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  • 1. ffituffi$Effims' *ffffig# HB ,s+i# *i$r nr:rsg F-ry i-Esffii?--ffi
  • 2. r::;,:: i$-:'.*!e::: 1-?_ the snowcausedby u+ avalanche?
  • 3. ',r avalanche r,, trigger , , vibration ,. aCCOUnt for descend humidity gradation variance residual facet cascade inverted slab fortified cohesive velocity steepness leeward crucial n. a fall or slide of a large inass of snow, ice, or rock down a mountainside v. to start or initiate -syn. activate, cause n. a shaking or quivering nrotion or movement idiom. to be responsible or the cause for -syn. bring about, result in ,: to move from a higher place to a lower place *ant. ascend n. a condition of wetness or dampness of the air -qyn. moistness /r. a process or change thror"rgh a number of degrees or levels ,r. a state of being different or able to change -syn.variation rl acqumulated adj. being built up or prled -syn. gathered, collected adj.beingthe leftover or characteristic of something that remains -syn.lingering n. a smooth, flat surface rr falling or flowing of something -e.g,wate:1:all, adj.beingplaced or positioned so that the top and bottom are reversed -s7n. upside-down n. aflat, tliick, solid piece of something -e.g. stone adj.b'eingincreased in strength or power -s7n. strengthened, toughened adj. sticking or staying together -syn. unified ,?. a measlrrement of a distance travelled per unit of time -syn. speed n. the state or degree of a decline or incline of something -q7n gradient adj. movingtoward the direction in which the wind is blowing -ant.windward adj.l>eing important, severe, or dangerons -syn. critical 30
  • 4. Complete lhe sentences using lhe words in the box with the appropriate lorm. avalanche trigger descend gradation vartance accumulated residual inverted fortified ieelvard 4- L Hundreds of people were made homeless by the flood, and many residents were still lvorried about its effects. l. The army constructed the fort with massive walls and a heavily gateway. swept Cown a major summit in the Mont Blanc range" We started a bonfire on the being blown out. side of the hillto keeP it from -;. The government is trying to discover new ways of lolt'ering income tax rates rn depending on the tax basis. 6. Nearly 50 people rvere kilied in the landslide by the heavy rainfail. The this area. S. q grou'n in The skier through the flags with ease. in season temperatures affect the quality of the crops down the slope at maximum speed, zigzaggtng paper on my desk, there is no Because of the amount of space for me to #ork. 10. There are various reasons why bats choose to iive an lifestyle. rJrite the appr0priate word in the blanks using the synonym Glues' l. speed: L unified: -3. bring about, result in: 31
  • 5. WhenSnowslides ffiffiffi Taking Notes While reading, note the factors that bring about an avalanche. Mfing a Chart While reading, make a chart of the differences between a sluff and slab avalanche. An avalanche is the sudden sliding or movement of alarge atea of earth down a mountain. It consists of a mixture of materials, such as snow, ice, rock, and soil. Avaianches are usually triggered by changes in temperature, sound vibrations, or vibrations in the earth. The size and force of most avalanches pose serior:s dangers for both life and .' property and account for many iives lost each year. In order to understand hotv avalanches occur, it is important to understand the properties of snow that enable tons of snow to descend down a mountainside. f'he most important of the properties is the shape of the snow crystals. Depending on humidity, temperatllre, or other atmospheric conditions, snow crystals can aPPear in many dif- ferent shapes. The most common shape, and the one that creates the most stable snow layer, is the hexagon. However, the shape of a snow crystal can change due to ternperature gradation, or variances in tem- perature, within an accumulated amount of snow or snowpack. Snow crystals that are closer to the grouud's residual heat form facets, or rounded areas, which reduce a snow crystal's abiliry to form a strong layer- Heavily faceted crystals,located deep in the snowpack, make the snow highly unstable, leading to avalanches. 10 '15
  • 6. Weak layers of snow directly lead to an avalanche. If the weak ,-.:r is located near the top of the surface, it can cause a sluff, or a :rt cascade of loose, powdery snow that forms an inverted V-shape ,, i: moves down a mountain. If the weak layer of snow is located deep- ,- -.'ithin the snolvpack, it can cause a far more dangerous avalanche .--,-rivri as a slz,b avalanchJ. In this tlpe of avalanche, a fortified and - - resive layer of snow rrakes up the avalanche, whose strength -.pends on properties of the slab and the depth of the weak layer. : -,bs that contain wet or moist snow will generally move at slower ..rcities but will impact objects with a greater force than other slabs. .:,rth-$- -' i: ..r ', . :. lt 25 33
  • 7. Lastly, an avalanche needs a certain steepness to a slope to be able to occur as well as a trigger to set it off. Avalanches usually occLrr on slopes that are between 25 and 60 degrees to the ground. Slopes that are less than 25 degrees are not steep enough for an avalanche. Slopes beyond 60 degrees generally only have sluff avalanchei because there is no opportunity for a slab avalanche to develop. Most avalanch- es occur on mountainsides with 35 degree slopes. They also take place on leeward slopes that are facing against the winds direction" Although factors, such as the snow crystal shape, depth of the failure layer, and slope steepness, are all crucial comPonents that can bring about an avalanche, what an avalanche stili needs is a catalyst to get it a1l going. Surprisingly, most avalanches are triggered not by nature but by humans who also end up becoming victims by getting caught in the path of an avalanche. ffiffi 1'slab avalanche an avalanche that occurs rvhen stronger snorv overlies weaker snolv 'sluff avalanche an avalanche of loose snow dorvn a Ilountainside 35 40
  • 8. E EC tf I --Je cr False Write T if statements are true or F il statements are lalse according to the passage. 1. ). 4. 5. Avalancires consist of only snorv and ice. Avalanches can occllr and develop on any degrees of slopes. A sluff avalanche is less dangerous than a slab avalar-rche. Vibration in temperature causes the shape of a snow crystal to change. The stronger the layer of snorv is, the more dangerous ihe avalanche will become. : "':rcn5im & Relerence Choose the best answers. 1 The word "properties" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to a. houses b. belongings c. attributes d- securities -t The word "unstatrle" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to a. changeable b. reversible c. shaky d. unsteady The word "irnpact" in the third paragraph is ciosest in meaning to a. connect b. compact c. influence d. bump The word "it" itr the fifth paragraph refers to a. an avalanche b. a trigger c. a factor d. the failure layer ,). +. 35
  • 9. Insight & UnderstanrJing Choose the best answers. 1' which of the following is NoT mentioned as a calrse of an avalanche? a. changes in temperature b. sound yibrations c. mankind d. lightning 2- According to the passage, rvhich of the folowing can affect the shape of snow crystals? a. amount of snou.fall b. angle of mountain slope c. weather condition.s d. height of a mountain 3' According to the second paragraph, what is the best ,vay to understand how ayalanches occur? a. sampling difference cases in which avajanches occurred b. measuring tlie speed of snow falling fiom the sky c' studfng the different types of snow crystals and their af,Fects on avalanches' d. measuring different wind speeds and their effects on avaranches What i, th" *oi, idea of the thirci paragraph? a. Weak layers of snow affect the occurrence of avalanches. b' Slab avalanches cause bigger probrems than sluffavaranches. c. To u,derstand how avalanches occ,rr, it is iinportant to ,nderstancl the properties of snow. d' Avalanches need a slope that is betrveen 25 and,60 degrees to occur.
  • 10. 5. Vl4rich of the foilowing is NOT a major factor for causing avalanches? a. amount of snow b. shape ofsnow c. position of the weak laYer d. slope steePness Why is an avalanche more dangerous when it is caused by a weak layer of snow located deeper within the snowpack? a. because it is hard to notice the beginning of the avzLlanche b. because a more fortified and cohesir-e layer of snow makes up the avalanche c. because it usually makes an inverted V-shape crevice d. because it runs down on the slop faster 7. What is the best angle a slope should have in order for avalanches to occur? a . a 20 degrce sloPe b. a 65 degree sloPe c. a 35 degree sloPe d. a 90 degree sloPe What topic can 6e added after the last paragraph? a. Human causes that trigger avalanches b. The direction of wind that causes avalanches c . The erperiences of people who survived avalanches d. Countries where avalanches frequently occur 37
  • 11. Writing & Paraphrasing Answer the lollowing questions with complete sentences. l. What substinces are consisted in avalanches? How does the difference in the shape of snow crystals cause avalanches? 3. What are the characteristics of a sluff avalanche? What are the cha,racteristics of a slab avalanche? 5. In reiation to the wind, -where do rnost avalanches take place on the mounlain?
