Interfaces to ubiquitous computing
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  • 1. Interfaces forUbiquitous Computing By Swati A. Sonawane M.E. (SSA)
  • 2. INDEX Classes of Interface Interaction InputIntroduction User Usability Conclusions Design Technologies Interface Metrics From Graphical User-Centered Tangible User User Interfaces Sensor Input Design Interface to Context Data Rules for UUI Surface User Systems Design Gesture Input Design Interface Ambient User Genius Design Speech Input Interfaces
  • 3. Introduction • User InterfacesIntroduction – Point of Contact Between Computer System and Human – Both in terms of Input and OutputInteraction – Input : Keyboard, Mouse, Touch Screen, Digital Camera etc. Design – Output : CRT/LCD/LED Displays, Projector etc. Classes of User Interface InputTechnologies • Ubicomp Computation Interface – Computation EveryWhere Usability – Interfaces to Ubicomp Systems must reside in periphery of our user’s attention and should Metrics remain unnoticed until required. – a ubicomp system is made up of subsystems and we must design for the experience not theConclusions individual subsystem
  • 4. GUI To Context Data • Graphical User Interface (GUI)Introduction – Current GUI is built considering keyboard, Screen, Mouse devices – GUI offers intuitive Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer rather command lineInteraction – Inputs from keyboards, mouse, Design – Image shows Ubuntu 3D Desktop Using Compviz Classes of User Interface • Ubicomp User Interface (UUI) Input – Must Consider Broader Range of InputsTechnologies – Like human motion, activity, preference and action desired. Interface Usability – Must understand Context of action. MetricsConclusions
  • 5. Rules for UUI DesignIntroduction 1. Bliss 6. Modelessness ( easy to learn ) ( Avoid Modes)Interaction Design 2. Distraction 7. Fear of Interaction Classes of ( don’t need ( easy ways to undo ) User concentration ) Interface 3. Cognitive Flow 8. Notifications Input ( access every where ) ( display feedback )Technologies Interface 4. Manuals 9. Calming Usability (should not needed ) ( human inputs and senses) Metrics 5. Transparency 10. DefaultsConclusions ( context aware ) ( reuse user inputs)
  • 6. Interaction DesignIntroduction • Interaction Design – Interaction Design is discipline of defining the expected behavior of products and systems that a user can interact withInteraction – UUI design is field of Interaction design Design Classes of • Interaction Design Depends User Interface – Complexity of proposed system – Its novelty Input – Degree of stability or ubiquityTechnologies – And Its COST Interface Usability • Design Methodologies for Ubicomp Metrics – User-Centered Design (UCD) – Systems DesignConclusions – Genius Design
  • 7. User-Centered DesignIntroduction • User-Centered Design – Focuses on USER’s Need, Problems, and Goals – User is involved at every stage of processInteraction – User needs to ensure system works correctly Design – UCD plays important role in Ubicomp research and Development Classes of User Interface • Disadvantages – Evolving stated Vs Actual need Input – Technological ShiftsTechnologies – Simply involving wrong set or type of user in process – It does not consider interaction between two systems Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 8. System Design and Genius DesignIntroduction • System Design – is a systematic and compositional approach to development, based on the combination of components to realize a solution in essence the development of a system of systemsInteraction – Ubicomp System is typically of many systems social system (people), devices, applications, Design computational artifects, sensors, actuators, and services – Unlike Desktop or Web application software development Systems Design Must be Context Classes of User aware and act accordingly Interface – A systems design approach forces a designer to consider the entire environment in which the ubicomp system will be realized and not just one component of it. InputTechnologies Interface • Genius Design Usability – the process of exclusively relying on the wisdom and experience of the designer to make all Metrics the design decisions. – Designer Don’t take input from users to design system , uses own experienceConclusions – Most of Apple Products Like iPhone, iPad etc designed using this approach.
