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Its about breast cancer... most common one these days! hope u find it easy nd helpful..

Its about breast cancer... most common one these days! hope u find it easy nd helpful..



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    Bcancer Bcancer Presentation Transcript

      • Malignant tumor developed from cells in the breast.
      • Usually either begins in the cells of the lobules , or the ducts.
      • Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes etc.
      • Most common types based on its origin-
      • DUCTAL CARCINOMA :  or DCIS, starts in the cells which line the breast's ducts that supply milk to the nipple.
      • Between 85% and 90% of all breast cancers are Ductal.
      • LOBULAR CARCINOMA : or LCIS, begins in the lobes, or glands which produce milk in the breast.
      • About 8% of breast cancers are lobular.
      • Second most common types-
      • INVASIVE (INFILTRATING) FORM: - Has the potential to spread out of the original tumor site - invade other healthy parts of breast and body.
      • - This rare form of breast cancer is named for its appearance
      • NON-INVASIVE FORM : Also called In-situ.
      • It has not yet invaded other healthy tissues.
      • Can turn invasive, if left untreated.
      • Eg: DCIS, LCIS
      • -least common, aggressive - takes the form of sheets or nests .
      • -Can start in soft tissues of the breast, just under the skin, or it can appear in the skin.
      • ( Paget’s disease)
      • Breast Cancers – sensitive to Estrogen - causes tumors to grow.
      • Such cells have Estrogen receptors on their surface. – Estrogen receptor positive - ER positive cancer.
      • HER2- positive cancer : Over expression of HER2 gene causes this.
      • More aggressive and higher risk of recurring.
      • Stage 0 : Cancer cells remain inside the breast duct, no invasion into normal adjacent breast tissue.
      • Stage I : Cancer - 2 cm or less - confined to the breast ( lymph nodes are clear ).
      • Stage IIA : No tumor in the breast - cancer cells in axillary lymph nodes OR  tumor - < 2 cm -has spread to axillary lymph nodes  OR  tumor - >2cm but <5 cm -has not spread to axillary lymph nodes.
      • Stage IIB : tumor >2cm but <5 cm - has spread to axillary lymph nodes  OR  tumor >5 cm - has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
      • Stage IIIA : No tumor in breast - Cancer in axillary lymph nodes (near the breastbone or closely stuck) OR  Any size tumor - Cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes (near the breastbone or closely stuck)
      • Stage IIIB : Any size tumor - has spread to chest wall and/or skin of the breast -to axillary lymph nodes (clustered and close by)
      • Stage IIIC : May be no cancer in breast or Any size tumor - has spread to chest wall and/or skin of breast - lymph nodes above/below collarbone and breastbone.
      • Stage IV : cancer has spread — or metastasized — to other parts of the body.
    • SYMPTOMS...
      • No symptoms in early stages – hence, regular breast exams.
      • Breast lump or in armpit – hard, no pain- self examination.
      • Redness, dimpling or puckering of breast.
      • Bloody, clear or yellow, green- pus like secretions.
      • Advanced symptoms-
      • Bone pain.
      • Breast pain/discomfort.
      • Skin ulcers.
      • Swelling of arm next to affected breast.
      • Rapid weight loss.
      • BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes-
      • Help repair cell damage- normal growth of breasts.
      • Abnormal BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes - account for up to 10% of all breast cancers.
      • Not necessary that abnormal BRCA genes only cause breast cancer.
      • Mutations, especially, SNPs - linked to higher breast cancer risk in women with an abnormal BRCA1 gene as well as women who didn't inherit an abnormal breast cancer gene.
      • Mutated BRCA1 and 2 genes affect both the breasts more often.
      • Such women – ovarian, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers, melanoma.
      • In men,
      • Men with mutated BRCA2 gene -higher risk for breast cancer - about 80 times greater than average.
      • Men with mutated BRCA1 gene - slightly higher risk of prostate cancer .
      • Men with abnormal BRCA2 gene -7 times more likely to develop prostate cancer.
      • Other cancer risks - cancer of the skin or digestive tract , - slightly higher in men with abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
      • Other genes-
      • Changes in other genes - associated with breast cancer - much less common – rarer mutations.
      • ATM : helps repair damaged DNA.
      • - abnormal copies - causes Ataxia-telangiectasia - a rare disease that affects brain development.
      • - Inheriting abnormal ATM gene - linked to an increased rate of breast cancer - abnormal gene stops cells from repairing damaged DNA.
      • p53 : Tumor suppressor.
      • - causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome – cancers at young age.
      • - Such people - higher-than-average-risk of breast cancer, leukemia, brain tumors, and sarcomas
      • CHEK2 : Tumor suppressor.
      • - Abnormal CHEK2 gene also causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome and can double breast cancer risk.
      • PTEN : helps regulate cell growth.
      • - Abnormal PTEN gene causes Cowden syndrome - higher risk of both benign (not cancer) and cancerous breast tumors, growths in the digestive tract, thyroid, uterus, and ovaries.
      • CDH1 : makes a protein that helps cells adhesion to form tissue- E-Cadherin.
      • - Abnormal CDH1 gene - rare type of stomach cancer at an early age.
      • - Women with an abnormal CDH1 gene - increased risk of invasive lobular breast cancer .
      • Family history of breast cancer (20-30% patients with history).
      • Genetic abnormality - BRCA1 and BRCA2, p53, HER2 etc.
      • Early menarch or late menopause.
      • Age and gender - Women 100 times more prone to than men.
      • Late conception.
      • DES administration during pregnancy.
      • HRT for several years.
      • Radiation exposure at young age.
      • Surgery: Lumpectomy, Quadrantectomy, Mastectomy, Sentinel node Biopsy, (Mammography)
      • Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia
      • Chemotherapy: Taxol, 5-FU, Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin
      • Hormonal Therapy: SERMs (Tamoxifen), Aromatase inhibitors (Aromasin) etc.
      • Targeted Biologic therapies : Anti cancer drugs- Herceptin, Avastin etc.
      • Cope with side effects.
      • Various combinations of the above therapies are employed to cure Breast cancer depending on its stage.
      • Administer Tamoxifen- for women >35 years old
      • Consider prophylactic mastectomy for previously affected women, or those with strong family history.
      • Lifestyle changes.
      • Limit or stop alcohol consumption.
      • Support groups can help create awareness.