Preview Question 8: Is intelligence a single general ability or several distinct abilities?
Preview Question 9: What is creativity, and what fosters this ability?
Preview Question 10: Is our ability to manage our own emotions and to empathize with others a form of intelligence?
Preview Question 11: When and why were intelligence tests created?
Preview Question 12: By what criteria can we judge intelligence tests?
Preview Question 13: Is intellect influenced more by heredity or by environment?
Preview Question 14: How, and why, do ethnic and gender groups differ in aptitude test performance?
Preview Question 15: Are intelligence tests biased and discriminatory?
Chapter 11 intelligence
2IntelligenceIntelligence What Is Intelligence? Theories of Intelligence Assessing Intelligence Genetic and EnvironmentalInfluences on Intelligence Group Differences in IntelligenceTest Scores
3IntelligenceDo we have an inborn general mental capacity(intelligence)? If so, can we quantify thiscapacity as a meaningful number?
4What is Intelligence?Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability tolearn from experience, solve problems, and useour knowledge to adapt to new situations.In research studies, intelligence is whatever theintelligence test measures. This tends to be“school smarts.”
5Intelligence: Ability or Abilities?Have you ever thought that since people’smental abilities are so diverse, it may not bejustifiable to label those abilities with only oneword, intelligence?
6General IntelligenceThe idea that general intelligence (g) existscomes from the work of Charles Spearman(1863-1945) who helped develop the factoranalysis approach in statistics.Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things
7General IntelligenceSpearman proposed that general intelligence (g)is linked to many clusters that can be analyzedby factor analysis.For example, people who do well on vocabularyexaminations do well on paragraphcomprehension examinations, a cluster thathelps define verbal intelligence. Other factorsinclude a spatial ability factor, or a reasoningability factor.
8Contemporary Intelligence TheoriesHoward Gardner (1983, 1999) supports the ideathat intelligence comes in multiple forms.Gardner notes that brain damage may diminishone type of ability but not others.People with savant syndrome excel in abilitiesunrelated to general intelligence.
9Howard GardnerGardner proposes eight types of intelligences andspeculates about a ninth one — existentialintelligence. Existential intelligence is the ability tothink about the question of life, death and existence.
10Robert SternbergSternberg (1985, 1999, 2003) also agrees withGardner, but suggests three intelligences ratherthan eight.1. Analytical Intelligence: Intelligence that is assessedby intelligence tests.2. Creative Intelligence: Intelligence that makes usadapt to novel situations, generating novel ideas.3. Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that is requiredfor everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts).
11Intelligence and CreativityCreativity is the ability to produce ideas that areboth novel and valuable. It correlates somewhatwith intelligence.1. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base.2. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novelways.3. A Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeksnew experiences rather than following the pack.4. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative fromwithin.5. A Creative Environment: A creative and supportiveenvironment allows creativity to bloom.
12Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence is the ability to perceive,understand, and use emotions (Salovey andothers, 2005). The test of emotional intelligencemeasures overall emotional intelligence and itsfour components.
13Emotional Intelligence: ComponentsComponent DescriptionPerceive emotionRecognize emotions in faces,music and storiesUnderstand emotionPredict emotions, how theychange and blendManage emotionExpress emotions in differentsituationsUse emotionUtilize emotions to adapt or becreative
14Emotional Intelligence: CriticismGardner and others criticize the idea of emotionalintelligence and question whether we stretch thisidea of intelligence too far when we apply it to ouremotions.
15Assessing IntelligencePsychologists define intelligence testing as amethod for assessing an individual’s mentalaptitudes and comparing them with others usingnumerical scores.
16Alfred BinetAlfred Binet and hiscolleague ThéodoreSimon practiced a moremodern form ofintelligence testing bydeveloping questionsthat would predictchildren’s futureprogress in the Parisschool system.
17Lewis TermanIn the US, Lewis Termanadapted Binet’s test forAmerican schoolchildren and named thetest the Stanford-BinetTest. The following is theformula of IntelligenceQuotient (IQ),introduced by WilliamStern:
18David WechslerWechsler developed theWechsler AdultIntelligence Scale (WAIS)and later the WechslerIntelligence Scale forChildren (WISC), anintelligence test forschool-aged children.
19WAISWAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 otheraspects related to intelligence that are designed toassess clinical and educational problems.