  • 9. Classes of User InterfacesIntroduction • Interface represents the point of contact between a computer system and a human, both in terms of input to the system and output from the systemInteraction • In Classical Human-computer Interface texts have six classes Design – command language, ( hard to remember and learn ) – natural language, Classes of – Menu selection, ( may lead to complex menu hierarchies, telephone menus) User Interface – form filling, ( limited to only Data-Collection type applications) – direct manipulation, and Input – anthropomorphic interfacesTechnologies • GUI is considered to be dominant user interfaces Interface – But Keyboard, Mouse, screen attached to every devices can not be the future. Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 10. Classes of User InterfacesIntroduction • Presence of Input Technologies which do not cleanly fit into any of these Six classes, because they rely on new devicesInteraction Design • Examples include body movement in the form of gesture, speech, ambient Classes of feedback, surface interaction, and augmented reality (AR) User Interface • New Classes of interfaces Input – Tangible User InterfaceTechnologies – Surface User Interface – Ambient User Interface Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 11. Tangible InterfacesIntroduction • Earlier Known as Graspable User InterfaceInteraction • User interacts with digital information through physical environment Design Classes of • Characteristics of tangible user interfaces User Interface – Physical representations are computationally coupled to underlying digital information. Input – Physical representations embody mechanisms for interactive control.Technologies – Physical representations are perceptually coupled to actively mediated digital representations. Interface Usability – Physical state of tangibles embodies key aspects of the digital state of a system. MetricsConclusions
  • 12. Tangible InterfacesIntroduction • Earlier Know as Graspable User Interface • Unlike a GUI, which presents manipulable elements virtually onscreen, aInteraction Tangible User Interface (TUI) integrates both representation and control of Design computation into physical artifacts. Classes of • User interacts with digital information through physical environment User Interface • Characteristics of tangible user interfaces Input – Physical representations are computationally coupled to underlying digitalTechnologies information. – Physical representations embody mechanisms for interactive control. Interface Usability – Physical state of tangibles embodies key aspects of the digital state of a system. MetricsConclusions
  • 13. Examples of TUI • Tangible Disaster Simulation SystemIntroduction • A collaborative tool for planning disasterInteraction measures based on disaster simulation Design and evacuation simulation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Classes of User • Built on the Sense-Table platform Interface • This system simulates and visualizes the Input disaster and the evacuation of peopleTechnologies to shelters, under any conditions inputted Interface by users Usability • Multiple user Input Metrics • input parameters such as the scale ofConclusions disasters (ex. Tsunami, earthquake, and fire) and the capacity of a shelter on a projected map
  • 14. Examples of TUIIntroduction • SandScape • a tangible interface for designing andInteraction understanding landscapes through a Design variety of computational simulations Classes of using sand. User Interface • Users view these simulations as they are projected on the surface of a sand InputTechnologies model that represents the terrain. • The users can choose from a variety of different simulations that highlight Interface Usability either the height, slope, contours, shadows, drainage or aspect of the Metrics landscape model.Conclusions
  • 15. Surface User Interfaces (SUI)Introduction • An SUI is a class of user interface that relies on a self-illuminated [e.g., liquid crystal display (LCD)] or projected horizontal, vertical, or spherical interactive surfaceInteraction Design • coupled with control of computation into the same physical surface (e.g., a touchscreen). Classes of User • The outputs and inputs to an SUI are tightly coupled. Interface • They rely on computational techniques Input – including computer visionTechnologies – capacitive and surface acoustic wave detection, to determine user input to the system. Interface • They are often used in public places (kiosks, ATMs) or small personal Usability devices (PDA, iPhone) where a separate keyboard and mouse cannot or Metrics should not be used. • It can Scale from Touch Screen of phone to Huge Screen for store locator inConclusions Mall or Shopping place
  • 16. Examples of SUI • Microsoft SurfaceIntroduction • responds to natural hand gestures and real world objects.Interaction Design • The surface is capable of – object recognition, Classes of – object/finger orientation recognition User – and tracking, and is Interface – multi-touch and is multi-user. InputTechnologies Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 17. Examples of SUI • Mobile Phone Touch ScreenIntroduction • is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and locationInteraction Design of a touch within the display area. Classes of User Interface InputTechnologies Interface Usability ATM TouchScreens MetricsConclusions
