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Its about breast cancer... most common one these days! hope u find it easy nd helpful..

Its about breast cancer... most common one these days! hope u find it easy nd helpful..

Published in Education , Health & Medicine
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  • 1.  
  • 2. THE ORIGIN…
    • Malignant tumor developed from cells in the breast.
    • Usually either begins in the cells of the lobules , or the ducts.
    • Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes etc.
    • Most common types based on its origin-
    • DUCTAL CARCINOMA :  or DCIS, starts in the cells which line the breast's ducts that supply milk to the nipple.
    • Between 85% and 90% of all breast cancers are Ductal.
    • LOBULAR CARCINOMA : or LCIS, begins in the lobes, or glands which produce milk in the breast.
    • About 8% of breast cancers are lobular.
  • 5.
    • Second most common types-
    • INVASIVE (INFILTRATING) FORM: - Has the potential to spread out of the original tumor site - invade other healthy parts of breast and body.
    • - This rare form of breast cancer is named for its appearance
    • NON-INVASIVE FORM : Also called In-situ.
    • It has not yet invaded other healthy tissues.
    • Can turn invasive, if left untreated.
    • Eg: DCIS, LCIS
    • -least common, aggressive - takes the form of sheets or nests .
    • -Can start in soft tissues of the breast, just under the skin, or it can appear in the skin.
    • ( Paget’s disease)
  • 6.
    • Breast Cancers – sensitive to Estrogen - causes tumors to grow.
    • Such cells have Estrogen receptors on their surface. – Estrogen receptor positive - ER positive cancer.
    • HER2- positive cancer : Over expression of HER2 gene causes this.
    • More aggressive and higher risk of recurring.
  • 7.  
  • 8. THE STAGES…
    • Stage 0 : Cancer cells remain inside the breast duct, no invasion into normal adjacent breast tissue.
    • Stage I : Cancer - 2 cm or less - confined to the breast ( lymph nodes are clear ).
    • Stage IIA : No tumor in the breast - cancer cells in axillary lymph nodes OR  tumor - < 2 cm -has spread to axillary lymph nodes  OR  tumor - >2cm but <5 cm -has not spread to axillary lymph nodes.
  • 9.
    • Stage IIB : tumor >2cm but <5 cm - has spread to axillary lymph nodes  OR  tumor >5 cm - has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
    • Stage IIIA : No tumor in breast - Cancer in axillary lymph nodes (near the breastbone or closely stuck) OR  Any size tumor - Cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes (near the breastbone or closely stuck)
  • 10.
    • Stage IIIB : Any size tumor - has spread to chest wall and/or skin of the breast -to axillary lymph nodes (clustered and close by)
    • Stage IIIC : May be no cancer in breast or Any size tumor - has spread to chest wall and/or skin of breast - lymph nodes above/below collarbone and breastbone.
    • Stage IV : cancer has spread — or metastasized — to other parts of the body.
  • 11. SYMPTOMS...
    • No symptoms in early stages – hence, regular breast exams.
    • Breast lump or in armpit – hard, no pain- self examination.
    • Redness, dimpling or puckering of breast.
    • Bloody, clear or yellow, green- pus like secretions.
    • Advanced symptoms-
    • Bone pain.
    • Breast pain/discomfort.
    • Skin ulcers.
    • Swelling of arm next to affected breast.
    • Rapid weight loss.
  • 12.  
    • BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes-
    • Help repair cell damage- normal growth of breasts.
    • Abnormal BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes - account for up to 10% of all breast cancers.
    • Not necessary that abnormal BRCA genes only cause breast cancer.
    • Mutations, especially, SNPs - linked to higher breast cancer risk in women with an abnormal BRCA1 gene as well as women who didn't inherit an abnormal breast cancer gene.
    • Mutated BRCA1 and 2 genes affect both the breasts more often.
  • 15.
    • Such women – ovarian, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers, melanoma.
    • In men,
    • Men with mutated BRCA2 gene -higher risk for breast cancer - about 80 times greater than average.
    • Men with mutated BRCA1 gene - slightly higher risk of prostate cancer .
    • Men with abnormal BRCA2 gene -7 times more likely to develop prostate cancer.
    • Other cancer risks - cancer of the skin or digestive tract , - slightly higher in men with abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
  • 16.
    • Other genes-
    • Changes in other genes - associated with breast cancer - much less common – rarer mutations.
    • ATM : helps repair damaged DNA.
    • - abnormal copies - causes Ataxia-telangiectasia - a rare disease that affects brain development.
    • - Inheriting abnormal ATM gene - linked to an increased rate of breast cancer - abnormal gene stops cells from repairing damaged DNA.
    • p53 : Tumor suppressor.
    • - causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome – cancers at young age.
    • - Such people - higher-than-average-risk of breast cancer, leukemia, brain tumors, and sarcomas
  • 17.
    • CHEK2 : Tumor suppressor.
    • - Abnormal CHEK2 gene also causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome and can double breast cancer risk.
    • PTEN : helps regulate cell growth.
    • - Abnormal PTEN gene causes Cowden syndrome - higher risk of both benign (not cancer) and cancerous breast tumors, growths in the digestive tract, thyroid, uterus, and ovaries.
    • CDH1 : makes a protein that helps cells adhesion to form tissue- E-Cadherin.
    • - Abnormal CDH1 gene - rare type of stomach cancer at an early age.
    • - Women with an abnormal CDH1 gene - increased risk of invasive lobular breast cancer .
    • Family history of breast cancer (20-30% patients with history).
    • Genetic abnormality - BRCA1 and BRCA2, p53, HER2 etc.
    • Early menarch or late menopause.
    • Age and gender - Women 100 times more prone to than men.
    • Late conception.
    • DES administration during pregnancy.
    • HRT for several years.
    • Radiation exposure at young age.
  • 19. TREATMENT….
    • Surgery: Lumpectomy, Quadrantectomy, Mastectomy, Sentinel node Biopsy, (Mammography)
    • Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia
    • Chemotherapy: Taxol, 5-FU, Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin
    • Hormonal Therapy: SERMs (Tamoxifen), Aromatase inhibitors (Aromasin) etc.
    • Targeted Biologic therapies : Anti cancer drugs- Herceptin, Avastin etc.
    • Cope with side effects.
    • Various combinations of the above therapies are employed to cure Breast cancer depending on its stage.
    • Administer Tamoxifen- for women >35 years old
    • Consider prophylactic mastectomy for previously affected women, or those with strong family history.
    • Lifestyle changes.
    • Limit or stop alcohol consumption.
    • Support groups can help create awareness.