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Basic Thermodynamics
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Basic Thermodynamics



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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic Thermodynamics Concepts
    • Heat.
    • System.
    • State.
    • Path .
    • Process.
    • Cycle.
    • Property .
  • 3. Contd..
    • Process - Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process .
    • Path - The series of state through which a system passes during a process is called a path
    • Cycle - A process with identical end states is called a cycle .
  • 4. A review of basic thermodynamics: A refresher The ball represents mass exchange The arrow represents energy exchange
  • 5. Zeroth Law of thermodynamics
    • The Zeroth Law deals with thermal equilibrium and provides a means for measuring temperatures.
    • Difference between thermal equilibrium and Thermodynamic equilibrium.
  • 6. Zeroth Law of thermodynamics
  • 7. First Law of thermodynamics
    • The first law is the law of conservation of energy.
    • The algebric sum of the work transfers is proportional to the algebric sum of heat transfer.
  • 8. Limitations of First Law
    • It does not place any distinction on the direction of the process under consideration.
    • It will not help to predict, whether the system would undergo a change or no. It simply states that in a certain process heat and work are mutually convertible.
  • 9. Second Law of thermodynamics
    • The Second law of clausis states that
    • It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the removal of heat from a body at one temperature and the absorption of an equal quantity of heat by a body at a higher temperature.
  • 10. Second Law of thermodynamics contd..
    • The Second law of Max Planck’s states that
    • It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process whose sole purpose is to convert all the heat supplied to it into equivalent amount of work.
  • 11. Few Examples
    • Some common examples.
    • All processes in nature occur unaided or spontaneously in one direction. But to make the same process go in the opposite direction one needs to spend energy.
  • 12. Third Law of Thermodynamics
    • It is impossible by any procedure no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to the absolute zero temperature in a finite number of operations .
  • 13. Summation of three laws
    • You can’t get something for nothing
            • To get work output you must give some thermal energy
    • You can’t get something for very little
            • To get some work output there is a minimum amount of thermal energy that needs to be given
    • You can’t get every thing
            • However much work you are willing to give 0 K can’t be reached.
  • 14. Definitions of Reversible Process
    • A process is reversible if after it, means can be found to restore the system and surroundings to their initial states.
    • Some reversible processes:
    • Constant volume and constant pressure heating and cooling -the heat given to change the state can be rejected back to regain the state
  • 15. Reversible Process (contd…)
    • Isothermal and adiabatic processes -the work derived can be used to compress it back to the original state.
    • Elastic expansion/compression (springs, rubber bands)
  • 16. Some Irreversible Process
  • 17.  
  • 18. Thermodynamic Processes
    • A process in which the volume remains constant
    • constant volume process. Also called isochoric process / isometric process
    • A process in which the pressure of the system remains constant.
    • constant pressure process. Also called isobaric process
    • A process in which the temperature of the system is constant.
    • constant temperature process. Also called isothermal process
    • A process in which the system is enclosed by adiabatic wall.
    • Adiabatic process
  • 19. Rankine Vapor power cycle
  • 20. T-s diagram Rankine power cycle
  • 21. P-V diagram Rankine power cycle
  • 22. Rankine Cycle contd…
    • Process 1-2: Water from the condenser at low pressure is pumped into the boiler at
    • high pressure. This process is reversible adiabatic.
    • Process 2-3: Water is converted into steam at constant pressure by the addition of heat
    • in the boiler.
    • Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion of steam in the steam turbine.
    • Process 4-1: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser to convert condensate
    • into water.
    • The steam leaving the boiler may be dry and saturated, wet or superheated. The
    • corresponding T-s diagrams are 1-2-3-4-1; 1-2-3’-4’-1 or 1-2-3”-4”-1.
  • 23. Thermal efficiency of rankine cycle
    • Consider one kg of working fluid, and applying first law to flow system to various processes with the assumption of neglecting changes in potential and kinetic energy, we can write,
    • δ q - δ w = dh
    • For process 2-3, δw = 0 (heat addition Process), we can write,
    • ( δ q )boiler= (dh )boiler =(h3-h2)
  • 24.  
  • 25.