Introduction to
Nursing Research
Why get excited
about research?
“The essence of
all research
originates in
curiosity - a
desire to find
out how and
why th...
Importance of
Nursing Research
Nurses ask questions aimed at
gaining new knowledge to
improve pt. care

Research-based (ev...
Importance of
Nursing Research
Accountability for care-related
decisions; research expands
nursing practice

Reinforce ide...
History of Nursing
Research
Began with Nightingale and
Crimean War- mid 1800s
Early 1900s – problems in nursing:
education...
History of Nursing
Research
1986 - National Center for
Nursing Research (NIH);
awards/grants to support
nursing research &...
Scientific Inquiry
Observable, verifiable data
collected to:
Describe
Explain
Predict

events
Scientific Method
Select/define
Formulate

a problem

research

question/hypothesis
Collect

data

Analyze
Report

da...
Scientific Method
2 Unique Characteristics:
Objectivity

– distance
research from personal
beliefs, values, attitudes
Why...
Scientific Method
Test:
Ideas
Hunches
Guesses

Doesn’t that sound like
fun???
Nursing Research
Application of
scientific method to
areas of interest to
nursing
Primarily involves
studying people –
Peo...
Continuum of
participation
Consumers of research –
read and evaluate
Participate in the research
process, utilize findings...
Quantitative
Research
Formal, objective, systematic
process using
 measurement
 hypothesis testing
 data analysis
Tradi...
Qualitative
Research
Evaluate subjective life experiences
and give meaning to them
Focuses on understanding
phenomena from...
Triangulation
Using both quantitative and
qualitative methods to collect
data
May combine various research
designs/data co...
The Research
Language - Some
Terminology
Variable
Data
Rigor
Control
Sampling
Setting
Concept of Variable
Measurable characteristic
that varies among subjects
Research is conducted
because this variance occur...
Data
Pieces of information obtained in
a study
Are the actual “values” of the
study variables
Quantitative

Qualitative
...
Concept of RIGOR
Striving for excellence in
research. Involves:
Discipline

Adherence

to detail

Strict

accuracy!

U...
Concept of
CONTROL
Using “rules” to decrease error
and increase probability that
study findings are an accurate
reflection...
Concept of
SAMPLING
Who/what do you want to
study?
Choosing subjects who are
“representative” of the study
population

Ran...
Concept of SETTING
Location of the study - can affect
results
Natural Setting: Uncontrolled, real
life situation
Partially...
Some Myths About
Research
The purpose of research is to
“prove” or “confirm” a theory.
Research findings are presented as
...
Intro to the
Research Process
Involves decision making - what
methods will help to answer a
research question/test a
hypot...
The Research
Process
What do I want to know?
Does anyone else know anything
about this?
I’ll make an educated guess about
...
The Research
Process
I’ll try to make sense out of all
this info I’ve collected.
What did I find? Was my
hunch supported?
...
Major Phases in the
Research Process
1. Selecting and defining the
problem in need of
investigation
2. Selecting a researc...
Phase 1
Selecting and defining the problem
(area of research)
Identify a question or area where
knowledge can be advanced
...
Phase 2
Choose study or research design
ID Study Population (chap 8)
Design Sampling Plan (chap 11)
Define how will variab...
Phase 3
Data Collection - according to preestablished plan (implements the plans
designed in Phase I & II) (chap 9)
recru...
Phase 4
Data Analysis
Interpret findings
Draw

conclusions

Hypothesis

is supported or
rejected (chap 10)

How

New

...
Phase 5
Disseminate findings - Share
findings with colleagues

May

report findings in journal

articles, oral presentati...
Major steps in the
research process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1.Formulating and delimiting
the problem
2.Reviewing the related
litera...
• 8.Designing the sampling plan
• 9.Finalizing and reviewing the
research plan
• 10.Conducting the pilot study
and making ...
• 15.Communicating the findings
• 16.Utilizing the findings
Research
Characteristics
•
•
•
•

Appropriateness to the
research question
Lack of bias
Precision
Power
Research
Characteristics
Originates with a question or problem.
Requires clear articulation of a goal.
Follows a specific ...
Classification of research is based
on the purpose of a study and the
amount of control
Types of Research:
Basic Vs. Applied
Basic or “Pure” Research:
Pursuit

truth

of knowledge or finding

Generates,

theo...
Basic Vs. Applied
Applied or “Practical” Research
Knowledge

intended to directly
influence clinical practice

Conducted...
The research findings contribute
to some modifications of present
practices.
Ie: patient care, education,
administration
Experimental vs.
nonexperimental
Experimental:
Researcher
manipulates or
controls variable(s)
and observes effect
in other...
Descriptive
Research
Uses questionnaires, surveys,
interviews or observations to
collect data
Correlation
Research
Relationships between and
among variables
Collection of data on at least 2
variables for the same gro...
Time dimension:
Retrospective vs.
Prospective
Retrospective:
Examines data
already collected
in the past

Prospective:
exa...
Time Dimension:
Cross-Sectional vs.
Longitudinal
Cross-sectional:
Collects data at
one point in
time
What exists
today?