  • 18. Ambient User Interfaces (AUI)Introduction • Ambient User Interfaces ( AUI ) are very comfortable to user, negligible user involvementInteraction • Ambient information displays or outputs are intended to be “ignorable” or Design “glanceable,” allowing users to perceive the information presented in the periphery of their attention, but also to be bring this information (e.g., Classes of User social reminders on facebook ) into focus as required. Interface • AUI is a class of user interface where the output elements reside in the Input periphery of a user’s awareness, moving to the center of attention onlyTechnologies when appropriate and desirable, and the inputs come from nonintrusive sensing or inference from other actions Interface Usability • Fully realized AUIs as defined are not yet commonplace in our daily lives. MetricsConclusions
  • 19. Examples of AUI • Power Aware CordsIntroduction • Currency Data Fountain • Ambient UmbrellaInteraction Design Classes of User Interface InputTechnologies Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 20. Input Technologies • A UUI relies on a broader range of inputs and outputs from the system than the classicalIntroduction GUI, TUI, or even an SUI. • Examples of these inputs include – physiological measurements,Interaction – location, Design – identity, – video, audio, gesture, and Classes of – touch. User • In addition, Interface – environmental sensors, – personal/embedded sensors, data Input – mining, historical data, inference, and preferences can all act as inputs to a Ubicomp SystemTechnologies • Output examples – Ambient displays, environmental updates, actuators, automated actions and personalized Interface – behaviors, and multiple audio/video channels. Usability – Such outputs are all reliant on our senses including sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, and balance Metrics • some user actions will be interpreted via the UUI as an input to the system without the user being explicitly aware of it. Likewise, the UUI can provide outputs that are onlyConclusions intended for the periphery of the user’s attention (Example Room temparature can be set depending on presence of person, current temp. etc)
  • 21. Input Technologies • Here We focus on Three Categories of Input TechnologiesIntroduction • Sensor Input • Gesture InputInteraction Design • Speech Input Classes of User Interface InputTechnologies Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 22. Sensor Input • A sensor is a device that can measure a physical property from the environment.Introduction • Sensors can reside in the environment or on the body • Environmental Sensors to monitor (Mobile Sensors)Interaction – Traffic Design – Air Quality Classes of – Water Quality User – Light pollution Interface – Temperature • Physiological Sensors Input – Used to collect measurement about a person they are attached toTechnologies – Like heart rate , body temperature – Blood oxygen level sensor ( Ring Sensor ) Interface Usability • Ubicomp System uses these sensed data all together to function correctly MetricsConclusions
  • 23. Gesture Input • A gesture is the movement of a part of the body to express an idea of meaning.Introduction • Typical gestures such as pointing, waving, or nodding are formed with the hand or the head as appropriateInteraction Design • gesture recognition is the process of interpreting human gestures using various inputs and computational processing Classes of • Gesture Sensing Devices User – 3D DEPTH’] SENSORS Interface – CAMERAS – RFIDs InputTechnologies • Examples Interface – Microsoft Kinect Usability – Animation Creation MetricsConclusions
  • 24. Speech Input • Speech recognition is the process of interpreting human speech using a variety ofIntroduction audio inputs and computational processing • In UUI Speech can act as both input and outputInteraction Design • Speech represents a popular view of how humans will interact with computers as evidenced in literature and film Classes of • Speech recognition and natural speech output represent the backbone of natural User Interface language and anthropomorphic interfaces • Environments such as surgeries, dangerous work environments, and driving all Input represent environments where UUIs with speech as input have been researched andTechnologies developed Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 25. Interface Usability Metrics • Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use.Introduction • The word “usability” also refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process.Interaction Design • Usability is defined by five quality components: – learnability, Classes of – efficiency, User – memorability, Interface – errors, – and satisfaction. InputTechnologies • Kinect Games Highly intuitive interface Interface Usability MetricsConclusions
  • 26. Interface Usability Metrics • For UUI Following are Usability MetricsIntroduction • Conciseness – Simple actions, Few keystrokes or Few clicks, – Can be measured by TIMEInteraction • Expressiveness Design – Combinations of actions gives consistent Results Classes of • Ease – How much does a user need to learn or recall just to start using the interface? User Interface • Transparency – How much does a user need to remember about the state of his or her problem while using the interface telephone speech interface versus a GUI? Input • DiscoverabilityTechnologies – Can the user easily understand interface functionality Interface • Invisibility Usability – How much does the interface make itself known when it could have inferred, deduced, or waited for the data required Metrics • Programmability – Can the application, device, or service be used in repetitive tasks or can it become aConclusions component in a larger system
  • 27. ConclusionsIntroduction • Interfaces to ubicomp system take consideration of various sensors, actuatorsInteraction Design • We have seen various design methodologies for designing interface Classes of User Interface • Concluded various metrics for interfaces InputTechnologies • While designing Interfaces to Ubicomp System we need to consider individual system’s interface as all together. Interface Usability MetricsConclusions