Introduction China is the most populous state in the world with over 1.3 billion people. Located in East Asia, China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. About 9.6 million square kilometres, It is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area and the second largestby land area.
Geography The territory of China contains a large variety of landscapes. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, grasslands can be seen. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges. In the central-east are the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, notably the Himalayas, with China's highest point at the eastern half of Mount Everest, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.
Climate China has a climate mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which leads to temperature differences in winter and summer. In winter, northern winds coming from high latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from sea areas at lower latitude are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.
Environment The environment in Chinahas traditionally been neglected as the country concentrates on its rise as an economic power. Despite a recent interest in environmental reform, pollution has made cancer the leading cause of death in 30 cities and 78 counties.
Goverment and politics China’s government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably on the Internet, the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, and freedom of religion. The country is ruled by the Communist Party of China , whose power is enshrined in China's constitution.There are other political parties in China, referred to in China as democratic parties.
HumanRights Human rights in the People's Republic of China are a matter of dispute between the Chinese government and other countries and NGOs. Organizations such as the U.S. State Department, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch have accused the Chinese government of restricting the freedoms of speech, movement, and religion of its citizens. The Chinese government argues for a wider definition of human rights, to include economic and social as well as political rights, all in relation to national culture and the level of developmentof the country. In this regard, China says, human rights are being improved in China.
Politicaldivisions The People's Republic of China has administrative control over twenty-two provinces and considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, despite not having control over Taiwan which is currently administered by the Republic of China. The PRC's claim is disputed by the Republic of China.There are also five autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions that enjoy some degree of autonomy.
Economy From its founding in 1949 to late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Private businesses and capitalism did not exist. Since 1978, China's economy is mainly characterized as a market economy based on private property ownership.Collectivization of the agriculture was dismantled and farmlands were privatized to increase productivity. The PRC is the fourth most visited country in the world with 50.9 million inbound international visitors in 2009.It is a member of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and is the world's second largest trading power behind the US with a total international trade of US$2.21 trillion-
Demographics As of July 2010, there are 1,338,612,968 people in China The PRC officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population.Large ethnic minorities include the Zhuang(16 million), Manchu (10 million) or Hui (9 million) Today, the People's Republic of China has dozens of major cities with one million or more long-term residents, including the three global cities of Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. The one-child policy refers to the one-child limitation on most families in the population control policy. The policy was introduced in 1978 and initially applied to first-born children in 1979. It was created by the Chinese government to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China,and authorities claim that the policy has prevented more than 250 million births from its implementation to 2000.
Beijing Shangai Hong Kong
Education and health In 1986, China set the long-term goal of providing compulsory nine-year basic education to every child. In February 2006, the government advanced its basic education goal by pledging to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. The quality of Chinese colleges and universities varies considerably across the country. An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine characterized health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as attacking several diseases. This has shown major results as diseases like cholera, typhoid, and scarlet fever were nearly eradicated.
Importantcities Shangai, with a population of 9,5 millions Hong Kong, with 7 millionsinhabitants Beijing, with 7,3 millionspeople
In 2008, OlympicGameswerecelebrated in Beijing.
Thethreepredominantreligions in China are Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religions
The mandarin Chinese is the most spoken language in the world, with 885 millions speakers
The Great wall of China is one of the seven world’s wonders, and you can see it from the space.