceOne way we simplify our world is to categorize.We categorize people into groups bystereotyping them.Foreign sunbathers may think Balinese look alike.MichaelS.Yamashita/WoodfinCampAssociates
66Cognitive Roots of PrejudiceIn vivid cases such as the 9/11 attacks, terroristscan feed stereotypes or prejudices (terrorism).Most terrorists are non-Muslims.
68Hindsight BiasAfter learning an outcome, the tendency tobelieve that we could have predicted itbeforehand may contribute to blaming thevictim and forming a prejudice against them.
69AggressionAggression can be any physical or verbalbehavior intended to hurt or destroy.It may be done reactively out of hostility orproactively as a calculated means to an end.Research shows that aggressive behavior emergesfrom the interaction of biology and experience.
70The Biology of AggressionThree biological influences on aggressivebehavior are:1. Genetic Influences2. Neural Influences3. Biochemical Influences
71InfluencesGenetic Influences: Animals have been bred foraggressiveness for sport and at times for research.Twin studies show aggression may be genetic. Inmen, aggression is possibly linked to the Ychromosome.Neural Influences: Some centers in the brain,especially the limbic system (amygdala) and thefrontal lobe, are intimately involved withaggression.
72InfluencesBiochemical Influences: Animals with diminishedamounts of testosterone (castration) become docile,and if injected with testosterone aggressionincreases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone alsoincreases aggression in female hyenas.
73The Psychology of AggressionFour psychological factors that influenceaggressive behavior are:1. dealing with aversive events;2. learning aggression is rewarding;3. observing models of aggression; and4. acquiring social scripts.
74Aversive EventsStudies in which animals and humans experienceunpleasant events reveal that those mademiserable often make others miserable.Ron Artest (Pacers) attack on Detroit Pistons fans.JeffKowalsky/EPA/Landov
75EnvironmentEven environmental temperature can lead toaggressive acts. Murders and rapes increasedwith the temperature in Houston.
76Frustration-Aggression PrincipleA principle in which frustration (caused by theblocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal)creates anger, which can generate aggression.
77Learning that Aggression isRewardingWhen aggression leads to desired outcomes, onelearns to be aggressive. This is shown in bothanimals and humans.Cultures that favor violence breed violence.Scotch-Irish settlers in the South had more violenttendencies than their Puritan, Quaker, & Dutchcounterparts in the Northeast of the US.
78Observing Models of AggressionSexually coercive menare promiscuous andhostile in theirrelationships withwomen. Thiscoerciveness hasincreased due totelevision viewing of R-and X-rated movies.
79Acquiring Social ScriptsThe media portrays social scripts and generatesmental tapes in the minds of the viewers. Whenconfronted with new situations individuals mayrely on such social scripts. If social scripts areviolent in nature, people may act them out.
80Do Video Games Teach or ReleaseViolence?The general consensus on violent video gamesis that, to some extent, they breed violence.Adolescents view the world as hostile whenthey get into arguments and receive bad gradesafter playing such games.
82The Psychology of Attraction1. Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerfulpredictor of friendship. Repeated exposure tonovel stimuli increases their attraction (mereexposure effect).A rare white penguin bornin a zoo was accepted after3 weeks by other penguinsjust due to proximity.RexUSA
83Psychology of Attraction2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximityaffords contact, the next most important thingin attraction is physical appearance.BrooksKraft/CorbisBrooksKraft/Corbis
84Psychology of Attraction3. Similarity: Similar views among individualscauses the bond of attraction to strengthen.Similarity breeds content!
85Romantic LovePassionate Love: An aroused state of intensepositive absorption in another, usually present atthe beginning of a love relationship.1. Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal2. Arousal from any source can enhance oneemotion depending upon what we interpret orlabel the arousalTwo-factor theory of emotion
86Romantic LoveCompanionate Love: A deep, affectionateattachment we feel for those with whom our livesare intertwined.CourtshipandMatrimony(fromthecollectionofWernerNekes)
87Companionate LoveEquity: A condition in which peoplereceive from a relationship in proportionto what they give.Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimateaspects of oneself to others.
AltruismAn unselfish regard for the welfare of others.88
89Bystander InterventionThe decision-making process for bystanderintervention.AkosSzilvasi/Stock,Boston
90Bystander EffectTendency of any givenbystander to be lesslikely to give aid if otherbystanders are present.
91ConflictConflict is perceived as an incompatibility ofactions, goals, or ideas.The elements of conflict are the same at all levels.People become deeply involved in potentiallydestructive social processes that have undesirableeffects.
92Enemy PerceptionsPeople in conflict form diabolical images of oneanother.George Bush“Evil”Saddam Hussein“Wicked Pharaoh”http://www.cnn.comhttp://www.aftonbladet.se
93Superordinate Goals are shared goals thatoverride differences among people and requiretheir cooperation.CooperationCommunication and understanding developedthrough talking to one another. Sometimes it ismediated by a third party.SyracuseNewspapers/TheImageWorks
94Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives inTension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategydesigned to decrease international tensions.One side recognizes mutual interests andinitiates a small conciliatory act that opens thedoor for reciprocation by the other party.Communication