  • 12. Summary Summarize the passage in your own words. :-::-i YS be a,'r.,u},: to vs ci:t-i,]ili "can" is used to describe both ability and probability and can be replaced by "be able to.' But when used in the past tense, "could" and "was/were able to" are r-rsed differently; "'could" is used in a general situation which could have occurred at any time because :.rmeone has potential ability. However, "was/were able to" is used to describe a special ability for a particular situation- [hoose the best appropriate word in the parentheses as shown in the example. :.,- It ( is able to / can ) cause a far more dangerous avalanche known as a slab avalanche. A young boy fell into the river, but fortunately we ('rvere able to / could) rescue him. n. Don't forget that accidents (can / are able to) happer,. able to) beat anYbodY. ,1. lv{s. Baker did not want to get involved r,vith the current project at first, but rny boss (could / was able to) to persuade her'. 39
  • 13. '.,:,:i:.r:r.1.: r::r:li::.r: hemisphere biome habitat inhospitable stretch coniferous thrive hibernate adapted layer plain permafrost nutrient scarce scavenge adjacent shrub patch cluster n. a ha-lf of the Earth, either Northern or Southern by the equator, or Eastern or Western divided by a meridian n. an arear,vhere different plant and animal species survive under different climatic conditions -e.g. tundra, desert, prairie n. a natural environment lvhere people or living things are found adj.hadngunfavorable conditions for getling food, sheiter, or water -syn. desolate, harsh z to spread or widen over an area or place -s7n. ertend adj. relattngto or being part of trees or shrr-rbs that bear cones and evergreen ieaves v. to do well, develop, or multiply -s7n. flourish v. to sleep or rest in seclusion dr-rring the rviltcr months adj.betng changed or improved to better fit an environnent or situation -s7n. adjusted n. a covering of thickness that a body or surface n. a large, relatively flat, and usually treeless area of land -syn. prairie n, an area of iand that has been frozen for rwo or more years n. a chemical, inorganic, or organic substance, essential for life or living adj.beroghard to find or rare -syn. insufEcient, few z to take or remove fiom discarded material adj.l>eingnear or conuected to something -syn. bordering n, a plant smaller than a tree, usually hal'ing many stems growing {iom or near the ground -s7n. bush n. a small area of land, especially one which has a specific group of plants growing ?. to conle or grow ciosely together in the same arca -syn. bunch, group, gather 40
  • 14. Comptete the sentences using the words in the box with the appropriate lorm. hemisphere cluster Plain stretch hibernate inhosPitable scarce scavenge permafrost adjacent of the highestl. A hole is drilled 60 meters deep into the mountain to keep an eye on climate change- The Earth is divided into the Northern and Southern the equator -r. Ve have been forced to for food in garbage dumpsters because we cannot afford to buy food. The ranks of Anrericas wealthy are beginning to and reshape American sociefY. together !" Bears are prowling around neighborhoods as they are unable to - due to the unseasonable weather. People gasped at the r.iew of the broad t-trey looked on fiom the rnountaintop- The forests which for hundreds of miles are a source of pride in our towr. Because the resort was firlly booked, we stayed in a 1og cabin to it. To protect the inc.eusinglY native grasslands from ;evelopment, the local government declared thetn natural preservations' - group of scientists will attempt to tlavel across the South Pole, the coldest and rnost continent, to collecr samples of unidentified species' tnile the appropriate word in the blanks using the synonym clues. iourish: .aiusted: ::sh: by in amazernent as
  • 15. Alhere It NeverMeltsI I ffi?mfrBwffi Comparing & Contrasting Find differences of the taiga and tle tundra to understand the rrvo regions. Focusing on Specific Information Find information about the transition zone that exists between the taiga and the tundra. In the Northern Hemisphere, there are trvo areas that separate lhe Polar regions of the north from the warmer regions of the south. These biomes are naturar habitats knolvn as the taiga and the tundra. These two regions are both very cold and inhospitabre for most peo- ple, but for organisms capabre of surviving the extreme concritions. s these habitats are the places they cail home. The further north one goes to look for life, the less likeiy one is to find it. IJut even in the harshest and most desolate places on Earth, some iife can stil be The taiga is the worrd's rargest biome and is named after the 10 Russian word meaning "f,orest] The taiga stretches across siberia, Alaska, canada, and parts of Northern Europe. Througho,t the world, the taiga looks nearly the same. It is a large belt of coniferous trees like the fii, pine, and sprucJ. the animals that are able to thri,,-e in the taiga are ones that ca, resist the extreme cord and store large amounts of energy as body fat. Another trait contributing to survivar of the taiga species is the ability to hibernate through the coldest months- An exampre of an animar that can thrive in the taiga is the American black bear- The American black bear is weil acrapred to the cold weather because of its multiple layers of fur. They are arso able to i!! {i t: :: ii
  • 16. IJCIT ::, re enough caiories as body fat to keep them alive throughout win_ - -_1. The tundra draws its na,re fi-om the Finnish word .,tunturil, --jch means "treeless plaini' It is known for its efirerne and almost :::=rt-like conditio,s. The tu,dra region is covered with permafiost .-d;h is land frozen nearly all year. The ground r.emains frozenmost . - ihe ,vear and melts partially in the summer. very little plant life .i r-,v's in the tundra si,ce the temperatures are too coid and the soil - -trients are scarce. For this reason, there are very few animals found -- the tundra. Al example of an animal that is able to live in the harsh - rditions of the tundra is the arctic fox, which has long fur that --'rnges color with the seasons and is able to live by scavenging off of .:=er hunters like the polar bear. "? 43
  • 17. Betlveen the taiga and the tundra, there is a transition zone which is called the forest-tundra. The forest-tundra is an ecotond that divides the area between hvo adjacent biornes and is the northern- most point where tr:ees are able to grow. The forest-tundra can take t',vo diffbrent forms.. The first is a v;icle area of ]oosely scattered trees separated by some low-lying shrubs. The second is an area with patches of trees clustered together, separated by wide and nearly empfF spaces. eiRN *fi1 a cor.riferous trec characterized by its triangrrlar-style of gronth, flat need.les, and erect cones - spruce a coniferous tree characterize<1 by its drooping cones ancr soft wood x ecotone the area betr'veen tlvo different piant env.ironrnents with its orvn characteristics 44 35 ,{0
  • 18. ! -i,e 0r FalSe Write T if statements are true or F if statements 1. -) {. _;. It is impossible to find any life in are false according to the passage. the harshesI environrner-rts in the Northern Hemisphere. The taiga covers the area of Siberia, Alaska, and parts of Northen'r Europe. The ground of the tundra stays frozen for the majority of the year causing plant life to be scarce. The arctic fox is an example of atr animal that is able to live in the tundra. The name "taiga" comes from the Russian word meaning "treeless plaini' i :,:cnym & Reference Choose the best answers. l. The word "it" in the first paragraph refers to a. north b. taiga c. life d. tundra l. The word "draws" in the third paragraph is closest in meatritrg to a. acquires b. illustrates c. fills up d. discovers -1. The worri "scarie" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to a. demanded b. abundant c. rare d. necessary -1. The word "transition" in the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to a. cxchange b. shift c. empty d. move 45
  • 19. f= Irrsight & UrrcierslarrcJirrrt L", Choose the best answers. 1. Which of the following is mentioned in the first paragraph? a. the types of species that inhabit the Polar regions b. the climate conditions of the taiga and tundra c. the difference befiveen the taiga and tundra d. the dimensions of the biomes What is a commonality between the taiga and tundra? a. The two regions are unsuitable for animals. b. Both regions are made of frozen lands. c. Pine trees can be found in the tlvo regions. d. The two regions are uninhabitabie for most people. Which of the tbllowing distingr-rishes befween the taiga and the rundra? a. the period of rvinter season b. thc shai:e of each region c. the range of each region d. the existence of trees 4. What is the correct order of the regions from the warmest to the coldest? a. tundra ' - taiga forest-tundra b. forest-tundra tundra taiga c. tundra forest-tundra taiga d. taiga forest-tundra tundra 46
  • 20. Which of the following is NOT a means of survival by taiga animais? a. storing large amounts of energ,y b. hibernating during the coldest months c. living in holes dug by the animals d. having fur made of many layers of hair According to the passage, what is correct about the tundra? a. The climate of the tundra is the coldest in the world. b. The ground of the tundra is permanently frozen- c - The soil is too infertile for trees to grow d. It is one of the biggest ecotones in the Northern Hemisphere. What is the best way the forest-tundra can be classified? a. a place for animals to hibernate b- an area that provides arrimals rvith sufficient food c. a boundary between the land and the Arctic Sea d. a boundary that separates the taiga and the tundra 8. What is the position of the forest-tundra in respect to other biomes? a. It is the north€rnmost point '"r'here animals are able to live. b. It is the northernmost point where crops are able to grow' c. It is the area wheie permafrost begins. d. It is the northernmost point u'here trees are able to grow. 7. 47
  • 21. Writing & Paraphrasinq Answer the following l. How are animals questions with complete senlences. able to surwive in the taiga? 2. What species of trees can be found in the taiga? Why are there not r.rrany plants growing in the tundra? what are the meanings of the words "tund.ra" and "taiga,, and rvhat are their origins? What are the two forms of the forest-tunclra?
  • 22. Summary Summarize I l the passage in Your own words. DonfusinE Words scarce insufficient in quantitY scare to frighten nearly almost or not comPletelY merely only, and nothing else or more throughout in everypart of something thorough ertremelY .u.efi-il further more or additional farther describes something distant in space or time partially in a certain degree(to some extent) partly not completely but in part(referring to a part or parts of somethilg) Dircle the appropriate word t0 complete each sentence' n. Please be patient and stay home until (farther / further) notice. l. Water is very (scarce / scare) in our town because of the infectious disease. l. He did not understand the concept of the book because he only (partially I parily) participated in the editing. 4. I (merely / nearly) had an accident on my way home fiom work' 5. Nowadays, most companies and organizations (throughout / thorough) the world conduct business using computers' 49
  • 23. tsef ore Ysu $tudy r opinions with your .i1l!i!l:%.':IE d. :.: iffir t. .ffii E B 5. *%gi ffffi.; K',il H"';' $J-" K'",(q! :','; ffi, ]r.,.EEf,E r44*l ryEd& *s o'*...€ *.,.=ai::*l ' g;:*: -i*$. ', '=:l=s.* , sr+e':- ::FE V:+3 : U**f , @ wi:do 8q, Hci a " -** a@ @ I '11 T-ll tY l. t(Jli-zl l_t :i, FC{r tJ rT1 ' f"-"1 r*q f*{ n *fi [* [* F- L- t* _l 46, daid eEEffiEt #,,q:!/ Aqg Fdc 1 '-]:il :', ,t::.--.::,:,: Have you ever had a conflictlrithin yourself? Did you ever lrant to do something that you knew was not right? Why do some people struggle with their inner conflicts? ,ffi "',t',tt.,,151 Are adults always right? What types of things do adults and children view differently? Why do you think adults and children have such different perspectives?
