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Osteology of head and face
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Osteology of head and face



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  • 1. The osteology of head & neck
  • 2. Main bones included:
    • Somatic bones
    • Skull with mandible
    • Cervical vertebrae (all 7)
    • The hyoid bone develop from 2 nd &3 rd brachial arches
  • 3. The following bones The mandible The hyoid bone The cervical vertebrae
  • 4. Points to remember
    • Skull cap is developed by intramembraneous ossification i.e. a 1 stage process.
    • Base of skull is developed by intracartilaginious ossification i.e. is 2 stage process.
    • We cannot feel the weight of brain because it floats in the cerebrospinal fluid.
    • All joints are mostly sutures in skull; only a few are primary cartilaginous & 1 pair of synovial joint i.e. TMJ.This is the only mobile joint.
  • 5. Introduction to skull
    • Definition: skeleton of head is called skull.
    • Several bones joint together to form “cranium”.
    • Consist of overall 22 bones.
  • 6. Skull is further divided into two parts:
    • calvaria/ brain box.
    • Facial skeleton.
  • 7. 1. calvaria/brain box
    • Upper of cranium which encloses the brain.
    • Composes of the following “8” bones.
    • Paired bones
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Unpaired bones
    • Frontal
    • Occipital
    • Sphenoid
    • ethemoid
  • 8. 2. Facial skeleton
    • rest of the skull excluding the calvaria along with the mandible.
    • Composed of 14 bones:
    • Paired bones
    • Maxilla
    • Zygomatic
    • Nasal
    • Lacrimal
    • Palatine
    • Inferior nasal cocha
    • Unpaired bones
    • Mandible
    • vomer
  • 9. The face
    • Facial vein communicates with the cranial venous sinuses. Thus infection from the face thus can each the brain.
    • The most dangerous area of the face is between the nasal opening and upper lip but the whole face is overall considered dangerous from the infection point of view.
  • 10. The scalp
    • The extent of scalp:
    • Anteriorly :extends from supra orbital margin
    • posteriorly:extends from external occipital protuberances and superior nucchal lines
  • 11. Structure of the scalp
    • Has 5 layers:
    • Skin:
    • Outermost layer
    • Thick and hairy
    • Contains large number of sebaceous glands hence liable to have sebaceous cyst
    • Richly supplied by blood vessels.
    • It is adherent to epicranial aponeurosis through the dense superficial fascia, as in palms and soles
  • 12.
    • Superiorficial fascia
    • Second layer
    • Dense and fibrous in middle and thin in the periphery.
    • It has vessels and nerves
    • Clinical significance: injury to scalp deep up to this layer causes profuse bleeding, bleeding can be arrested by pressing against the skull. inflammation of this layer causes little swelling and more pain.
  • 13.
    • 3.Deep fascia(epicranial aponeurosis/galea aponeurotic)
    • Third layer
    • Freely movable on the pericranium along with the skin and superficial fascia
    • Anteriorly,it has insertion of frontalis muscle and posteriorly insertion of occipitalis and is attached to the external occipital protuberances and to the highest nuctal lines between occipital bellies.
    • Each side of aponeurosis is attached to the superior temporal line but sends a thin expansion to the temporal fascia and is attached to the zygomatic arch
  • 14.
    • 4. Alveolar tissue
    • Fourth layer
    • Extends anteriorly to the eyelids because frontalis muscles doesn’t have any bony attachment;posteriorly to highest and superior nuchal lines and to the superior temporal fascia.
  • 15.
    • 5. Pericranium
    • Fifth layer of the scalp
    • Loosely attached to the bone
    • But at the sutures it is firmly bounded with endocranium.
  • 16. The scalp layers
  • 17. Nerve supply (innervations)
    • There are total 10 nerves which supplies scalp and temple.
    • 5 nerves behind the auricle and 5 infront of the auricle.
  • 18.
    • 5 nerves infront of the auricle are:
    • Supratrochelar nerve of the frontal.(optalmic division of the trigeminal nerve)
    • Supraorbital nerve of frontal.(optalmic dividion of trigeminal nerve)
    • Zygomaticotempral branch of zygomatic nerve(maxillary division of trigeminal nerve)
    • Auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
    • Motor nerve:temporal branch of facial nerve
    • 5 nerves back of the auricle:
    • Posterior division of great auricle nerve (C2,C3) from cervical plexus.
    • Lesser occipital nerve of C2 of cervical plexus.
    • Greater occipital nerve of division of C2of dorsal ramus
    • Third occipital nerve of C3 of dorsal ramus
    • Motor nerve:posterior auricular branch of facial nerve.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Arterial supply
    • Two sets of arteries 5 on each side,3 are before backward auricle:
    • Pre auricular:
    • Supratrochelar –opthalmic branch of internal carotid sheath
    • Supraorbicular-opthalmic branch of internal carotid sheath
    • Superficial temporal-external carotid sheath
    • Two arteries behind the auricle:
    • Posterior auricular artery
    • Occipital artery
  • 21.  
  • 22.