20Principles of Test ConstructionFor a psychological test to be acceptable it mustfulfill the following three criteria:1. Standardization2. Reliability3. Validity
21StandardizationStandardizing a test involves administering the testto a representative sample of future test takers inorder to establish a basis for meaningfulcomparison.
22Normal CurveStandardized tests establish a normal distributionof scores on a tested population in a bell-shapedpattern called the normal curve.
23ReliabilityA test is reliable when it yields consistent results. Toestablish reliability researchers establish differentprocedures:1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into twoequal halves and assessing how consistent thescores are.2. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on twooccasions to measure consistency.
24ValidityReliability of a test does not ensure validity.Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposedto measure or predict.1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a testmeasures a particular behavior or trait.2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a testin predicting a particular behavior or trait.
25Extremes of IntelligenceA valid intelligence test divides two groups ofpeople into two extremes: the mentally retarded (IQ70) and individuals with high intelligence (IQ 135).These two groups are significantly different.
26High IntelligenceContrary to popular belief, people with highintelligence test scores tend to be healthy, welladjusted, and unusually successful academically.
27Mental RetardationMentally retarded individuals required constantsupervision a few decades ago, but with asupportive family environment and specialeducation they can now care for themselves.
28Flynn EffectIn the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risensteadily by an average of 27 points. Thisphenomenon is known as the Flynn effect.
29Genetic and EnvironmentalInfluences on IntelligenceNo other topic in psychology is so passionatelyfollowed as the one that asks the question, “Isintelligence due to genetics or environment?”
30Genetic InfluencesStudies of twins, family members, and adoptedchildren together support the idea that there is asignificant genetic contribution to intelligence.
31Adoption StudiesAdopted children show a marginal correlation inverbal ability to their adopted parents.
32HeritabilityThe variation in intelligence test scoresattributable to genetics. We credit hereditywith 50% of the variation in intelligence.It pertains only to why people differ from oneanother, not to the individual.
33Environmental InfluencesStudies of twins and adopted children also showthe following:1. Fraternal twins raised together tend to showsimilarity in intelligence scores than fraternaltwins raised apart.2. Identical twins raised apart show slightly lesssimilarity in their intelligence scores thanidentical twins raised together.
34Early Intervention EffectsEarly neglect from caregivers leads children todevelop a lack of personal control over theenvironment, and it impoverishes their intelligence.Romanian orphans with minimalhuman interaction are delayed in their development.
35Schooling EffectsSchooling is an experience that pays dividends,which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increasedschooling correlates with higher intelligence scores.To increase readiness for schoolwork,projects like Head Start facilitate leaning.
36Group Differences in IntelligenceTest ScoresWhy do groups differ in intelligence? How can wemake sense of these differences?
37Ethnic Similarities and Differences1. Racial groups differ in their averageintelligence scores.2. High-scoring people (and groups) are morelikely to attain high levels of education andincome.To discuss this issue we begin with two disturbingbut agreed upon facts:
38Racial (Group) DifferencesIf we look at racial differences, white Americansscore higher in average intelligence than blackAmericans (Avery and others, 1994). EuropeanNew Zealanders score higher than native NewZealanders (Braden, 1994).White-Americans Black-AmericansAverage IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85Hispanic Americans
39Environmental EffectsDifferences in intelligence among these groups arelargely environmental, as if one environment ismore fertile in developing these abilities than theother.
40Reasons Why Environment AffectsIntelligence1. Races are remarkably alike genetically.2. Race is a social category.3. Asian students outperform North Americanstudents on math achievement and aptitude tests.4. Today’s better prepared populations wouldoutperform populations of the 1930s on intelligencetests.5. White and black infants tend to score equally wellon tests predicting future intelligence.6. Different ethnic groups have experienced periodsof remarkable achievement in different eras.
41Gender Similarities and DifferencesThere are seven ways in which males and femalesdiffer in various abilities.1. Girls are better spellers2. Girls are verbally fluent and have large vocabularies3. Girls are better at locating objects4. Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, and color5. Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement6. Boys outperform girls at math problem solving, butunder perform at math computation7. Women detect emotions more easily than men do
42The Question of BiasAptitude tests are necessarily biased in the sensethat they are sensitive to performance differencescaused by cultural differences.However, aptitude tests are not biased in the sensethat they accurately predict performance of onegroup over the other.
43Test-Takers’ ExpectationsA stereotype threat is a self-confirming concernthat one will be evaluated based on a negativestereotype.This phenomenon appears in some instances inintelligence testing among African-Americansand among women of all colors.