Cell Structures
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Cell Structures






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Cell Structures Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Swazi Nontobeko Mhlongo Grade 10
  • 2. Cell unit structure of life 2
  • 3. What is Biology? Biology is the study of all living things  Living things are called organisms Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals 3
  • 4. All Living Things Share Common Characteristics 1. Basic Unit is the Cell 2. They Reproduce 3. All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA) 4. Grow & Develop 4
  • 5. Characteristics of Organisms 5
  • 6. All Organisms are made of Cells 6
  • 7. Facts About Cells Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism All cells contain living material called cytoplasm All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell 7
  • 8. More Cell Facts  More complex cells are called Eukaryotes  These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles  Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples 8
  • 9. Number of Cells 9 Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize
  • 10. Types of CellsTypes of Cells Prokaryotes - Bacteria Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and protists. 10 Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell
  • 11. Prokaryotes 11 Nucleoid region contains the DNA •Cell membrane & cell wall • Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm
  • 12. Two Types of Reproduction  Sexual Reproduct ion  Involves 2 parents  Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE  Offspring DIFFERENT from parents 12
  • 13. Cells Have a Genetic Code 13
  • 14. Genetic Code DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) carries the genetic code for all organisms All organisms contain DNA DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work 14
  • 15. Cells Require Food & Energy 15
  • 16. Food Requirements Autotrophs can make their own food Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis) Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy 16
  • 17. Food Requirements Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food They must consume other organisms Herbivores eat plants Carnivores eat meat Omnivores eat plants & animals 17
  • 18. Basic Structure of a Cell 18
  • 19. Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles 19
  • 20. Golgi Bodies  Stacks ofStacks of flattenedflattened sacssacs  Have a shipping side &Have a shipping side & a receiving sidea receiving side  Receive &Receive & modifymodify proteinsproteins made by ERmade by ER  Transport vesiclesTransport vesicles with modified proteinswith modified proteins pinch off the endspinch off the ends 20 Transport vesicle
  • 21. Lysosome  Contain digestiveContain digestive enzymesenzymes  Break down food andBreak down food and worn out cell parts forworn out cell parts for cellscells  Programmed for cellProgrammed for cell death (lyse & releasedeath (lyse & release enzymes to break downenzymes to break down & recycle cell parts)& recycle cell parts) 21
  • 22. Nucleolus  Cell may haveCell may have 1 to 31 to 3 nucleolinucleoli  Inside nucleusInside nucleus  Disappears when cellDisappears when cell dividesdivides  Makes ribosomesMakes ribosomes thatthat make proteinsmake proteins 22
  • 23. Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum copyright cmassengale 23 Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORt
  • 24. In Animal Cells:In Animal Cells: copyright cmassengale 24 Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP Mitochondria
  • 25. Cell or Plasma MembraneCell or Plasma Membrane copyright cmassengale 25 Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable Cell membrane
  • 26. Cell WallCell Wall 26 Nonliving layer Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells Cell wall
  • 27. Cytoplasm of a CellCytoplasm of a Cell copyright cmassengale 27 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm
  • 28. Control Organelle copyright cmassengale 28 Controls the normal activities of the cell Contain the DNA Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes Nucleus
  • 29. Plant CellPlant Cell 29 Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable Cell wall
  • 30. Plant CellPlant Cell copyright cmassengale 30 Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell Cell wall
  • 31. Plant Cell OrganellesPlant Cell Organelles 31 Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments Vacuole
  • 32. Animal cellAnimal cell copyright cmassengale 32 mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole
  • 33. Animal Cell Organelles  Near the nucleus  Paired structures  Help cell divide 33
  • 34. There are different kinds ofThere are different kinds of plant cellsplant cells 34 Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  • 35. Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) SYSTEMS (circulatory system) ORGANISM (human) 35
  • 36. There are different kinds of “animal”There are different kinds of “animal” cellscells 36 white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  • 37. TissueTissue A group of similar cells to perform a particular function Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue 37
  • 38. Similarities between plant cells andSimilarities between plant cells and animal cellsanimal cells Both have a cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA 38 Both share many organelles, including mitochondria
  • 39. More Differences between Plant CellsMore Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cellsand Animal Cells 39 Animal cells Plant cells Vacuoles small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall
  • 40. The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) 40 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell
  • 41. The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ) copyright cmassengale 41
  • 42. OrganOrgan Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue 42
  • 43. References  This presentation is a mashup of 3 different sources. They are:  Nardella .M.(2010) Cell structure http://www.slideshare.net/mnardell103/cell-structure-5702506 Accessed 05 March 2014  Mcnewbold. S. (2012) Cell structure http://www.slideshare.net/mcnewbold/cell-structure-11143207 Accessed 05 March 2014  Tas11244 .v. (2011) Characteristics of lifeii http://www.slideshare.net/tas11244/characteristics-of-life-ii Accessed 05 March 2014 43