GENDER andDEVELOPMENT (GAD) MYLENE B. GARCIA GAD School Coordinator Baesa Elementary School
The Global Gender Gap 2011 Rankings - Top 20Country 2011 Score* 2010 ChangeIceland 1 85.3% 1 0 →Norway 2 84.0% 2 0 →Finland 3 83.8% 3 0 →Sweden 4 80.4% 4 0 →Ireland 5 78.3% 6 1 ↑New Zealand 6 78.1% 5 -1 ↓Denmark 7 77.8% 7 0 →Philippines 8 76.9% 9 1 ↑Lesotho 9 76.7% 8 -1 ↓Switzerland 10 76.3% 10 0 →Germany 11 75.9% 13 2 ↑Spain 12 75.8% 11 -1 ↓Belgium 13 75.3% 14 1 ↑South Africa 14 74.8% 12 -2 ↓Netherlands 15 74.7% 17 2 ↑United Kingdom 16 74.6% 15 -1 ↓United States 17 74.1% 19 2 ↑Canada 18 74.1% 20 2 ↑Latvia 19 74.0% 18 -1 ↓Cuba 20 73.9% 24 4 ↑* Scores produced on zero-to-one scale and can be roughly interpretedas percentage of gender gap that has been closed.
GAD was developed in the 1980’sas an alternative to the Women inDevelopment (WID) approach .
Unlike WID, the GAD approach is not concernedspecifically with women, but with the way in which asociety assigns roles, responsibilities andexpectations to both women and men.GAD applies gender analysis to uncover the ways inwhich men and women work together, presentingresults in neutral terms of economics and efficiency.
Caroline Moser developed the Moser Gender PlanningFramework for GAD-oriented development planning inthe 1980’s while working at the Development PlanningUnit of the University of London. Working with CarenLevy, she expanded it into a methodology for genderpolicy and planning. The Moser framework follows theGender and Development approach in emphasizing theimportance of gender relations.
The World Bank was one of the first internationalorganizations to recognise the need for Women inDevelopment, appointing a WID Adviser in 1977. In 1984 the bank mandated that its programs considerwomens issues. In 1994 the bank issued a policy paper onGender and Development, reflecting current thinking on thesubject.This policy aims to address policy and institutionalconstraints that maintain disparities between the gendersand thus limit the effectiveness of development programs.
OUTLINE• SEX AND GENDER: HOW DO THEY DIFFER?• WHAT IS GENDER SOCIALIZATION?• THE SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZATION AGENT• GENDER SOCIALIZATION IN OTHERLEARNING SETTING• GENDER-FAIR EDUCATION
“An extremely importantpart of an individual’sidentity and one that beginsat least at birth, is gender.-- Dr. Kenneth Cushner, American ProfessorHuman Diversity in Education: An Intercultural Approach
It is more than just knowing that youare male or female. -Cushner, 2012
SEX GENDERCategorized as male or Masculinity and femininityfemale Socially, culturally andBiological historically determinedFixed at birth Learned through socializationDoes not change across Varies over time and spacetime and space Unequally valuedEqually valued (masculinity as the norm)
“Sex is a biological characteristics;gender is a social characteristics. -Cushner, 2012
Gender identity includes knowledge of alarge set of rules and expectations forwhat boys and girls should wear, howthey should speak and act, and their‘place’ in the overall structure of thesociety. Cushner, 2012
- Race- ethnicity- social class- religion and- geographical region Cushner, 2012
If a father does the household work,he is considered as “under the saya.”
Men are better leaders andadministrators than women.
It is the woman’s fault if she is beingharassed sexually when she iswearing skimpy clothing.
It is not proper for a girl to say“I love you” first to a boy.
The mother should be the only oneresponsible for child-rearing andparenting.
Socialization – is the process bywhich social norms, roles andexpectations are learned andinternalized. Gender Socialization – is the process by which norms and expectations in relation to gender are learned by women and men.
Gender stereotype – a form ofprejudgment, bias or limitationgiven to roles and expectations ofmales and females.