  • 24. i':;.:,':::r!,:rr,:, ;:.,:<ijl-:: i:;r' :r i:: adj. b eing lvell-known or celebrated -syn. famous idiom. to put one's attention on something -syn. focus on n. a special praise or acknowledgement for being the best -syn. award adj.benggready sought after -syn. desired n. an atea of land lvith little variation in elevation adj. relatrng to the author's biography or his own life n. a main character in a book, movie, play, etc. be annoyed or tired with someth *g sick of adj.bebg,living, cr doing things alone -syn. isolated ,1. a state of being or having tvvo parts or characteristics adj. relatingto animal characteristics, appetites, desires, etc. -ant- humanistic n. a man wl'ro is not married -syn. single man ad.i.having a problem, grear difficulry, or challen ge -syn. triclcy adj. attracting a group of followers rg an unusual, Lrnaccountable, or extraordinary event or occurrence -syn. incident n. the culture or lifesryle that opposes the traditional behaviors of sociery -anf, mainstream culture idiom. to be unhappy with or distrustfi.rl of -syn. be disappointed with y, to choose or seiect -syn. accept,embrace n. a person or thing that excites and influences the mind or feelings - sy n. rr]otiv ation, encouragemen t adj.beingset apart or separated frorn -syn. remote, solitary adj. being highly praised or liked by many people -s7n. farnous, acknowledged counterculture (be) disillusioned with adopt inspiration isolated acclaimed
  • 25. Complete the sentences using the words in lhe box with the appropriate lorrn. reno.w'ned coveted 1. The protagonist solitary duality problematic acclaimed bachelor adopt (be) disillusionecl with has been published worldwide as well as in the U.S. 2. She was repetitious work, so she decided to venture into a new career. 3. Teenagers are easily influenced by pop stars and tend to their viervs. 4. Winston Smith is a fictional character and the Orwell's novel, Nineteen Eighty - Four. 5. The U.S. retailers expect this year's holiday shopping season to be due to slower consumer spending. 6. In the auditorium, people are gathering to hear the r.vorld pianist, Greg I lopper 7. I like hiking in the mountains because of its calm and atmosphere. novel, A Tlrcusand Splendid Stms,by Khaled Hosseini of George 8. Norah |ones won five awards in total including the of The Year Award. The married man rfrorglr, about the clays back when he was a of war and peace is a contradiction that has existed since the history of mankind. Album 9. 10. Write the appropriate word in the blanks using the synonym clues. 1. remote, solitary: 2. be sick of: 3. focus on: 3.1
  • 26. Herneann F{esse's Intermal Conflict Hermann Hesse was a renowned German poet and novelist. He was born in 1877 in the town of Calw in southern Germany. Hesse wrote many novels during his lifetime, concentrating on themes of spirituality and Eastern religions, such as Hinduism. He was awarded many accolades for his works, including the coveted Nobei Prtze for Literature in I946. one of }{esse's most popular and well-read works is a novel titled steppenwolf, a name derived fron-r the lonesome wolves of the steppes, or flatlands. It was first published in 1927 and has since become a classic in literature and is considered one of the most famous literary works of the 20th century. Steppenwolf is a novel that is partly autobiographical and partly fictional. Hesse wrote the novel shortly after the breakup of his first marriage, ayery dififrcult period in his life. For this reason, the novel reflects on both the spiritual and personal crises which he was going through at the time of his writing. The main protagonist of the story, Harry Haller, is a lonesome man who is fed up with society and prefers to live a solitary life. His life is changed, however, when he meets a woman named Hermine, ffimffiffi Determining the Main Ideas of Hesse's Novel While reading, determine what }lermarur Hesse's novel, Stepp e nw olf, refl ected. Thking Notes the Effect of Steppenwolf Focus on and note how Steppenwolfaffected society. til
  • 27. - t introduces him to the pleasures of a sociai life, such as dancing - - music. 3 Orr. of the main themes, presented in Steppenwolf as well as - :tany of Hesse's other works, is the duality(two natures) that exists - ruman nature. s Thir is portrayed in Hatry Haller, who is torn :-.reerr his animalistic nature, represented by the wolf, and his iife as . -.:ldle-class bachelor. c Th. internal conflict is made rnore prob- -- =ric when Harry meets Hermine and begins to enjoy different - :,::ts of society. e -lthough stepperu,+tolf was written in the late 1920s, it would - -e until the 1950s that it gained cult status, making it a national . ," :---,,rrnefron. During that time, the younger generation of the Ir:rculture Movement in the U.S., disillusioned with the tradi- 'l ;ulture, adopted the book as one of their guides. Hesse would -t-rrrrrr€ot that many followers of this movement who claimed 3s - -,ok was a source of inspiration grossly misunderstood it- He felt :-rrnv of his readers focused on the difficulties and hardship of --,in character but did not appreciate the character's journey into t- 3B 55
  • 28. However, despite the misunderstanding of Steppenwolf's true essence, it is recognized by many readers as a literary classic. Even high-profile public figures, such as Pope Benedict XVI who named Steppenwotf one of his favorite novels, have spoken about the book. According to the P,ope, Hesse's masterpiece ex?oses the problems of an isolated and self-isolating human being. Even to this day, the high- ly acclaim ed Steppenwolf continues to grow in popularity, crowning Flermann Hesse as one of the most read German authors in the world. ffi * Counterculture Movement(r960-1973) a movement thtrt began in thc u.s. as a reactron against the con.senative government, social nornts of the 1950s, the political conservatism of the Cold War period, and the U.S. government's extensive rnilitary tension with Vietnam. Its adherents, mostly the young, rvhite middle class, tidopted a lifestyle that ernbraced personal freedom'wlu1e rejecting prir.rciples of capitalism, conformity, and repressive sexttal mores. 56 40 -rio11 4f,
  • 29. fr Itr True or False Write T if statements are true or F if statements are false according to the passage. 1. Hermann Hesse refused to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. There are both autobiographical and fictional aspects in Steppentolf. In Steppenwolf,Harry Hailer was able to resolve his personal problem through his encounter with Hermine. Steppenwolfwas appreciated worldwide when it was first published. Steppenwolfwas ack:rowledged as an importarrt book by those involved in the U.S. Counterculture Movement. Synonym & Reference Choose the best answers. l. The word "classic" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a. Qpical b. ideal c. masterpiece d. study 2. The word "fictional" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to a. existing b. imaginary c. popular d. worth l. The word ".oofli.a" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to a. clash b. bond c. combination d. agreement +. The lvord "it" in the fourth paragraph refers to a. Steppenwolf b. a source c. the U.S. Counterculture Movement d. the younger generation ., 3. 4. 5- I 57
  • 30. lrrsiglht & UrrrJerstaiidiitl,l Choose the best answers. l. what them6(s) did Hermann Hesse mostly focus on in his writing? a. unconditional love b. social justice c. Asian cuJture d. spirituality and Eastern religions 2. How did Hermann Hesse come up with the titre, steppenworf? a. It is one of Hesse's nicknames. b. It is from a combination of an animal and its habitat_ c. It is fiom the traditional story of a werewolf, d- It is from the name of the place where Hermann Hesse wrote steppenwolf. According to the passage, rvhat is one main theme of steppenu,olf? a. the importance of making an effort to protect endangerecl anirnals b. the need for keeping in contact with society c . the existence of trvo conflicting natures in people d. the growing pains of becoming an adult According to the passage, r,vhat was the main conflict within Harry Haller in Steppenwolf? . a. whether to love Hermine or not b. whether to believe in Christianity or Hinduism c - whether to be solitary and &ee or be connected to society d. whether to support the German government or not 5B
  • 31. _4. Where can the following sentence be inserted in the third paragraph? in. -otf riac of hisnaturc vants to Lrc alone n,rJ fi"" f,ronr socieryi, ,,,1"s. but the other side of his nature desires social contact. a. (Ij: D. c{!. c. ''.$:l; d.# What can be inferred fiorn the passage? a.}Jarry Haller's character in Steppenvolf isvery similar to its writer, Hermann Hesse. b. Hermann FIesse led the Counterculture Movement. c. Hermann Hesse wrote the book to express the conflict he had with his ex-rvife's social class. d. Hermann Hesse did not have the least interest in the Counterculture lvlovement. What two themes rvere used by Hennann Hesse in Steppenwof? Choose two answers. a. the strltggles of internal conflict b. being reborn frorn religious belief c. exploration of freedom d. searching for the meaning of l-ruman exi'stence Why clid Hermann Ilesse feel that many of his reaclers misunderstood Steppenwolf i a. because his readers used his book only as a guide for the U.S. Counterculture Movement b. because his readers focused on ttnly the relationship between Henry and Hermine c - because his readers understood only the rnain character's personality disorder d. because his readers appreciated only one aspect in his book 59
  • 32. Writing & Paraphrasing Answer the following questions with comprete sentences. 1. What is Hermann Hesse,s background? 2. lvhy is steppenwolfconsidered partly autobiographical and partly fictional? 3. How was H.arry Haller,s life changed after ineeting Hermine? How is Steppenwoift populariry related to the Counterculture Movenrent of the i960s? 5. What was the Pope's opinion in regards to Stepperu,volf?
