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Vertigo
 

Vertigo

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A presentation on Vertigo and its treatment

A presentation on Vertigo and its treatment

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    Vertigo Vertigo Presentation Transcript

    • Vertigo and its treatment with Betahistine
    • Index
      • What is vertigo.
      • Symptoms of vertigo.
      • Causes of vertigo.
      • Complications of vertigo.
      • Current therapies of Vertigo.
      • Betahistine.
      • Indications of Betahistine in details
      • Mode of action of Betahistine.
      • Your words .
    • INTRODUCTION
      • 25 % of population will experience dizziness , with or without vertigo at some point of their life.
      • Older people experience more frequently that younger one.
      • All vertigo comes with dizziness , but reverse is not true.
    • What is Dizziness
      • Feeling of light-headedness due to
      • Anxiety / Panic disorder / Mood disorder
      • Cardiovascular problem
      • Medications like sedative , hypnotics etc.
      • Problems with the chemical changes within the body like hypoglycemia
    • Symptoms of dizziness
      • Light-headedness.
      • Motion sickness or nausea.
      • Faintness or weakness
    • What is vertigo
      • > Vertigo is a strong feeling of movement or spinning when you are actually still.
      • >It may also worsen and make you vomit .
      • >These episodes of vertigo are not constant .
    • Symptoms of vertigo
      • Sense of movement of yourself and objects around you .
      • An illusion of spinning and circling .
      • Worsened with head movements.
      • Episodes come and go .
      • Nausea and vomiting .
      • Ringing in the ears .
    • CAUSES
      • Motion sickness .
      • Abnormality in the inner ear .
      • Central &peripheral vestibular disorders .
      • Menieres disease.
      • Labrinthitis
    • Current Therapies for Vertigo
      • Life style changes (low salt ).
      • Anticolinergics (does not cross BBB)
      • Antihistamines
      • Benzodiazepines (addiction)
      • Antiemetics (side effects like restless ness ,EPS prostrate enlargement, drowsiness.)
      • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) 
      • Anti emetics and Anti vertigo agent-Betahistine
    • Description
      • Betahistine dihydrochloride is a white crystalline powder and very hygroscopic in nature .
      • Composition : 16mg &24mg tablets contain 16mg and 24mg Betahistine dihydrochloride respectively .
      • A histamine H 1 -agonist with an intrinsic activity equal to that of histamine and an H 1 -agonistic activity of about 0.07 times that of histamine – Not affect wakefulness
      • A potent H 3 -receptor antagonist – Effective in central and peripheral vestibular disorders
        • Histavert exhibits H1 Agonistic and H3 Receptor antagonistic action .
        • H1receptor activation stimulates the release histamine
        • Betahistine when acts as agonist at H1receptor it increases the release of histamine . (histamine release causes vasodilatation in the blood vessels .)
      Mode of Action
    • Betahistine
        • Betahistine when acts as H3antagonist(H3 receptors controls histamine release .
        • Antagonist activity causes histamine release .
        • That means because of H1 Agonistic activity&H3 antagonist activity there is vasodialation .
      • Histamine is an amine.
      • It regulates physiological functions and also acts as neurotransmitter.
      • Histamine is stored in mast cells .
      • Mast cells are present all internal body surfaces and blood vessels .
      • Histamine exerts its action by combining with specific receptors .
      • There are four histamine receptors .
      • H1 Receptors – present in smooth muscle .endothelium ,CNS .
      • H2 Receptors – present in parietal cells ,
      • H3 Receptors – present in brain and peripheral regions .
      • Agonist – It is substance that binds to the receptor and triggers the response .
      • Antagonist- it is substance that inhibits the normal function of the receptors .
    • PHARMACOKINETICS
      • Rapidly and completely absorbed from the GI tract
      • Metabolized to primary metabolite-2-pyridylacetic acid
      • Plasma half life : 3.4 hours
      • 90 % of the orally administered excreted within 24 hours through urine
    • INDICATIONS
      • Menieres Disease
      • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
      • Peripheral Vestibular Vertigo
      • Labrynthitis
      • Tinnitus
    • Inner ear
      •  
       
    • Ménière’s disease
      • Ménière’s disease is one of the most common causes of dizziness originating in the inner ear due to abnormality in the fluids in the inner ear .
    • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
      • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is an inner ear problem that results in short lasting, but severe, room-spinning vertigo.
    • Peripheral Vestibular Vertigo
      • If vertigo results from a disorder in the peripheral vestibular system (i.e., structures of the inner ear).
      • It also may occur due a disorder in the central vestibular system (i.e., vestibular nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum). In some cases, cause is unknown.
    • Labyrinthitis
      • Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of labyrinth (a system of intercommunicating cavities and canals in the inner ear).
      • The syndrome is defined by the acute onset of vertigo, commonly associated with head or body movement.
    • Tinnitus
      • It is the perception of sound in the ear when no external source is present .
    • Dosage and Administration
      • > 24 - 48 mg administered orally in divided doses.
    • CONTRAINDICATION
      • Patients hypersensitive to Betahistidine
      • Patients with Peptic Ulcer
      • Patients with pheochromocytoma`(tumor in the adrenal medulla ,increased secretions of neurotransmitters )
    •