L...
Many Approaches to
Research

Choice of
design –
the fun
part!
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Intro to research.i

  1. 1. Introduction to Nursing Research
  2. 2. Why get excited about research? “The essence of all research originates in curiosity - a desire to find out how and why things happen” How can…? Why is…? What is the best way to…? What causes…? What are the effects of…? I wonder...
  3. 3. Importance of Nursing Research Nurses ask questions aimed at gaining new knowledge to improve pt. care Research-based (evidence based) practice = integrating research findings into clinical decision making
  4. 4. Importance of Nursing Research Accountability for care-related decisions; research expands nursing practice Reinforce identity of nursing as a profession – knowing/ understanding pts. health care experience
  5. 5. History of Nursing Research Began with Nightingale and Crimean War- mid 1800s Early 1900s – problems in nursing: education, staffing issues 1960s Practice oriented research; first nursing research journals 1983 - ANA Center for Research for Nursing
  6. 6. History of Nursing Research 1986 - National Center for Nursing Research (NIH); awards/grants to support nursing research & training 1993 – Re-designated at NIH as the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
  7. 7. Scientific Inquiry Observable, verifiable data collected to: Describe Explain Predict events
  8. 8. Scientific Method Select/define Formulate a problem research question/hypothesis Collect data Analyze Report data results
  9. 9. Scientific Method 2 Unique Characteristics: Objectivity – distance research from personal beliefs, values, attitudes Why??? Empirical Data – documenting objective data through direct observation = reality
  10. 10. Scientific Method Test: Ideas Hunches Guesses Doesn’t that sound like fun???
  11. 11. Nursing Research Application of scientific method to areas of interest to nursing Primarily involves studying people – People do not behave consistently as do objects/chemicals in a laboratory! This poses special challenges!
  12. 12. Continuum of participation Consumers of research – read and evaluate Participate in the research process, utilize findings Conduct research
  13. 13. Quantitative Research Formal, objective, systematic process using  measurement  hypothesis testing  data analysis Traditional approaches such as experiments, questionnaires, surveys
  14. 14. Qualitative Research Evaluate subjective life experiences and give meaning to them Focuses on understanding phenomena from an individual’s perspective Approaches: observation, in-depth interviews, case studies, narrative analyses
  15. 15. Triangulation Using both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data May combine various research designs/data collection techniques in the same study – combine psychosocial surveys, interviews, observations Two approaches are complimentary and can give an accurate reflection of reality.
  16. 16. The Research Language - Some Terminology Variable Data Rigor Control Sampling Setting
  17. 17. Concept of Variable Measurable characteristic that varies among subjects Research is conducted because this variance occurs! Types: Independent – presumed cause Dependent effect – presumed
  18. 18. Data Pieces of information obtained in a study Are the actual “values” of the study variables Quantitative Qualitative - numeric values - narrative descriptions
  19. 19. Concept of RIGOR Striving for excellence in research. Involves: Discipline Adherence to detail Strict accuracy! Uses precise measurement tools
  20. 20. Concept of CONTROL Using “rules” to decrease error and increase probability that study findings are an accurate reflection of reality Ensure results that reflect true relationship among variables Reduction of the influence of unwanted “extraneous” variables
  21. 21. Concept of SAMPLING Who/what do you want to study? Choosing subjects who are “representative” of the study population Random & Non-Random Sampling
  22. 22. Concept of SETTING Location of the study - can affect results Natural Setting: Uncontrolled, real life situation Partially Controlled: Manipulated or modified in some way Highly Controlled: Artificial environment for sole purpose of doing research. Decreases effects of outside influences.
  23. 23. Some Myths About Research The purpose of research is to “prove” or “confirm” a theory. Research findings are presented as complete and conclusive answers. There is a hierarchy of research methodology that places true “experimental” research at the top.
  24. 24. Intro to the Research Process Involves decision making - what methods will help to answer a research question/test a hypothesis? Is flexible - multiple possibilities, each with its own strengths/weaknesses Is a circular process
  25. 25. The Research Process What do I want to know? Does anyone else know anything about this? I’ll make an educated guess about what I think the answer to my question will be. Here’s what I’m going to do to try to answer my question.