  • 33. E Summary Summarize the passage in your own words. l:ai-ilrsler PEr-iS :,'ri:ig vs l,,rltiie '-during' and "while" are used to describe the time lvhen something happens. However,--during" is a preposition and "while" is a conjunction. Therefore,..during,, is followed by 3 noun or noun phrase, and "while" is followed by a clause or a participle phrase. t trile "during" 0r "while" t0 complete each sentence as shown in the example. :t - Durin€i that time, the younger generation of the Counterculture Moyement in the U.S., disillusioned with the traditional culture. reading this article. Christrnas break, what are you going to <Jo? my stay at the hospital, the nurses and doctors took good care of me, especially I r,vas in the intensive care unit. voll are 61
  • 34. C preYalent contrary literary extol exploit ordinary transcendent depict innocence puritf ecstatic from afar utter trailing illustrate admit sibling aclcnowledge n, a sudden, important change in sonrething, such as art, culture, or government -s7n. relbrmation y. to make aware or to become active -syn. stir, arouse adj.beingdominant or commonly accepted -syn. widespread ad] opposite in ideas, attitudes, or reactions adj. relattng to writers or literature v. to higtrly praise or glorify n. a heroic or brilliant action -,yn. feat, deed, achievement adj. rtorntil. and not special -syn. usual, cornmon adj. gttng beyond rvhat is normal or expected 1,. to portray or describe somethi,ng in lvords or pictures -s_,1,n. shorv, represent n. the state of being fiee liom wrong, guilt" or crime -syn. goodness, virtue a. the state of being free of sin or mcral lvrongness -slrr. pureness adj. feebng or expressing great joy -s7n. thrilled idiom. fiorn a long rvay or distance ^way -syn. from a distarrce adj.being great in eltent, degree, or amoLrnt -syn. absolute, total ad7'. following. coming afterward, or coming behind v, to explain or clarifi, thror.rgh the ttse of artlvork or writing -s7n. make ciear y. to acknolviedge that something is real or tr:ue -syn. profess n. one of rwo or more people rvho share the same parents -ag. a brother, sister y, to admit or recognize that sornething is true or exists -s7n. perceive l,:' I. 62
  • 35. Complete the revolution arvaken sentences using prevalent literary the words in lhe box exptoit utter with the appropriate form. ecstatic sibiing admit extol 1. Although he knew he made a terrible mistake, he could not that he had failed. 2. The pop star's death caused by drug abuse helped to the dangers of drugs. 3. The government would prefer gradual development as opPosed to an unexpected lle was about his long awaited prornotion as a partner. The media the people who had done so much to help the Chinese who lost their families and homes from the Sichuan earthquake- 6. Bill Gates is admired by many CEOs of businesses from all over the world because of his 7. 8- 9. You should take preventive drugs for malaria rvhetl you travel to countries rvhere the disease 1S To the amazement <jf her family and friends, she announced that she would A young girl, car5Ying her marry next month. on her back, cries as she looks for their Parents. 10. She was often told that she inherited her mother, who was a best selling author' Vrlrite the aPProPriate word 1. show, present: 2. from a distance: 3. perceive: in the blanks using lhe synonym clues- society 4. 5. talent from her 63
  • 36. A Poet of Childhood trnnocence ffiffi Underlining Wordsworth's Poetical Style Focus on what was reflected in Wordsrvorth's works and what ideology affected Wordsworth. Appreciating the Poems While reading, visualize lvhat Wordsworth's poems illustrate. @ Wi[iu* Wordsworth was a British poet famous for the poetry iroit that he wrote during the Romantic era of English literature. a At the turn of the 19m century, intellectuals and artists r^/ere greatly influ- enced by the spirit of revolution that was awakening around the worlcl. @ Revolutionary thinking was prevalent in Europe and this 5 was reflected in Wordsworths poetrl,. o His work was contrary to the styles and themes popular with the literary eiites, intellectuals, and artists, mostly concerned with extolling those with power. Instead of ernphasizing the erploits of the elite, such as those of kings and gen- erals, Wordsworth's poetry looked to nature and common life for inspi- r 0 ration. His literary work showed that the creative eye and imaginaticn
  • 37. iLCTE . - .e to reveal the most ordinary objects and ideas to be transcen- ., common theme irr the poetry of Wordsworth is the exploration - difference between the personal experience of life and the -.: of childhood. Wordsworth depicts early childl-rood tn Ode: "..'tions of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood as a - -,f innocence and puriry that is lost as an individual enters adult- :. The visions of a child are ecstatic and filled with deep wonder ..,-se the birth of a child'represents a miracle from heaven that has . -,. down to the Earth. in the poem, Wordslvorth rvrites; Cur birth is but a sleep and forgetting: The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star, i-{ath elsewhere its setting, and comes from afar: Not in entire forgetfirlness, .nd not in utter nakedness, Iiut trailing ciouds of glory do we come From God, who is our home. 20 b5
  • 38. Another poem in which Wordsworth depicts childhood as a time of innocence and purity is entitled We Are Seven; "Sisters and brothers, little maid, How many mayyou be?" "How many? Ser,rn in alll'she said, And wondering looked at me. In this poem, Wordsworth tells a simple story that illustrates the faith of a child. Throughout the poem, the voice of an aduit is shown ques- tioning a young child from the countryside about the number of sis- ters and brothers she has. FIer answer to this question, as it is put to her again and again in various ways, is always the same, "we are sevenl'Nthough the adult finally gets the child to admit that two of her siblings have died and are buried in the graveyard, he cannot get her to acknowledge their death. From the point-of-view of the child, her siblings are not dead at all but are known as spirits in heaven. gfttt$ ' hath pre.sent tense of the third person singlrlarr ftrrnr ol"hurve" 30 35 40
  • 39. Frieo T il stalements are true 0r F if statements are lalse according to the passage. William Wordsrvorth was not only a poet but also a revolutionist' 'l From the late 1800s to early 1900s, revolutionary spirit rvas rvidespread in Europe. wordsrvortlis poetry used styles and themes popular with the literary elites, intellectuals, and artists. wordsworth's poetry focused more on personal erperience influenced by childhood rather than adulthood' The narrator of the poem /e Are Seven is a child' : :.';ncrrYm & Reierence Chosse the best answers. 1. The word "this" in the first paragraph refers to a. revolutionary thinking that was prevalent in Europe b. great changes occurred involving the rights of kings c. style popular with the literary elites d. theme emphasizing the exploits of the generals 2. The word "emphasizing" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a ' relating b- differentiating c. stressing d. erPosing I j.Thelvord..utter',inthesecorrdparagraphisclosestinmeaningto a. iimited b. bare c. total d. emPtY f. The expression "point-of-view" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to a. scenery b' edge ofan area c. oPtimal vielv d. PersPective | ) of Write i. f. ), 67
  • 40. insight & Understanding Choose the best answers. 1. What ideology rvas predominant lvrote his poems? a. romanticism b. realism. c. classicism d. idealism in English literature during the time Wordsworth According to the passage, what is the source of lVordslvorth's inspiration? a. the sryles and themes popular among elites b. creative eye and imagination c. exploits of elite people d. nature and common life 3. A4rere can the following sentence be inserted in the first paragraph? In places like France, great changes occurred involving thc rights of kings versus rights of individuals. a. ii, b. ,s L . 'ill d. j,,B According to the passage, what can we get from William Wordsrvorth's literary r,vork? a. The general ideas about life can make people stable. b. Romantic poems and thoughts can make people more passionate and revolutionary. c. The imaginative eye and power can make the most common objects and ideas trar-iscendent. d. Innocent spirit and idea can mzrke ordinary objects superior. the i I I 6B
  • 41. 5. What can be inferred about Wordsrvorth'J a. William Wordsworth r,vas from a poor family in the countryside. b. Wiiliam Wordsworth enjoyed natural scenery and socializing with colnmotl people. c. William Wordsrvorth preferred to write poems for the privilegecl. d. William Wordsworth enjoyed ciose relationships with many famous intellectuals and artists. Arhat common theme is portrayed in Wordsworth's &vo poems mentioned in the passage'l a. revolution against dictatorship b. importance of personal experience of life c. immortality of early childhood d. irnocence and purity of childhood 7. Which words are used to describe the yisions of the child liom the second paragraph'? Choose trvo anslvers. a. excitement b. playfrrlness c. innocence d. curiosity Which of the fbllowing can be inferred fiom the last paragraph? a. Children and adults portray dcath differeritly. b. Children do not understand the concept of death. c. The child in the poem does not believe her siblings are dead. d. The child in the poem loves her sibling more than her parents- 69
  • 42. Writing & Paraphrasinq Answer the following questions with complete sentences. t. What is theldeological background of William Wordsworth? 2. What did the majority of poets r,vrite about during William Wordsworth's time? 3. What does Wordsworth envision in Ocle: Intirnntions of Immortality? How did Williain Wordsworth depict innocence and puriry of childhood in We Are Seven? 5. In We Are Seven, how is the child's interpretation of her siblings' death different fiom the adult's?
  • 43. -_,.. j Srummarize the passage in your own words. I -:ii;sielg Words poet somebodY rvho rt'rites Poems poetry literary rvorks rvritten in verse era a period of time error mistake or fault subtitle to give a secondary title to a book or play entitle to give name to something,such as a book literary relating to literature, rvriting' or the studY of Literature literature written lvorks, such as fiction, drama, Poetry acknowledge to recognize the reality or truth of something knowledge information and understanding about something ilircle the appropriale word l0 somplete each sentence' l. The music was used as the background music to the recitation of the (poet / poetrf)' :. He inheritecl his (literature / literary) talent and passion from his father -i. The breakout of World War i nrarked a new (era / error) in world history' {. The book, (subtitled / entitled) Harry Potter,was published in Korean to market to Koreans' _.). He did not want to (acknowledge / knowledge) his defeat because of his egregious mistake'
  • 44. ffieGffiffiff"*ir
  • 45. What are other ways of healing pain and treating illnesse5 medicine? what do you think about acupuncture? Do you believe iri effectiveness? Why do you think some people do not believe that acupuncture is a legitimate medical procedure?