GENDER INVOLVES THEDIFFERENTIATIONSattributed by a given culture to womenand men, in the following aspects: 1. social roles 2. capacities 3. traits and characteristics
1. Gender Stereotype in Social RolesMen Women provides financially for • takes care of the the family house and children Works as managers, • Works as nurse, construction builders, teacher, secretary engineers • Portrayed as followers Portrayed as leaders
2. Gender Stereotype in Capacities WomenMen • good in arts and less intellectual pursuits good in Math and Science • Physically weaker and fragile Physically strong • Wishy-washy or fickle Firm decision-makers minded in decision- making
3. Gender Stereotypes in Traits and CharacteristicsMen Women active • passive aloof • Loving Aggressive • Peaceful Independent • Dependent brave • fearful
AREAS OR CHANNEL OFSOCIALIZATION 1.Family 2.Church 3.Mass Media 4.School
FamilyRuth Hartley notes 4 processes involvedin gender socialization:1. Manipulation – means that people handlegirls and boys differently as infants. Example: Mothers tend to use more physical stimulation on male infants and more verbal stimulation on female infants. Boy babies are tossed in the air. Girl babies get more delicate handling.
2. Canalization – means that people directchildren’s attention to gender-appropriateobjects Example: In the choice of toys, boys are given toy cars and machines, girls are given dolls and tea sets. Toys teach children what their prescribed roles in life will be
3. Verbal Appellation – telling childrenwhat they are and what is expected ofthem. Example: Brave boy, pretty girl Boys don’t cry, girls don’t hit playmates
4. Activity exposure – familiarizingchildren to their gender-appropriate tasks Example: Girls help their mother with housework. Boys are encouraged to play outside the house
churchGender roles in Christianity varyconsiderably today as they have duringthe last two millennia. This is especiallytrue with regards to marriage andministry.
A. Instructional Language • The use of generic words to refer to both girls and boys Example: he, his, man • The use of stereotyped language Example: freshman… first year student mankind…. humanity fisherman …fisher folk chairman ….chairperson
B. Classroom Management • Assigning of groups – ( boys and girls together not boys against girls) • Tasks given by teachers • Discipline
C. Instructional Materials 1. Textbooks 2. Direct teaching materials 3. Peripheral teaching materials
A. LanguageB. Instructional MaterialsC. Dep-Ed Core Messages on GenderFair Education (part of GAD program)• Shared parenting• Shared home management• Shared decision-making
Shared Parenting• Taking care of the baby• Helping the children with theirhomework• Disciplining the children
Shared Home Management• Fixing the house, cleaning thehouse• Doing laundry• Going to market• Cooking, preparing the table,washing the dishes
Share Decision Making• Family council• Giving permission to children• Deciding for the affairs of thechildren
THE BIASED TEACHERBlurred consciousnessIndirectly builds consciousnessAlarmingly unconsciousSupportive of a false consciousnessEnacts a different consciousnessDelays ‘real’ learning
THE GENDER-SENSITIVE TEACHERCares to give fair recognition of both gendersOpposes language use that restricts gendersMakes proper addresses a mustBrings forth messages with sensitivityAvoids exclusionary expressions; andTreats all individuals with tactand sense
As teachers, we play a majorrole in creating schoolenvironments that are free ofgender bias and inencouraging both male andfemale to reach their highestpotentials in work andabilities.