  26. 26. The Research Process I’ll try to make sense out of all this info I’ve collected. What did I find? Was my hunch supported? What do I want to know now???
  27. 27. Major Phases in the Research Process 1. Selecting and defining the problem in need of investigation 2. Selecting a research design 3. Collecting data 4. Analyzing data 5. Utilizing the Findings
  28. 28. Phase 1 Selecting and defining the problem (area of research) Identify a question or area where knowledge can be advanced Review related literature for rationale to do study Identify a theoretical framework for interpreting results. Propose research question and/or hypothesis
  29. 29. Phase 2 Choose study or research design ID Study Population (chap 8) Design Sampling Plan (chap 11) Define how will variables be measured Setting How data will be collected - tools Pilot Study - Revisions
  30. 30. Phase 3 Data Collection - according to preestablished plan (implements the plans designed in Phase I & II) (chap 9) recruiting obtaining consent training staff collecting data Organization of the data How do you analyze the data? (must be appropriate form) May be the longest phase of the research process
  31. 31. Phase 4 Data Analysis Interpret findings Draw conclusions Hypothesis is supported or rejected (chap 10) How New best to utilize findings? question formulated? (can lead to new questions that can stimulate further study)
  32. 32. Phase 5 Disseminate findings - Share findings with colleagues May report findings in journal articles, oral presentations, poster presentations Utilize findings - use in nursing practice
  33. 33. Major steps in the research process • • • • • • • 1.Formulating and delimiting the problem 2.Reviewing the related literature 3.Developing a theoretical framework 4.Formulating the hypothesis 5.Selecting a research design 6.Identifying the population to be studied 7.Specifying methods to collect data
  34. 34. • 8.Designing the sampling plan • 9.Finalizing and reviewing the research plan • 10.Conducting the pilot study and making revisions. • 11.Collecting the data • 12.Preparing the data for analysis • 13.Analyzing the data • 14.Interpreting the results
  35. 35. • 15.Communicating the findings • 16.Utilizing the findings
  36. 36. Research Characteristics • • • • Appropriateness to the research question Lack of bias Precision Power
  37. 37. Research Characteristics Originates with a question or problem. Requires clear articulation of a goal. Follows a specific plan or procedure. Often divides main problem into subproblems. Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. Accepts certain critical assumptions. Requires collection and interpretation of data. Cyclical (helical) in nature.
  38. 38. Classification of research is based on the purpose of a study and the amount of control
  39. 39. Types of Research: Basic Vs. Applied Basic or “Pure” Research: Pursuit truth of knowledge or finding Generates, theory Often refines or tests uses laboratory setting Findings may not be directly useful in practice May be used later in development of treatment/drug/theory
  40. 40. Basic Vs. Applied Applied or “Practical” Research Knowledge intended to directly influence clinical practice Conducted conditions in actual practice Solve problems, make decisions, predict/control outcomes Evaluate interventions Test/validate Evaluate theories “Basic” research knowledge for usefulness
  41. 41. The research findings contribute to some modifications of present practices. Ie: patient care, education, administration
  42. 42. Experimental vs. nonexperimental Experimental: Researcher manipulates or controls variable(s) and observes effect in other variable(s) Evaluates cause and effect relationship Ex: Does a pre-op intervention program to ↑ self efficacy affect self care measures post-op? Nonexperimental: Describes or looks at relationships(s) or correlation between variables. Variables are not manipulated by the researcher Ex: Correlation between HRT use and breast CA
  43. 43. Descriptive Research Uses questionnaires, surveys, interviews or observations to collect data
  44. 44. Correlation Research Relationships between and among variables Collection of data on at least 2 variables for the same group of individuals Calculator-the correlation between the measurer Highest number of research studies in nursing are classified as description correlation design
  45. 45. Time dimension: Retrospective vs. Prospective Retrospective: Examines data already collected in the past Prospective: examines data being collected in the present Ex: Review of medical records to examine previous history in of cholesterol levels in s/p MI patients Ex: Study describing social support and coping mechanisms of women with ovarian CA
  46. 46. Time Dimension: Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Cross-sectional: Collects data at one point in time What exists today? Longitudinal: Studies examines variables of interest over a period of time Advantages – ability to collect data on the same individual over time
  47. 47. Many Approaches to Research Choice of design – the fun part!

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