  • 46. . : . . , .- 1 . .1 . y. to introduce or receive someone as a member -sln. inaugurate idiom. to stop living -s7n. die ,r. a statement or evidence in support of a fact -qyn; proof, verification ,r. a state of being worthy of esteem -tlrl respectability adj.berngimpaired in the body or mind -sya. handicapped adj.beingof great strength or power -syn. impressive fl. a state of always trying and never giving ,rP -syn. persistence, determination ailj.betngfree from control or restraint -ant. restrictei,d adj. havtng strong purpose, b elief, or determina tion - sy n. determined 1,. to start or apply something with a purpose -syn. execute adj.lnavinga physically strong and healthy body v. to aIlow or authorize an action n. an impression or track on a ground caused by repeated usage adj.havtngthe ability to perform an action -qyr. qualified v. to give something to someone as an honor or gift -q7n award rr. to improve, advance, or make greater -syn. heighten adj.hadnggreat respect or a high position -sytt. rcspected, significant v. to be ",vorthy or qualified for something -syrr. merit, warrant u to lry or attempt using great effort -syn, endeavor n. a thinking or awareness of -syn. view-, opinion n. anything provided or given by a past ancestor or predecessor adj.bengimpossible to do or win -syn. unbeatable 74
  • 47. Complete the sentences using the words in the box with the appropriate form. induct dignity disabled implement testimony prestigious enhance legacy perception insurmountable I. The Turner Prize is widely regarded as one of the most arvards. 2. The CEO had many business plans for the new year, but ultimately they were never 3. The young geisha rvas young age. into the ways of her profession at a 4. Tlie company's sales were dropping significantly, so a meeting was held to discuss ways to their products. The soldier carried himseif with his medal. as he walked up to receive Michael Jordan's slrccess as a basketball player lvas a to his rvork ethic. ;. Thirteen years after his assassination. people still gather at the square to remember the Prirrie Minister who left a of profound leadership. Having nuclear weapons comes with a great amount of risks. The general publiis' of North Korea is that it is a direct menace to world Peace. 10. Insufficient welfare proglams and convenient facilities fbr veterans should be imProved' write the appropriate w0rd in the blanks using the synonym clues. l. determined: ). die: -1. impressive: art 8- 9. 75
  • 48. Diana Golden: Ptrysically Disabled, Spiritually Unbreakable Diana Golden, a severely handicapped skier, is unquestionably one of the greatest athletes to ever compete in olympic sports. In 2o06,she was inducted into the u.s. olyrnpic Hall of Farne. Although she passed away in 2a07, her astonishing story has not been forgotten, and she remains an inspiration to millions of people. Her life is a testi- s mony to her unbreakable human spirit. Diana will be remembered for raising awareness and digniry for disabled athletes. Diana's early life showed clear signs of the formidable spirit ;rnd tenacity within her. she was born in 1963 in Lincoln, Massachusetts. An energetic youngster, Diana learned to ski at the age of five, taking to the sport with unbridled enthusiasm and passiorr.. o Seven years later, she would be faced with the first of many obstacles in her life when she lost her leg to bone cancer. @ with resoiute and fixed deter* mination, Diana continued skiing and kept in shape by jogging with crutches. s a high school ski coach was so impressed with her spirit that he asked her to join the school downhiil ski team. {} A y"u, latcr, Diana ''.von the downhill in the world championships for athletes with disabilities. Following her success as a disabled downhill skier, Diana strug- 15 ffiffimE Listing Words for Representing Diana Find the rvords t-hat are used to represent characteristics of Diana Golden and list them. Ivlaking Inferences Make inferences about Diana Golden by drawing logical conclusion. '1 0
  • 49. .:hardtobeallowedtoskiagainstathleteswhodidnotfacethe - .sical challenges she did' She persuaded companies to sponsor - promote athletes rr4ro were disabled. she also helped to in-rple- -.:ltlre..GoldenRule],whichenablesdisabledskierscompetingin :-bodied events to race as early seeds in all events sanctioned by .UnitedStatesSkiAssociation.Thisruleallowsdisabledskiersto .,1 ruts that form throughout the cor-npetition. Throughout her ,.:r,Dianawouidraceagainsttheworld'sbestskiers'andalthough . . :lever Von a race, She proved that she was capable of challenging '.:)estskiersintheworld'Withgreatdeterminatiotl'Dianawenton .. in 10 world and 19 u.S. downhiil championships for athletes rvith .:iiitiesandbecamestronglyinvoivedir-rpronrotingdisabledath_ :: and sPorts for the disabled' ?L 25 30
  • 50. After winning a gold medal in the handicapped giant slalorri in the Calgary Olympics in 1988, Diana was bestowed the downhill skier of the year award by the United States Otympic Committee. Diana also enhanced the recognition of disabled atiletes by winning an award traditionally given to able-bodied cornpetitors. in 1991, she received the Flo Hyman Memorial Award from the Female Sports Association, recognizing her as one of the top female athletes in the world. This put her in the company of great female athletes, such as tennis legends, Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert, fi,vo previous honorees of the prestigious award. Diana firmly believed that all individuais deserve to be treated with digniry and respect. Before her death, at the age of 38, Diana established the Golden Opportunities Fund, which gives financial support to young disabled athletes who are striving to be the best. Throughout her attrietic career, Diana fought for the dignified treat- rnent and perception of the disabled. Her legacy is one of individuals who refused to give in to seemingly insurmor-rntable challenges. Her life wili continue to inspire people all over the world. Weffi + slalom a downhill ski race in rvhich comprgllloy5 follow a winding course and zigzag throrigh flags on poles or othcr obstacles ' Flo Hyman Memorial Award Ihe Flo i-lyrnirr.r lVlerrorial Award was conferred annua-lly between i 987 and 2004 by the lVomen's Sporls Fourrdation in Washingrorr, D.C., United Srares. 7B 35 JO .15 50
  • 51. tl iiiI+;i.'5;r:i,:ii:ii; j;l - -: lr False $/riie T il statements are true or F il 1. t- Diana rvas inducted statements are lalse according to the passage. into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame when she rvas aiive. Tor,vards the end of her life, Diana rvas too weak from her disease to fight for the dignified treatment of the disabled. Diana losr her leg to bone cancer when she was 12 years old" Diana was famous for winning against non-disabled skiers' Diana proved that she was capable of racing against the best able-bodied skiers. +. i - ionym & lleierence Choose the best answers' l. The word "inducted" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a. requested b. voted c. inaugurated d. interpreted 2. The word "passion" in the second paragraph is closest in rneaning to a. caring b. zeal c - tage d. indifference 3. The word "Persuaded" irt a. pressured b. cheated c. solicited d. convinced the third paragraph is closest in meaning to 4. The word "This" in the fourth paragraph refers to a. The Female SPorts Association b. Receiving the Flo Hyman Memorial Award c. The top female athlete d. The U.S. OlYmPic Cornmittee
  • 52. Irrsighl & I,Jrtrjerstandirrg Choose the besl answers. l. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a characterisric of Diala? a. formidable spirit b. tenacity c. unbridled enthusiasm d. undignified manner where can the following sentence be inserted in the second paragraph? [:"t ru;"*. g r" r*rr. r*.""gty "d;;;.i;"*#;;rh* fril";a a, r;:9 b.s c. S d.@ 3. What is the n-rain idea of the third paragraph? a - Diana had a difficult tirne con'rpeting against non-disabled athletes. b. Diana won many championships in downhili skiing. c. Diana ,,vorked hard to be able to compete in non-handicapped competitions. d. Diana became a legend as a ski athlete. Acco.ding to the passage, what is the "Golden Rule" implemented by Diana? a. Treat others the way you would like to be treated. b. Companies should sponsor and promote disabled athletes. c - A competition should allow athletes to join without enor:gh money. d. Disabled athletes are placed in early seeds so they can avoid the worn olrt race paths.
  • 53. 5. According to the passage, what was er.:traordinary about I)iana receiving the Flo Ilyman Memorial Award? a. She was the first wornen to receive the award' b'Itwasherfirsttimetoreceiveaninterrrationalaward. c . The a ar<l had traditionaliy been granted to athletes without a handicap' d. it r,vas the first time for a ski athiete to receive the award. What is the mission of the Golclen Opportunities Fund founded by Diana? a. to give financial support to young female athletes b. to support potential skiers living in poor conditions c. to provide financial support for disabled athletes d. to shovr people that nothing is impossiblc :. which of the follorving is an accoinplishment achieved by Diana? a. she competed against able-boclied athletes and rvon several times against thetn' b. She won 3 gold medals in the irandiczrpped giant slalom during the calgary Olyrnpics. c. she won 10 worid championships against athletes with disabilities' d. She broke several,,n'orld records competing in dorvnhill races against able-bodied skiers. E. What CANNOT be inferred from the passage'/ a. Diana was an outstancling athlete who cared also about other disabled athletes' b. Diana had strong beliefs in the self-worth of all people' c. Diana,s death had a greater impact than what she accomplished during her lifetime. d. Ur1ited States Olympic Committee respected I)iana as one of the most valuable athletes. B1
  • 54. Writing & Paraphrasing Answer the lollowing questions with complete sentences. l. What exerriplary event during Diana's academic years illustrates her unbreakable spirit? 2. What action did Diana take to be allowed to ski against athletes without physical chailenges? 3. How did Diana help other disable athletes? 4. How does tlre "Golden Rule" help disabled skiers? 5. How did Diana contribute to the increased recognition of disabled athletes?
