MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION
DOUGLAS W. NAFFZIGER
JEFFERY S. HORNSBY
DONALD F. KURATKO
By Group 10
Model of Entrepreneurial Motivation
This research proposes a Model that integrates the interactive
aspects of models proposed by Researcher’s involving in :
Venture start up process, Entrepreneurship.
Integrative model of motivation. (From the field
of Organizational Behavior)
Model in this Research exhibits :
An implementation to outcome relationship describing various factors
the start up decision with issues of strategy formulation, implementation
and sustained entrepreneurial behavior.
Suggests various hypothesis for future research.
GARTNER AND CARLAND (1988)
Focus on the Process of the Entrepreneurship instead of the Entrepreneur
Entrepreneurship is a Multidimensional Process and Entrepreneurial traits are just a
component of the process.
Multidimensional Factors leading to INNOVATION.
GREENBERGER AND SEXTON (1988)
Model that incorporated individual Characteristics and Environmental Influences.
HERRON AND SAPIENZA’S AND LEARNED (1992)
Motivation plays an important role in New organization creation
Consequently Theories of Organization Creation that don’t address this trait are Incomplete
PORTER AND LAWLER’S (1968)
Integrative model of Motivation which describes the process by which entrepreneur
decide whether or not to engage in entrepreneurial behavior.
Search for personality differences-1980
Traits that distinguished were
Need for achievement, Locus of control, Risktaking property(Brockhaus, 1982)
Energy level, Conformity, Need for
Autonomy(Sexton & Bowman, 1986)
Persistence & Dominance(Neider, 1987)
Desire to build something of one’s own(Knight)
One’s attitude about one’s self(Greenberger &
To change from a given life path
To start a company
Peers, family, mentors, role models, teachers,
respected public figures and writers
Partial Social alienation
Psychological &Physical dispositions
Level of Aspiration: Every individual has a different
as an abstract image of what they aspire to
create which serves as a guide for future action.
(Greenberger & Sexton, 1988)
level of aspiration based on individual characteristics and
situations. (Herron & Sapienza, 1992)
It is believed that the personal goals of an entrepreneur
will influence his decision and shape the eventual business.
Shapero(1984) – factors
↘societal attitudes toward business
↘economic conditions of the market
effect situations, in turn stimulate
entrepreneurs to take decision
should evolve into successful ventures.
and evaluation of idea.
their previous due to the “Pull”
Perceived Implementation-Outcome Relationship
Perceptual interpretations made by the
entrepreneur play a key role in motivational
of the relationship between the
entrepreneur’s managerial strategies and firm
stronger the relationship is perceived to
be, the stronger will be the motivation to
succeeding strategies, strategy
implementation and management of the firm.
Perceived Expectation-Outcome Relationship
that out comes will
meet or exceed expectations.
of extrinsic and intrinsic
may vary from individual to
⁺Independence, autonomy &
and profit growth
Entrepreneurs will be motivated to behave entrepreneurially as long
as they view that behavior being effective.
Firms performance may influence an entrepreneur but its only a
part of the picture.
Goal achievement and not performance
An entrepreneurial tendency can be sustained as long there is a
belief that there is no other viable option
H1: Entrepreneurs enter new venture creation with a goal set
relevant to them personally and is not limited to performance
H2: Actual and perceived outcomes of the firms are compared with
the expectations or goals set by the owner
H3: Future entrepreneurial behaviors are based on the results of
the perceived outcome as compared to the expectations.
H4: Entrepreneurs expectations will change over time
H5: Entrepreneurs will define their expectations in broader terms
than the current traditional performance measures