Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Research methodology week03
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Research methodology week03

464

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
464
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Business Research Methods) Week 3 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 1
  • 2. Decision-Making Decision-Making is the process of resolving a problem or choosing amongst alternative opportunities  What is the problem or opportunity?  How much Information is available?  What Information is needed? Complete Certainty Decision-Making Situation Absolute Ambiguity Value of Research 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 2
  • 3. Certainty, Uncertainty, Ambiguity  Certainty – Decision-maker has all the requisite information concerning the business problem (or opportunity). Research may be unnecessary. Complete certainty about the future is rare in practice  Uncertainty – General nature of the business problem is clear but information about alternative courses of action is incomplete as are the events which may occur. Research may be a potentially valuable tool here  Ambiguity – Nature of the problem to be solved is unclear. Objectives are vague and alternatives difficult to define. Research may be a useful excercise 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 3
  • 4. Types of Research Exploratory Research: • undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems • general problems usually known but not sufficiently understood • the purpose is to get more information, not to uncover specific courses of action (subsequent research) Determining a specific course of action to follow is not a purpose of exploratory research! Example: Child-Care support programme for employees 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 4
  • 5. Types of Research Descriptive Research: • undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics of a population or phenomenon • Previous knowledge of problem exists • High degree of precision or accuracy required Examples: Who are the main consumers of organic foods? How many students read the prescribed course literature? Where do most holiday-makers travelling overseas go? When do petrol stations tend to raise their prices? 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 5
  • 6. Types of Research Causal Research: • undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships amongst variables • are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research studies • Often difficult to determine because of the influence of other variables (concommitant Variation and the presence of other hidden variables) Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?)) 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 6
  • 7. Stages in the Research Process Define Problem Planning a Research Design Conclusions and Report Planning a Sample Processing and Analysing the Data Gathering the Data 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 7
  • 8. Forward and Backward Linkages  Forward Linkage – The earlier stages of a research project determine the design at a later stage Example: The goal of the research project will determine the selection of the sample and the way data is collected  Backward Linkage – The later stages of a research project determine how its earlier stages are conducted Example: The company executives require certain specific information which the researcher anticipates and for which he or she plans the data collection and analysis steps accordingly 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 8
  • 9. Flowcharting the Research Process (1) Problem Discovery Selection of exploratory research technique Secondary (historical) data Pilot Study Experience Survey Case Study Problem Definition (Statement of research objectives) Selection of basic research method 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Secondary Data Study Observation Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 9
  • 10. Flowcharting the Research Process (2) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Secondary Data Study Observation Collection of Data (Fieldwork) Editing and Coding Data Sample Design Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling Data Processing and Analysis Interpretation of Findings Report 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 10
  • 11. Ethical Considerations in Business Research • Ethics & Morals • Societal norms and values • Divergent perceptions of what is considered ethical and unethical • What is “ethical” in business research? • Ethical Guidelines and professional associations 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 11
  • 12. Ethical Interfaces in Business Research Subjects’ Rights Clients’ Rights Researchers’ Obligation Researchers’ Obligation Research Subject Research Sponsor Researcher Researchers’ Rights Researchers’ Rights Subjects’ Obligation Clients’ Obligation Subjects Rights & Clients Obligation 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 12
  • 13. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Research Subjects  Truthfulness in giving information to the researcher if a research subject or respondent gives his or her consent to participate in a research study  Sustained cooperativeness with the researcher throughout the course of the research study  Adhere to responsibility if informed consent is given to the researcher  State any constraints or limitations in advance 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 13
  • 14. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Researchers  No deception, be forthright and do not conceal the true purpose of the research  Maintain objectivity, courtesy and high professional standards through scientific process  No falsification, alteration or misrepresentation of data for political or other purposes  Protect the confidentiality of the research subjects and research sponsors  No faulty conclusions  No inclusion or use of information or ideas contained in competing research proposals 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 14
  • 15. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Research Sponsors  No request for submission of competitive bids by researchers if selection of the researcher has already been made  Avoid manipulation and influencing of the researcher with a view to discrediting individuals or organizations  The conclusions drawn from research work should be consistent with the data and not influenced by other undesirable conditions or motives  Observe the confidentiality of the research subjects and researcher  Avoid Advocacy Research 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 15
  • 16. The Menace of Plagiarism Please read the CIIT Academic Honesty Policy compiled by Mr. Laeeq-ur-Rehman Khan which is distributed in this class as a separate sheet ZERO TOLERANCE (and ZERO MARKS) for cheating and plagiarism at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology! 29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 16

×