  • 55. Summary Summarize the passage in your own words. _''_-+.!1 !i:;,1i. i-!,1{r! : :i;i:. :r' 'later" is used to refer to -.lking about or after the a time or situation that occurs after the present one. one that vou have been ::vrile lhe sentences using "later" as shown in the example- - Diana learnecl to ski at'the age of five. When she became 12 years old, she would be faced with the first of many obstacles in her life' -+ I)iana learled to sl<i at the age of 1ive. Seven ye-ars later, slre u'ottlcl be facc'd u'ith tl're first of many obstacles in her iife. Wb planned to buy our house in 3 years. After the 3 years passed, we bought our own house' :. I got the station at noon, but he was not there. He showed up at 12:30. , My school soccer team lvas defeated in every game last year. But this year,'are made it to the finals by defeating all the opponents. o2
  • 56. c filiform prolifierate skepticism therapy predate be associated with maintain achieve manifestation disharmony principle rejuvenate merifian organ considerable sFmptom intestine relieve painkilling proof adj.l>eing the form of a thin srring or thread v. to rapidly increase in number or produce by multiplying rl. a state of doubt or questionin g *syn. disbelief ,r. a treatment process for a sickness, illness, or disability -sl,n. treatnlent r,. to happcn or occur at an earlier time -s72. precede idiom. to be joined or allied with -syn. be linked with v, to keep or sustail in a particular state -sl/r. retain v. to bring abor-it a successfi-rl result or end *syn. accomplish z. a clear understanding of the reality or existence of sometl.rlng -syn. indication, sign r. a presence ofconflict or difference -s7n. clash adj.bengan essential or basic quality -syn. fundamental y. to return or restore something to its former state n. a pathway in the body where essential energy flows n. an essential part of a living thing that does a special task or job re.{. heart,liver, kidney adj.beinglarse or great in locatron, distance, or size -s7n. significant n. a sign or indication of sickness, illness, or disease n. the tubular part of the body that connects the ston-rach to the anus y. to free frorn pain, harm, or fear -syn, reduce, ease,lessen adj.kavingthe ability to relieve or lessen pain n. sornething that provides evidence or truth -syn. evidence, confirrnation B4
  • 57. sentences using the words in the box with the appropriate form. Complete the therapy skepticism predate manifestation principle symptom disharmony proliferate painkilling considerable I. According to Eastern beliefs, our bodies are thrust into rvhen our immune systems are weakened. l. The city's plan to build three more foreign schools is drawing because it is already overflorving with foreign schools. -1. Because of his allergic reaction to peanuts, the man can suffer from a number like hives and r-tausea when he comes into contact with +. Although there is no accurate evideirce, music and the arts are believed to have agriculture and perhaps even language. Children are taught all the rules of the English language early on during their education. Scientists are alr.vays trying to discover use in surgery. of them. 6. nelv medicines to people's lives, is 8. 9. 7. Sleep. which takes up a amount of time in still a mystery to scientists. Many simple dishes that were once regional have now variation across the country. The institution offers educational conrses on physical issues certificates for those who want to become a physical 10. The of physical sl,rnptoms, such a sign of the disorder.and sleep disturbance, may be Write the appropriate word in lhe blanks using lhe synonym clues. evidence, confirmation: be linked with: retain: in and therapist. as muscle tension, fatigue. 1. ) 3. B5
  • 58. Marvels ofAcupuncture {ilg^tilllt$t{ilii{{S Making Associations Focus on what yin and yang represent and ryhat they are associated with. Highlighting the Process of Acupuncture Highlight how acupuncturists perform acupuncture in details. Acuprrncture is a technique used to cure disease, treat pain, and io'i improve general well-being. It requires the use of filiform, or thread- like needles, which are inserted in particular points around the body ca11ed acupuncture points. Acupunbture ,vas first practiced in China over 4,500 years ago and has since proliferated throughout the world. a However, lvhile commonly usecl and widely accepted as an effective medical treatment in many Asizrn countries, it is still met with skepti- cisrn and criticisra in the Western world.
  • 59. -.-- --Lruncture therapy predates the use of scientific methodolog}}, ::..,- of the practices are scientificaliy unexplainable by using 1u . ,natomf. Despite its mystery, acupuncture is considered to be : in treating a variefy of health problems' --. the root of acupullcture, there is an ancient Chinese belief ,-ng the nature of the universe and humanity. This universal -ship is represented by the y-in and yang which symbolizes the .':s of the universe. The half, called the yin, represents the .-e" principle and is passive, dark, and associated with the earth. : r'11g, opposite to the yin, is the "ma1e" elernent that is active, rnd related to the heavens. This belief e).presses the idea that the , rtate of health is accomplished by maintaining balance and achiev- -,,rnonybetweentheoppositeforces.Accordingtothisprinciple, ,-ness rises from a manifestation of disharmony and is the result of .:.ibalance betweel the two forces in the body. Therefore, the objec- - oI an acupuncture treatment is to bring tl-re principle elerrents _.. into balance and allow the "chil' a life-force, to flow freely and ,.-'-enate health. oi
  • 60. An acupuncture treatment involves the insertion of needles into any of the hundreds of points located on the body's twelve basic meridians. These ur.u, ,r. associated,"vith various organs and systems of the body. s Typically, the acupuncturist will insert the needle to depths ranging from 3mm to 10mm. @ O.r." the needles are placed in the appropriate acupuncture points, the acupuncturist will frequently twist the needles or even apply a smail electric charge to them. s Th. acupuncture needles are usually inserted at a considerable distance away from the actual areas that are manifesting signs of illness or showing sFmptoms. e Fo, example, the points on the thumb are punc- tured with needles to treat illnesses in the stomach or the intestines. How acupuncture works is stili a mystery to Western scientists and doctors. Many scientists theorize that acupuncture works by relieving pain. They believe when the needles are inserted at certain points, it causes the body to release natural painkilling chemicals like endorphins or enkephalins. Others theorize that acupuncture works through a "placebo effecil' or the power of belief. However, for much of the -arorld, the simple knowledge that acupuncture wt,rks for them is proof enough of the effectiveness of this mysterious practice. ffi * methodolog,F a set of procedures, rules, and practices used in a scientific process * anatomy thc body and structure of a living thing * placebo effect tlie beneficial eflect in a patient following r particular treatment thal arises from the patientt expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself ilrll f 30 ,iB BB
  • 61. ,- -: Faise /Erite T if statements are true or F if statements are lalse according to the passage' Acupuncture is the practice of inserting needles where the patn rs located. In the Western countries, acupuncture has not been fully accepted yet' The yin-yang spnbolizes the struggle between two opposites' Although the effectiveness of acuPuncture has not been scientifically proved, many people believe its effectiveness' Accor<ling to acupuncture, various bodily organs are represented by different points of the bodY. -,:rrm & Refeience Choose the best answers. i. The lvord "particular" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a. partial b. sPecific c. aPProximatelY d. severai ]'Theword..practices,,inthesecondparagraphisclosestinrneaningto a. apPlications b. exercises c. repetitions d. customs ' i. The wortl "them" in the fourth paragraph ref'ers to a. electric charge b. needles c. acuPuncture Points d. organs and sYstems 1. The word "effectiveness" in the fifth paragraph is closest in meaning to a. possibilitY b. abilitY c. consequence d. effi-cacY B9
  • 62. ! 1 t, lnsight & Understanding Choose the best answers. 1. According fo the passage, rvhy is acupuncture still criticizedby the West? a. because it is not as effective as modern medicine b. because it is only suited for the Asian people c . because,it is an ancient form of medicine that predates medical science d. because many of its practices are not fully explained by science 2. According to ancient Chinese belief, what causes illness in humans? a. invasion of viruses to the body .b. irfl.,.".r.e of spirits on the mind c . imbalance of forces in the body d. lack of exercise 3. Which of the following is an INCORRECT nratch regarding the yin and yang? a . yin-female, yang-male b. yin-light, yang-dark c . yin-earth, yang-heaven d. yin-passive. yang-acti're fhich of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the effects of acupuncture? a. curing diiease b. treating pain c. rejuvenating health d. decreasing chi 90
  • 63. 5. What can be inferred about chi fiom the passage? a. The amount of chi we have is important. b. It is what brings yin-yang into balance. c. Increasing chi in your body will increase yin-yang. d. The flow of chi determines the condition of one's health. 6. Which of the foliowing is NOT an attribute of acupuncture? a. It is sometimes used combined with electric charge. b. The depths of inserting needles are various. c. It involves inserting needles directly into organs like the stomach or the intestines. d. Acupuncturists usually twist the needle once it is inserted into the patientt bod.y. 7. Where can the following sentence be inserted in the fourth paragraph? I Occasiorra.liy. thc acupuncturist vrill reach depihs as decp as 25mm to treat severe i' I illnesses. t__ a. 69: b.@ L. sg d.s 8. What two theories are drawn up by Western scientists regarding how acupuncture works? Choose two answers. a. Acupuncture causes the release of natural painkilling chemicals. b. Painkiiling chemicals are released from the needles during acupuncture. c. The placebo effect causes the body to react physically during the acupuncture Process. d. The pain from the needles distress the body from the original illrress. I I
  • 64. Writing & Paraphrasing Answer the following questions wilh complele sentences. 1. What is thdhistory of acupuncture and where is it commonly used? Z. What is the principle behind the power of the yin-yang and what does it represent? 3. What is the main procedure of acupuncture? 4. What is associated with various borliiy orgrm or systems according to the practice of acupunctr-rre? 5. According to the yin-yang theory, what is the objective of acupuncture?
