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The past perfect tense
 

The past perfect tense

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    The past perfect tense The past perfect tense Document Transcript

    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 1 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense Janice had gone home by the time Jerry arrived at the party. By the time Jerry arrived at the party, Janice had gone home. Oscar had read all of his e-mail before he went to work. Before Oscar went to work, he had read all of his e-mail. We went to the movies after we had eaten our dinner. After we had eaten our dinner, we went to the movies. The bus had already left when Sara reached the bus stop. When Sara reached the bus stop, the bus had already left. Joe knew Munich well because he had visited that beautiful city many times. Because he had visited that beautiful city many times, Joe knew Munich well.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 2 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseForm of the Past Perfect TenseAffirmative StatementsSubject + had + past participleJanice had gone home by the time Jerry arrived at the party.Oscar had read all of his e-mail before he went to work. We had eaten lunch early. We were not hungry at 1:00. I had bought my ticket 2 hours before the fashion show began. We had eaten our lunch early. We were not hungry at 1:00. I had bought my ticket 2 hours before the fashion show began.Subject + had + adverb + past participle She had already read the book that she donated to charity.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 3 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseNegative StatementsSubject + had + not + past participleJanice had not gone home by the time Jerry arrived at the party.Oscar had not read all of his e-mail before he went to work. We had not eaten lunch early. We were hungry at 1:00. I had not bought my tickets 2 hours before the fashion show began.Subject + had + not + adverb + past participle She had not yet read the book that she donated to charity.Yes/No QuestionsHad + subject + past participleHad Janice gone home by the time Jerry arrived at the party?Short AnswersYes, + subject + had No, + subject + hadn’tYes, she had. No, she hadn’t.WH- QuestionsWH-Word + had + subject + past participle Why had Janice gone home by the time Jerry arrived?Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 4 of 14 The Past Perfect TensePracticeFill in the blank with the Past Perfect Tense.Example:We went to the movies after we had eaten our dinner. (eat)Before we ate our dinner, we had not yet gone to the movies. (go) (negative)Had you eaten your dinner before you went to the movies? (eat)(yes/no question)Yes, we had. (short answer) (affirmative)Had you eaten you dinner after you went to the movies? (eat)(yes/no question)No, we hadn’t. (short answer) (negative)Why had you eaten your dinner before you went to the movies? (why) (eat) 1. I ____ _______ my work before the clock struck six. (finish) 2. I ____ ____ yet ________ my work before the clock struck six. (finish) (negative) 3. ____ you ________ your work before the clock struck six? (finish) (yes/no question) 4. Yes, I ____. (short answer) (affirmative) 5. No, I ________. (short answer) (negative) 6. ____ ____ you ______ your work early? (why) (finish) 1. You _____ ________ asleep before the television show ended. (fall) 2. You ____ ____ yet ________ asleep when the television show started. (fall) (negative) 3. ____ you ________ asleep before the television show ended? (fall) (yes/no question) 4. Yes, I ____. (short answer) (affirmative) 5. No, I ____. (short answer) (negative) 6. ____ ____ you ________ asleep so early? (why) (fall)Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 5 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense 1. They _____ __________ __________ on Maple Street by the time they moved to First Avenue. (already)(live) 2. In October, they ____ ____ ____ ___________ to First Avenue. (yet) (move) (negative) 3. ____ they ________ __________ on Maple Street before they moved to First Avenue? (already) (live) (yes/no question) 4. Yes, they ____. (short answer) (affirmative) 5. No, they ____. (short answer) (negative) 6. ______ ____ they ________ before they moved to First Avenue? (where) (live)Use of the Past Perfect TenseThe Past Perfect Tense is used to talk about two different actions in the past. One action wascompleted before the other action. Use the Past Perfect Tense to express the first (earlier) action.Use the Simple Past Tense to express the second (later) action.Example 1Janice had gone home by the time that Jerry arrived at the party.Two actions were completed in the past. 1. Janice went home at 9:00. 2. Jerry arrived at the party at 9:30.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = Janice went home Second Action = Jerry arrived at the partyUse the Present Perfect Tense to express the first action. Janice had gone homeUse the Simple Past Tense to express the second action. by the time that Jerry arrived at the partyFree Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 6 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseExample 2By the time Jerry arrived at the party, Janice had gone home.Two actions were completed in the past. 1. Jerry arrived at the party at 9:30. 2. Janice went home at 9:00.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = Janice went home Second Action = Jerry arrived at the partyUse the Simple Past Tense to express the second action. By the time that Jerry arrived at the party,Use the Present Perfect Tense to express the first action. Janice had gone homeExample 3Oscar had read all of his e-mail before he went to work.Two actions were completed in the past. 1. Oscar read his e-mail at 7:30. 2. Oscar went to work at 8:00.