National Capital Region Division of City Schools TAnque District BAESA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Caloocan City ANNUAL GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD) PLAN AND BUDGET FY: 2012-2013 PROGRAM/ACTIVITY/ GENDER GAD OBJECTIVE IDENTIFIED GAD TARGET GAD GAD BUDGET PROJECT ISSUE/CONCERN ACTIVITY PERFORMANCE INDICATOROrienting the School Lack of knowledge Inform the school One-day GAD Principal 100% attendance P50.00 (snack/head)Personnel regarding GAD regarding Gender And personnel regarding Orientation Program GAD School Coordinator of the school X 42 (school personnel)Programs & Projects Development Program GAD Programs & Date: May 28, 2012 Teaching Staff personnel P 2,100.00 (History, Laws and projects Venue: Computer Utility Workers + P 250.00(hand-outs) implementing Room Security Guards guidelines) P 2,350.00Designating the School Lack of school Organize the school Organization of GAD Principal 100% attendanceGAD Coordinator and personnel top carry- GAD core group to be School Committee GAD Coordinator and realization ofmembers of GAD Core out the GAD Programs led by the School GAD Date: June 7, 2012 GAD Asst. Coordinator the GaD ProgramsGroup and Projects Coordinator Venue: Principal’s Guidance Coordinator & Projects Office MOOE-In-Charge Makabayan/HEKASI Coordinator EPP Coordinator Music Coordinator Art Coordinator PE Coordinator EKAWP CoordinatorCreating a School GAD Absence of GAD Create a School GAD Creation of GAD Data- BEIS/EMIS School-in-Charge Available GAD (DocumentationData-based system data/information in Data-based System as based on BEIS/EMIS related data in the Expenses: clearbook, CDs, the School BEIS/EMIS part of the BEIS/EMIS Files BEIS/EMIS files etc. ) P 1,000.00Revising the School GAD Programs & Include the GAD Revision of Principal Submission of the (Documentation Expenses)Improvement Plan (SIP), Activities were not Program & Activities SIP,AIP,APP and GAD School Coordinator Revised P 350.00Annual Implementation included in the in all School Plans Makabayan Subject Master Teachers SIP,AIP,APP andPlan (AIP), Annual previous school plans and corresponding Action Plans MOOE-In-charge MakabayanProcurement Plan (APP) budgets Date: June to August, Property Custodian Subjects Actionand Action Plans of All 2012 All MAkabayan Coordinators PlanMAkabayan Subjects SGC
Informing the Internal Inadequate Information One-Day GAD Advocacy Campaign Principal 100% participation of P50.00 (snack/head)And External knowledge of the dissemination of to Stakeholders GAD School Coordinator stakeholders X 100 (participants)Stakeholders regarding School’s GAD Plans and Date: Aug. 31, 2012 GAD School Committee P 5,000.00GAD Stakeholders activities Venue: Stage/School Ground Supreme Pupil + P 1,000.00(speaker’s regarding GAD Government (SPG) honorium) plans and activities Teachers’ Club Officers + P 1,000.00 (materials/hand- HRPTA President outs) SGC P 7,000.00Organizing a Lecture Inadequate Greater One-day Lecture Forum on Gender Principal 100% attendance and P50.00 (snack/head)Forum on Gender knowledge of understanding on Sensitivity / Gender Equality GAD School Coordinator participation in the X 37 (teaching staff)Sensitivity / Gender teachers regarding Gender Sensitivity Date: Oct. 26, 2012 GAD School Committee lecture forum P 1,850.00Equality Gender sensitivity / Gender Equality Venue: Computer Room Teaching Staff + P 1,000.00(speaker’s /gender equality honorium) + P 500.00 (materials/hand-outs) P 3,350.00Organizing a Film Unawareness of Awareness of One-Week Film Showing on GAD School Coordinator 100% realization of the P 1,000.00 (1week snack ofShowing for Grades 4, pupils on their pupils regarding Children’s Right and Responsibilities GAD School Committee objective organizer)5 & 6 Pupils regarding Rights and their Rights and Date: Feb. 10-14, 2012 Grades 4, 5 & 6 Pupils + P750.00 (DVD/CD)Children’s Rights & Responsibilities Responsibilities Venue: Computer Room Teacher-Advisers P 1,750.00ResponsibilitiesOrganizing a Inadequate Thorough One-Day Symposium on Gender Principal 100% realization of the P50.00 (snack/head)Symposium regarding knowledge of understanding of Sensitivity And Women’s Right GAD School Coordinator objective X 100 (participants)on Gender Sensitivity, parents on how to parents on gender Date: March 15, 2012 GAD School Committee P 5,000.00Women’s Rights and protect their rights sensitivity and Venue: Stage/School Ground Parents in the community + P 1,000.00(speaker’sother related Laws against violence, women’s right honorium) sexual + P 1,000.00 (materials/hand- harassment, rape, outs) and other issues P 7,000.00 GRAND TOTAL P22,800.00Prepared By: Submitted By: Noted By: Date: MYLENE B. GARCIA MELANITA B. PANTALLA ROBERTA R. STA. INES 23/05/2012 GAD School Coordinator Principal II District Supervisor