  • 65. : -ii-nmary Summarize the passage in your own words. Sonfusing Words insert to place somethhg inside something insult to be offensive to somebody apply to put something on imply to involve something as a necessary part medicinal being curative or curable for illness medical reiating to the treatment illnesses and injuries object a material thiag that you can touch or see objective an aim or goal you are trying to achieve considerable iarge enough irr amount or degree considerate mindful of the needs, rvishes, or feelings of others Eircle the appropriate word t0 complete each sentence. n. The initial (object / objective) of the Gettysburg address was to consecrate the National Cemetery. The advancement of modern (medical / medicinal) science has made it possible to discover new treatments for some intractable diseases. Cut the stem of the florver underwater and then (insult / insert) the stem into the drive. You must (imply I apply) the ointment on rhe sunburn vigorously. The city government expended (considerable / considerate) funds on a new skating rink. +. i s3
  • 66. ffiffiffiffiBmr ffiw ffiffi.}E.H s*ql a.-€ ffieffi i+'6.&Y E#A--&gt*+E->PE€-:it €F]iW
  • 67. $ i,.1ri l| Y-- ,ll Before Ysu Study Think about the questions below and share your opinions with your Partnell,, ' : : a: ::.' ;'..:. Do you know of any interesting ways plants acquire nutrients besides from the Sun and the soil? Are there any plants that are carnivorous? Can you describe how plants can consume Iiving organisms without having any teeth, muscles, or a digestive system? Are you right-handed or left-handed? What makes you either right-handed or left- handed? Can someone who is right-handed train themselves to be left-handed, or vice versa? How does your brain determine if you are right-handed or left-handed? nr:-J ..,,liri
  • 68. .,,:.+ll.;.1. il.::{.1 a, jr.,i: jr1'I r: bog ir swampy ,-r imprison r-: hapless r-: lure L:i ensnare i: entice a,l'secrete ,,.! trigger r,, la*"onr" It endeavor r-- edible = inanimate = metamorphose rr ingest i-r fluid discard intrigue dexterity allure entrancing n. awet and spongy area composed mostly of moss and peat -syn. marsh adj.being a low, seasonally wet and spongy area -syn. marshy y. to lock up, restrain or limit something -s7n. confine adj. unlacl<y or unfortunate y. to attract by arousing or tempting -syn- attract y. to take or catch ^ -tyn. capture y. to attract by stimulating hope or desire -9rn. lure, tempt y. to let go or release a substance -syn. discharge u. to start or initiate an event or events -q/rr. cause, activate n. people who are not experts or members .any professions, such as science or medicine -ant. exp erts, professionals v. to try hard or make great effort to do something -syn. strive adj.beinggood enough to be eaten as food -s7n. consumable adj. not having the qualities of movement like living things v, to change the form or appearance of sornethin g -syn.transfornr, alter v, to take into the body to consurne as food -sr,rr. consume n. a substance that can flow easily and conform to the shape of its enyironment -s7n, liqr-rid -e.g. water, gas y. to throlv out or release something unwanted -vn. dispose of, throw ar,vay, y. to arouse interest or curiosity -s72, fascinate n. a skill, smoothness, and quickness in movement n. an abiliry to attract or tempt -syn. appeal,charm adj.havrrlgqr-ralities that cause delight, wonder, and interest - sy n. captl ating, enchantin g +t?i**ris;+tun+ 96
  • 69. Complete the sentences using the words in lhe box with the appropriate form. b,rg haPless imprison ensnare secrete endeavor ingest inanimate discard intrigre 5. 6. 1. The governor has countrY. to end poverty and hunger of the 2. The people in Pakistan, who lost their homes due to the typhoon last year, could not help but feel dejected and 3. Officials said that the people being released from jail were not invoived in violent crimes and were by mistake. 4. The ministry has a-lready introduced traP systems to mobile sPammers and hackers- The old path went through a filled with moss. Some plants toxic substances irom their stems or leaves, so you should be carefirl rvhen handling unidentiEed plants' 7. Unlike animals, which obtain energF by acquiring and food, plants obtain energy through photosynthesis' 8. My sister seems to consider everything in the world, even objects are significant to her. g. Scald tomatoes in hot water for a short time, then unwanted skin- 10" The splendid setting,luxurious costumes, and romantic music of the performance lesttors. Write the aPProPriate word in the 1. fascinate: 2. appeal, charm: 3. consumable: blanks using the synonym clues- the 97
  • 70. The Mysterious Ientrs Fll.t"ap ffiffifl,qRffi Highlighting Venus Flytrapt Digestion Process While reading, highlight the digestion process of the Venus Flytrap. Underlining the Surprising Phenomenon Find the most surprising phenomenon related to the Venus Flytray's digestion process and urderline it. ir or-rThe Venus Flytrap, the world's most commonly recognized carnivorouJ plant, is native to North and South Carolina in southeastern United States. The Venus Flytrap's ideal home is found in bogs and swampy wetlands- Since it lacks the abiliry to prodr.rce its own essential nutrients, it requires nourishment from elsewhere. As a result, the Venus Flytrap has evolved jaw-like leaves to imprison hapless insects from which if gets its additional source of energy. This myste- rious phenomenon makes it one of the least understood plants in the world- To imagine what the trap is 1ike, place your hands together with your paims facing up. 4ren you snap your hands together, you imitate a Venus Flytrap's leaf, which uses built-up mechanical tension in its leaves to snap shut in one-tenth of a second. Since it does not move, the Venus Flltrap must somehow lure its prey. such as flies, caterpillars, spiders, and crickets, to come close enough so that they can be ensnared. To entice its prey, the plant oa 10 la 2A
  • 71. .,.:! sreet-smelling nectar ott its leaves' When an unsuspecttng ..rdsoiltheleafexpectingatastytreat'itsmovementtriggers - .','e l-iairs that cause tl-re leaf to snap shr-rt' Since the time of .:edbiologistCharlesDarwin,scicntistsandlaypeoplehave r':r leayored to understanci how this plant manages to attract' kili' 25 and absorb its PreY. u]ncetheplanthascaptureditsprey,ithastodeterminewhether ::e,-v is edible or not. If the hairs on the Flltrap are triggered by the .: s rrlov€rrlent after the leaf has closed, the plant knows that the ' . . rtunate victirn is ir-rdeed edible' However' inanimate objects' 30 --.- as leaves and twigs, can also be caught in the trap' Butbecause ,,: objects are motionless, the trap rvill reopen and release the indi- ' :bie catch. This process can take up to 12 hours' ilorr
  • 72. If the plant has determined its prey is consumable, it begins the digestive process by metamorphosing and releasing digestive juices from glandd locatei within the leaves. The digestion can last for a period of five to ten days during which the victims' nutrients are extracted. Once theplant has ingested all the nutrients, it reabsorbs its digestive fluid. This signals the plant to open its leaves once again' The plant, however, does not ingest the insect's outer covering, and the waste is discarded from the leaf when it opens' Wtiat is most surprising about how the Venus Flytrap catches its prey is that it does this without any nerves or muscles' This phenome- rron has intrigued scientists for years as they try to determine exactly how the plant is able to close its trap with such blinding dexterity' This remains one of the great mysteries of the plant kingdom and adds to the allure of this entratrcing plani' ffi.ffi * carnivorous flesh-eating; meat-eatlng * Charles Darwin(1S09-1882) an English naturalist who presented evidence that all ' species of life have evolved over time flom a common ancestor through a process he called natural selection " gl*d an organ of the body or of a plant which produces chemical substances for the body to use 35 {c
  • 73. fi, -:-e 0r Faise Write T if siatements are true or F if slatements are false according to the passage. I. The Venus Flytlap consumes insects for their nutrients because it iacks the abiliry to produce its own nutrients. It takes 12 hours for a Venus Flytrap to digest one prey. The Venus Irlytrap decides if a prey is edible by the scent of the prev'. ]uices from glands of the Venus Flytrap are used in the digestive process. The Venus Flytrap catches its prey using nerves and muscles. a Svnonvm & Reierence l) Choose the best answers" 1. The word "nourishment" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a- energF b. prey c. nulrienl d. substance 2. The word "endeavored" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to a. realized b. tried c. struggled d. opposed 3. The word "inanilnate" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to a. inactive b. lively c. sluggish d. enormous 4. The word "w'aste" in the fourth paragraph refers to a. the Venus Flprap b. the digestion process c. the digestive juices from glands d. the insect's outer covering 2. 4. 5. 101
  • 74. ) lnsig[t & Unclerst;inditrg Ghoose the best answers' 1. What makes the Venus Flltrap one of the least understood plants in the world? a. the abundant nutrients that the venus Fl1'trap provides by itseif b. the mysterious phenomenon of the Venus Flytrap's ability to capture its preys with its leaves the special nectar that is released from the nvigs of the ventis Flytrap the areas that the Venus Flytrap inhabits According to the passage, what is the venus Flytrap's habitat? a. wet and muddY land b. arid land c. grassy land d- snolv-covered land How are the leaves of the Venus Flytrap abie a. by using a very sensitive llerYous systen-l b. by using its thin muscle c. by using mechanical tension in its leaves d. by using its sweet-smelling nectar to snap shut so quicklY? 4. How does tL" V.rrr,, Ftytrap attract insects? a. It uses its blinding dexterity to attract the iesects' b. Its sensitive hairs attract insects' c. It gi"es off an attractive smell' d. Its colorftil leaves entice insects' -1. .'1 :,i :-l .1 : ._l r:1 .r'i 102
  • 75. 5. How does the Venus Flytrap determine if its prey is edibie? a. by sensing the prey's shape b. by sensing the prey's size c. by sensing the prey's body temperatlrre d. by sensing the prey's movements 6. What is the shortest time it takes to open the Venus Flytrap's leaves up again once they are closed? a. about one-tenth of a second b. at least 12 hours c. at least one day d. at least five days 7. What happens after the Venus Flltrap sucks out all the nutrients f,-om an insect? a. It swaliorvs the body whole. b. It reieases toxic gas which is produced during digestion. c. It throws away t-he outer covering of the insect. d. It eats the thorax and throws a-wav the iread and abdomen. According to the plr.rg", how Iong does it take for the Venus Flytrap to digest its prey? a. about twelve hours b. about one day c. about three to iive days d. about five to ten days 103
  • 76. Writrng & ParaPhrastng lnswer the following questions with 1. What do the leaves of the Venus complete sentences. FlytraP look like? ) In the first paragraph, what mysterious phenomenon Venus F$raP? is mentioned regarding the FIow does the Venus Fl1'trap catch its prey? Why do they are you think leaves and twigs are not consumed by the Venus Fll,trap when caught bY it? 5. What is most surprising to the author regarding the Venus Flytrap,s abiliry to catch and digest its PreY?