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = Oscar read his e-mail Second Action = Oscar went to workUse the Present Perfect Tense to express the first action. Oscar had read all of his e-mailUse the Simple Past tense to express the second action. before he went to workFree Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 7 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseExample 4Before Oscar went to work, he had read all of his e-mail.Two actions in the past were completed. 1. Oscar went to work at 8:00. 2. Oscar read his e-mail at 7:30.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = Oscar read all of his e-mail Second Action = Oscar went to workUse the Simple Past tense to express the second action. Before Oscar went to work,Use the Present Perfect Tense to express the first action. he had read all of his e-mailExample 5After we had eaten our dinner, we went to the movies.Two actions were completed in the past. 1. We ate our dinner at 6:00. 2. We went to the movies at 7:30.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = We ate our dinner Second Action = We went to the moviesUse the Present Perfect Tense to express the first action. After we had eaten our dinner,Use the Simple Past tense to express the second action. we went to the moviesFree Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 8 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseExample 6We went to the movies after we had eaten our dinner.Two actions were completed in the past. 1. We went to the movies at 7:30. 2. We ate our dinner at 6:00.One action was completed before the other action. First Action = We ate our dinner Second Action = We went to the moviesUse the Present Perfect Tense to express the secondaction. We went to the moviesUse the Simple Past tense to express the first action. after we had eaten our dinnerAdverbsAlready, yet, ever, just, and never are often used with the Past Perfect Tense in order to emphasizethe action that took place first (the earlier action). The Past Perfect tense emphasizes The bus had Saras already left when disappointment. Sara reached the Sara ran to the bus stop. bus stop. She was too late. The bus had already left.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 9 of 14 The Past Perfect TensePracticeWhich action took place first?Example: He had already talked to her on the phone when Iarrived. 2nd I arrived. 1st He had already talked to her on the phone.I looked all over the house for Melanie, but she had taken the dog fora walk. _____ I looked all over the house for Melanie. _____ She had taken the dog for a walk.We went to the station to catch the train, but the train had already left. _____ We went to the station to catch the train. _____ The train had already left.Professor Jones retired after he had taught at the university for 35 years, _____ Professor Jones retired. _____ He had taught at the university for 35 years.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 10 of 14 The Past Perfect TenseAn Exception To The RuleWhen the time relationship between 2 past events is very clear, you have the option to use theSimple Past Tense for both actions. This often occurs in sentences with before, after, and as soonas. All of the sentences below are perfectly correct.Oscar read all of his e-mail before he went to work.Oscar had read all of his e-mail before he went to work.We went to the movies after we ate our dinner.We went to the movies after we had eaten our dinner.Joe called his girlfriend as soon as his plane landed in Munich.Joe called his girlfriend as soon as his plane had landed in Munich.Multiple Actions in the Past Perfect TenseNotice how you can use the Past Perfect Tense to talk about more than one action.Joe knew Munich well because he had visited that beautiful city many times. Joe visited Munich in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. In 2010, Joe knew Munich well.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 11 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense Pictures Of The Past ActivityDivide the students into groups. Give each student a photo. Each student looks at the photo andwrites a sentence about it in the simple past tense.Each student then passes his/her photo to a neighbor in the group. That student looks at thepicture and adds a sentence in the past perfect tense.Afterward, compare the pictures and sentences.Examples: Student # 1 - Simple Past: Student #1 - Simple Past: Jane was surprised to get a phone call from Terry. Mary went to the grocery store. Student # 2 - Past Perfect: Student # 2 - Past Perfect: Jane had just seen Terry 5 minutes She had run out of mustard. ago.Use the photos on pages 12–14 for this activity.OrUse your own photos.OrDraw pictures to use for this activity.Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 12 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense Pictures Of Past Activity Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ (Hint: This is a picture of an inflatable tube man.) Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 13 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense Pictures Of The Past Activity Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: __________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: __________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole
    • ESL Helpful Handouts Page 14 of 14 The Past Perfect Tense Pictures Of The Past Activity Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: Student # 1 – Simple Past: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: Student # 2 – Past Perfect: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________Free Handout: http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts Photos: Michael Dawes, gailf548, LA Wad, Fletcher Prince, x-ray delta one, kris247,See-ming Lee, Anomalily, Old Shoe Woman, Ania_*, Richard Guther, danagraves, SP8254, Judy**, Waechor, stopnlook, asterix611, CraZee CrafteeZ, leozaza,DorkyMum, joaquinuy, Easa Shamih eEko P.h.o.t.o.g.r.a.p.h.y, Ed Yourdon, play4smee, Wellyproject, Borya, nelson NZ, jbcurio, The Eggplant, oddharmonic,Dalbera, mikebaird, Éole