Eye-tracking Study
on Different Types of 3D Visualization

Stanislav POPELKA

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Ours Laboratory
• Remote Eye-tracker
• SMI RED 250

• SMI Experiment Suite 360°
• OGAMA
• eyePatterns
www.eyetracking.upol...
Evaluation of 2D and 3D terrain visualization
• DualMap experiment
• SingleMap experiment
• Questionnaire

www.eyetracking...
DualMap experiment
• 11 stimuli
• 40 participants (20 cartographers vs. 20 noncartographers)
• Stimuli were designed as a ...
Task: From which red point, all other points are visible?
www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Examined stimuli

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Analyses of questionnaire

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Analyses of DualMap experiment
• On the significance level α = 0.05 no
statistically significant difference in dwell time
...
Analyses of DualMap experiment
• Differences between dwell time values based on the order of
maps in the stimuli were also...
Analyses of DualMap experiment
• The boxplot shows dwell time values for 3D AOI for each stimuli
• The order of the AOI in...
Attention map – weight fixations by length – Gaussian kernel 200

Areas of Interest – number of fixations in AOI

www.eyet...
Other types of stimuli
• Two pairs of stimuli from Czech map portal
„Mapy.cz“ were used
• 3D effect in this maps is create...
Find lookout
„Krašov“

Find hill
„Milešovský kloc“

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Find lookout „Krašov“

Dwell Time

70%
60%
50%
40%
2D

30%

3D

20%

10%
0%
2D-3D

Answer in AOI

Fixation Count
45
40
35
...
Find hill „Milešovský kloc“ Time
Dwell
70%
60%
50%

40%
2D

30%

3D

20%
10%
0%
2D-3D

3D-2D

Answer in AOI

Fixation Coun...
Analyses of DualMap experiment
• Results indicates, that DualMap experiment
design was not suitable
• Respondents percepti...
SingleMap experiment
• Total of 15 stimuli in the experiment

• 40 respondents (20 cartographers, 20 noncartographers)
• S...
www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Analyses of SingleMap experiment
• Four stimuli were selected and analysed using
“Scanpath length”
– Length of the scanpat...
Analyses of SingleMap experiment

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Analyses of SingleMap experiment
• Wilcoxon test was used again to investigate differences
between scanpath lengths for “2...
Analyses of SingleMap experiment

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
Conclusion
• DualMap experiment
– respondents perception was influenced with the order of the maps in
the stimuli more tha...
Thank you for your attention…
eyetracking.upol.cz
standa.popelka@gmail.com

www.eyetracking.upol.cz
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Stanislav Popelka - Eye-tracking study on different types of 3D visualization

  1. 1. Eye-tracking Study on Different Types of 3D Visualization Stanislav POPELKA www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  2. 2. Ours Laboratory • Remote Eye-tracker • SMI RED 250 • SMI Experiment Suite 360° • OGAMA • eyePatterns www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  3. 3. Evaluation of 2D and 3D terrain visualization • DualMap experiment • SingleMap experiment • Questionnaire www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  4. 4. DualMap experiment • 11 stimuli • 40 participants (20 cartographers vs. 20 noncartographers) • Stimuli were designed as a pair of maps in 2D and 3D side by side. • Task: Which kind of visualization will be prefered when searching for answer on spatial query? • We tried to avoid influence of the left-right location of the stimuli • Two versions of stimuli - on the first one, 2D map was presented on the left side, 3D on the right. On the second version vice versa. www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  5. 5. Task: From which red point, all other points are visible? www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  6. 6. Examined stimuli www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  7. 7. Analyses of questionnaire www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  8. 8. Analyses of DualMap experiment • On the significance level α = 0.05 no statistically significant difference in dwell time for any of the studied (5) stimuli was found Wilcoxon test of Differences between dwell time in 2D and 3D map visualization www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  9. 9. Analyses of DualMap experiment • Differences between dwell time values based on the order of maps in the stimuli were also tested with use of Wilcoxon rank sum test • There was found a statistically significant difference in three of five observations www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  10. 10. Analyses of DualMap experiment • The boxplot shows dwell time values for 3D AOI for each stimuli • The order of the AOI in the stimuli is described by “2D-3D” and “3D-2D” label • Dwell time value is higher in all cases for the „3D-2D“ variant, where 3D map was on the left side of the stimuli www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  11. 11. Attention map – weight fixations by length – Gaussian kernel 200 Areas of Interest – number of fixations in AOI www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  12. 12. Other types of stimuli • Two pairs of stimuli from Czech map portal „Mapy.cz“ were used • 3D effect in this maps is created by hillshading • You can turn it on and off www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  13. 13. Find lookout „Krašov“ Find hill „Milešovský kloc“ www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  14. 14. Find lookout „Krašov“ Dwell Time 70% 60% 50% 40% 2D 30% 3D 20% 10% 0% 2D-3D Answer in AOI Fixation Count 45 40 35 30 25 2D 20 3D 15 10 5 0 2D-3D www.eyetracking.upol.cz 3D-2D 3D-2D 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2D 3D 2D-3D 3D-2D
  15. 15. Find hill „Milešovský kloc“ Time Dwell 70% 60% 50% 40% 2D 30% 3D 20% 10% 0% 2D-3D 3D-2D Answer in AOI Fixation Count 14 30 12 25 10 20 8 15 2D 10 3D 2D 6 3D 4 5 2 0 0 2D-3D www.eyetracking.upol.cz 3D-2D 2D-3D 3D-2D
  16. 16. Analyses of DualMap experiment • Results indicates, that DualMap experiment design was not suitable • Respondents perception was influenced with the order of the maps in the stimuli more than with differences between 2D and 3D visualization • For further analyses, use of SingleMap experiment should be more appropriate www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  17. 17. SingleMap experiment • Total of 15 stimuli in the experiment • 40 respondents (20 cartographers, 20 noncartographers) • Stimuli were presented in the random order. • Within subject study • To avoid the learning effect, maps with 3D visualization were rotated or the question was modified a bit. www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  18. 18. www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  19. 19. Analyses of SingleMap experiment • Four stimuli were selected and analysed using “Scanpath length” – Length of the scanpath in pixels • According to Goldberg et al. (2002), a longer scanpath indicates less efficient searching • Contrast to this assertion, group of cartography experts had longer scanpaths than novices in all cases www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  20. 20. Analyses of SingleMap experiment www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  21. 21. Analyses of SingleMap experiment • Wilcoxon test was used again to investigate differences between scanpath lengths for “2D” and “3D” maps • (always the pair of maps – T01-T02 and T03-T04) • Statistically significant difference was found between map 3 and 4 (in case of novices, and generally if neglecting groups). www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  22. 22. Analyses of SingleMap experiment www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  23. 23. Conclusion • DualMap experiment – respondents perception was influenced with the order of the maps in the stimuli more than with differences between 2D and 3D visualization • SingleMap experiment – cartography experts had longer scanpaths than novices in all cases – Statistically significant difference between scanpath length was found between map 3 and 4 – Scanpath comparison results indicates that respondents approach is different during perception of 2D and 3D visualization • More experiments regarding 2D and 3D visualization will be performed… www.eyetracking.upol.cz
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention… eyetracking.upol.cz standa.popelka@gmail.com www.eyetracking.upol.cz

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