  • 77. t.1i j Summarize the passage in your own words. : 1,.::- tlrr:e co::ir,iili:tioc i,s ca;_r.(ie 8l eff*ct conjliiacti*n .irrce" is often used to describe the beginning of some action or situation as :,-rnjunction, but it can also be used to describe the reason of a certain action :" effect conjunction. a tirne as a cause -:mbine the two sentences into one using "since" and identify whelher it is used as a .,time ::rjunction" or as a "cause & eflect G0niuncti0n:, Since it does not move, the Venus Flytrap must somehow lure its prey to come close to it. (cause & effect conjunction) Since th.e time of renowned bioiogist Charles Darwrn, scientists haye endeavored to understand horv this plant manages to attract its prey. (time conjunction) There are lights fiom street lamps. Therefore, it is ail right to go to the park at night. (, - It was a very blustery day. So the umbrelia was useless. -)lt My brother crashed his car in the past. After it happened, he has lost his desire to drive. -)() 105
  • 78. i-': noticeable identical frrnction significantly organize cognition favor utensil preference input laterally dorninant favoritism defect lobe scar logical methodical cerebral exaggerated adj. attractins attention or being able to be seen -syn. clear,evident adj. bengexacdy alike in appearance n. the action or activitF that is appropriate of a person or thing /. to operate or firlfiIl a task, roie, or action adv. rn an important way in effect or meaning y- to put or arrange in a tidy systematic pattern or structure -sln. arrange n. the action of knorving, tliinking, or reasoning -.q72. understanding, awareness v. to Like, approve, or prefer -s7n. choose n. a vessel or tool that is used for eating or cooking -e.& spoon, fork, knife, chopsticks n. the act of favori-ng one thing over another n. information or signais rhat go into something adv. in a direction at, to, from, or on the side -syn. horiz<-rntally, sideways adj.being a stronger, ruling, or controlling part -syn. superior n. an act of iiking an idea or situation more than others -syrz. preference n. a ftult,lack, problem, or imperfection of something -syn. flaw, deficiency n. a projected part of the body that is some-what rounded y. to mark, damage. or injure after healing -s7r. wound, blemish adj.bengreasonable, clear, or correct in thinking --s7n. rational adj. doingor perfolming in an orderly or systematic way -syn. precise, systematic adj. of or pertaining to the or cerebrum adj.beingstated or expressed in an unrealistically magnified way -srln. overstated 106
  • 79. ,[omplete the sentences using the words in the box with the appropriate form. identical cognition favor utensil dorninant defect scar methodical function exaggerated According to a qualifying examination, she has proven to be good at anci systemic work. Humans have a process of that is superior to animals. Hormones, which are made in the body, are chemicals that regulate bodily Specialists report that the majority of all weight-loss claims are greatly r. He was very self-conscious because his face had been acne. There was a small it exchanged. on the netv computer screen, so we had It is said that nails grow faster on the fingers. hand and on longer by The couple requested an erpensive set of silver rvedding registry. on their gold pendants, each adorned with an emerald and a pearl, are now on display at the jewelry museum. 10. Although most of the employees did not like the new poliry, there lvere a few who were ln of it. 'll{riie the appropriate word in the blanks using the synonym clues. l. rational: l. arrange: -1. clear, evident: 107
  • 80. DiscoYer Your Second tsrain A noticeable feature of the human brain is that it is divided into two distinct hemispheres, or halves that look nearly identical to one another. A small area of space separates most of the two hemi- spheres, which are connected by a bridge. The two halves, though similar in looks, function in significantly dif- ferent ways. There are noticeable differences in the way each half of the brain handles intbrmation and organizes the process of cognition, particularly in the part of the brain responsible for managing higher functions, such as language, reasoning, and creativiry. Consider, fo. "ru*ple, the fact that people are either right or left handed, or that they favor one hand o.,,er the other in performing tasks, such as writing, using eating utensils, or playing a musical instrument. T'he cause for this preference is in the way the two halves of the brain handle information to control the body. The brain handies input from the body and exercises control over it laterally. This mear-rs that the 1eft side of the brain is responsible for controlling the actions of the right side of the body and vice versa. Researchers believe that people are mmr]Mffi Ivlaking an Inference lhile reading focus on Dr. Paul Broca's discovery and think about what can be inferred from his discovery- Finding the Differences Distinguish between the publiCs corunon belief and neurologists' opinions regarding the relationship between the brain and personality. r.rot! 10 {c
  • 81. ,: ight or left handed based on which brain hemisphere is domi- nd;t. ,-)r favored over the other. The importance of such left-right -.:-sm in the brain is not fully understood. :.:ientists have been able to learn much about the divided brain -:,ing patients suffering from brain injuries or defects. A famous , .:om 1862 involved a man suffering fror,t a brain disfunctiorr . , - aphasia that left hirn unabie to find words to use to communi- : thoughts. From this case, Dr-. Paul Broci discovered that the r, - .:-,ntal lobe of the brain, later named "Broca's area','controls the ,L --:.. to use language. He determined this when he discovered that :ain of the patient was scarred in that area fiom a childhood .:1.1. 109
  • 82. There is a common belief by the general public that the distinc- tion between the left brain and right brain influences personality or ability. @ For example, people who are right-brained are commonly described as being creative in casual conversation, whereas, people who are left-brained are generally described as being logical and methodical. u? However, the functions of the brain and its connections to the cerebral divisions have not been scientifically proven by neurol- ogisti. @ In fact, because the brain is so complex, statements regarding discoveries about it are often very general, exaggerated, and not true of ail people. * Therefore, simply because a personaliry is either cre- ative or methodical does not mean that they are necessarily right or left brained. m]Era-r::*1t:1,i:i-t tl " Dr. Paul Broca(1824-lBB0) Paul Pierre Broca, a French physician, anatomist, and anthropologist, lvas bortr in Sainte-Foy-la-Grandc, Gironde. He is most far-nous for his cliscovery of the Ilrocti:rreir. He is irlso l<rrorvn ars a pionccr in ll're.str-rdy of pl-rysical anthropology. r-rreurologist a person who str:dies the body's nervor-rs systen-r 35 40
  • 83. -'te 0f Falss Write T il slatements are true or F if statements are lalse according to the passage. There is a bridge that connects the different hemispheres of a brain. Tlre two hemispheres of the brain organizelang]uage, reasoninE, and thought differently. If a person is lefl-handed, the le{l side of the brain is more dominant than the right. The location in the brain rvhere language usage is controlled was discovered by studying patients with brain injuries. Scientists have been able to prove why people who use the right side of their brain are creative in casual conversation. l t. 4. 5. Synonyni & Reference Choose the best answers. l. The word "identical" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to a. sin'rilar b. identifiable c. indistinguishable d. inconsistent 2. The word "dominant" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to a. superior b. inferior c. occupied I d. dormant 3. The following words from the third paragraph refer to the same person except for a. a man b. him c. he d. the patient 4. The word "exaggerated" in the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to a. incorporated b. implied c. embellished d. simplified 111
  • 84. Insight & Unclcrstanding Choose the best answers. 1. vvhat aspecl of the human brain does the author focus on? a. The more the brain is used, the more it evolves. b. There is a bridge-like structure in the brain. c. The human brain is much larger than those of animals. d. There are fwo parts in the brain rvith different firnctions. 2, what can be inferred about how the brain manages higher functions? . .a. Both sides of the brain have parts that handle higher functions. b. Higher functions can only be handled on one side of the brain. c. Higher functions are only handled on the smarter side of the brain. d. Higher functions cannot be handled on both sides of the brain at the same time. 3. According to the passage, rvhat determines a person to be either left-handed or right-handed? a. left-right favoritism in situations b. whether there is damage in the right hernisphere of the brain c. which part of brain is relatively used more d. whether the person has a brail probiern called aphasia 4- According to'the passage, horv have scientists been able to learn about the different functions in different parts of the brain? a. by studying the brains of chimpanzees which are quite close to a human's b. by researching DNA patterns of different brains suffering from brain damage c. by inter-viel'ing pcople who are ieft-handed and right-handed d. by studying patients with brain injuries
  • 85. 5. what CANNOT be inferred from Dr. Paul Broca',s discovery? a . Damage to the 1eft flontal lobe of the brain impairs a person's abiliry to use vocal cords. b. Damage to the left frontal lobe of the brain causes impairment in a person's communication abilitY. c. Dr. Broca's discovery led to many other discoveries of sectional fi-rnctions of the brain. d. The brain is composecl of separate divisions that specialize in controlling specific functions. What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph? a. Statements of discoveries about the brain are often very general and exaggerated' b. people who use their right side of the brain are creative in casual conversation" c . Personaliqv and abilify cannot be used to determiue the dominant side of the brain. d. There are scientific evidences about how the left brain and right brain distinctior-r influences personaliry and ability' 7. According to the passage, which of the following is a fact? a. Left-handed people onlv use the right side of the brain' b. Distinction behveen the left brain and right brain is determined by a person's personalitY or abilitY' c. R:ght-brained peopie are more creative in casuai conversation than left-brained peoPle' <1. The right side and left sicle of the brain are not completely separated. where can the fbllowing sentence be ir-rserted in the fourth paragraph? a, Q_r-r c. & b.& d.& 113
  • 86. Writinq & Paraphrasrng Answer the lollowing questions with complete sentences. l. What are the physical features of the human brain? 2. FIow do the two halves of the brain control the body? 3. Why did the patient suffer from aphasia in the third paragraph? What is the publiis common belief in regards to the relationship befween the brain and personality? 5. Why is the notion that distinction between the left brain and right brain influences personality t-rr ability not accurate?
  • 87. ->.Jmmary Sumrnarize the passage in your own words. I ::iusilig Words lobe a round part of something, such as the brain robe a loose clothing covering the whole body iunction the role of something iunction a place where roads join Iater following an earlier stage latest most recent defect an irnperfection or disorder defeat a flailure in a battle, Barrre. or cont€st identical being exactly alike in appearance identifiable able to be recognized X,rule lhe appropriale word to complete each sentence' These day, it is not uncommon to pierce other areas of the ear besides the (lobe / robe). _ I could not understand the (function / junction) of the red triangular button. yerba Buena was founded by the Spanish in 1835 but was taken over by the II-S' in 1846 and (later / latest) renamed San Francisco' ,. Scientists found that (identifiable / identical) twins who were brought up together were more similar than those brought up apart' , More than 50,000 babies are born in the U.S. each year rvith alcohol-related (defeats / defects). 115
  • 88. .4fl8 5 ia ffiilBffi{3$#r
  • 89. & ,ir.: . i:.::r::.:::. : ,1, ':, ;1:-.:i: i:. .::,rlij ' 'r;.1 ' . , a'- : l. .' ,.] , ,: J'r: , r.i itr '..:i: r l :lr+: { +il "1 What your d when differentfavorite cultu .::,?,:., ::i:,:lil]i: l: W!3t cor havd a ce, ..-d:- ,Gypsiqg? of Gnrsies? Why do you think pe 2, i-ffi*ii