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    • Organization Development and Change Division R. Wayne Boss, Editor Winter 2004 Published by the ODC Division CALL FOR PAPERS CALL FOR PROFESSIONAL George Roth DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP 2004 Program Chair (PDW) PROPOSALS Ram Tenkasi This note outlines the requirements for successfully ODC Division PDW Chair submitting papers and symposia to the ODC Division for the 2004 Academy of Management National “Creating Actionable Knowledge,” the theme for the Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana on August 1 to 2004 AOM conference, is at the heart of what the 6, 2004. The deadline for submissions is Monday, Organization Development and Change Division stands January 5, 2004 at 5 p.m. EST (note time!). for. So please utilize this opportunity to submit creative and challenging PDWs that expand our knowledge of This year’s conference theme – “Creating Actionable how best to create actionable knowledge. PDWs are Knowledge” – is near and dear to the heart of the a platform for colleagues to share knowledge and values that distinguish the Organizational Change and expertise and foster the development of workshop Development Division within the Academy of Man- participants. Coordinated by the Academy’s many agement. I would summarize this theme as the impera- divisions, interest groups, and theme committees, PDW tive that our “science” be relevant, responsible and make sessions are different from regular academy sessions valuable contributions to society and its institutions. in that they can have a longer time frame and use a Many of us are part of the ODC Division because we more interactive/participative format. care about practice and want our research to have a positive impact, supporting people and creating Note that PDW space can be limited, so PDW proposals better business processes and organizations. For the that are co-sponsored by several divisions or interest essay by Tom Cummings on this theme please go groups are encouraged as we can share room allocations. to http://meetings.aomonline.org/2004/theme.htm. This If you are interested in submitting a proposal for a essay includes thoughts on different ways that papers PDW session to be sponsored by the ODC division and symposia address the various aspects of the please use the linked submission form. creating actionable knowledge theme. Anyone with thoughts on proposals for All-Academy sessions (See Tenkasi, page 3) addressing this theme should communicate them to the All-Academy Program Chair Larry Greiner Table of Contents (lgreiner@marshall.usc.edu) no later than November 14, 2003. George Roth, Call for Papers ............................................ 1 The venue – what could be a more interesting location Ram Tenkasi, Call for Professional Development than downtown historic New Orleans? What makes Workshop Proposals ........................................................ 1 this meeting unique is that our sessions will be hosted ODC Division Executive Committee 2003-2004 ............. 2 in two adjoining hotels – no big, impersonal and Frank J. Barrett & Mary Jo Hatch, unfriendly convention hall to deal with this year! These Planning on spontaneity: Lessons from jazz hotels are just blocks from the famous French Quarter for a democratic theory of change ..................................... 3 and Mississippi River waterfront. The local events Steven F. Freeman, Larry Hirschhorn, & Marc Maltz, committee is sure to plan interesting activities that take Moral purpose and organizational resilience: Sandler advantage of our exciting venue. O'Neill & Partners in the Aftermath of 9/11/2001 ............ 5 Submission Process Anat Lechner & Leslie Harrington, Seattle's experience music project: On color language and framing of Given the conference theme I’m sure that everyone organizational reality ........................................................ 7 will submit early and submit often! Please be sure to Feedback to the Editor ...................................................... 9 (See Roth, page 2)
    • (From Roth, page 1) ODC DIVISION EXECUTIVE follow all submission guidelines of the Academy (see COMMITTEE 2003-2004 All Academy Newsletter that you get by mail or the Gretchen Spreitzer, Division Chairperson Academy Website – http://meetings.aomonline.org/ University of Michigan 2004/guidelines.htm). Phone: 734/936-2835 Fax: 734/936-0282 Email: spreitz@umich.edu There are two stages to the submission process: Christopher G. Worley, Past Division Chairperson Pepperdine University 1) Go to the Academy Website http://aomonline.org/ Phone: 949/488-7978 Fax: 949/488-0157 submissions to submit your title page information, Email: chris.worley@pepperdine.edu abstract and all author and co-author information for George Roth, Program Chairperson your paper or symposium submission. Upon completing MIT this information you will receive an electronic Phone: 617/253-8407 Fax: 617/252-1425 Email: groth@mit.edu SUBMISSION NUMBER. This number is critical, as Ram Tenkasi, Pre-Conference Chair & Program Chair Elect it needs to appear on all of your submissions and Benedictine University correspondence. It also identifies and tracks your Phone: 630/829-6212 paper for the blind review process. Email: tenkasi@email.msn.com Hillary Bradbury, Representative-at-Large (3-year term) 2) One of the authors must send an electronic version Case Western Reserve University of the paper or symposium to me, the ODC program Phone: 216/368-0700 Fax: 216/368-4785 chair, at odc@mit.edu by January 5, 2004. These Email: hxb22@weatherhead.cwru.edu documents must be prepared for blind review. This Michael Manning, Division Representative requires that there be no author information appears in New Mexico State University Phone: 505/646-2532 document itself or file “properties” information. Also, Email: mmanning@nmsu.edu the SUBMISSION NUMBER acquired from the Julie Wolfram-Cox, Representative-at-Large (2-year term) Academy’s web site needs to be part of the file name RMIT University of the document you send me and appropriately Phone: 817/531-4835 indicated in the document itself. No other identifying Email: julie.wolfram-cox@rmit.edu.au information, such as title page with author information, Raymond Saner, International Representative-at-Large (2-year term) should be in your submission. Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND) Phone: +41-22-906-1720 Fax: +41-22-738-1737 Your submission will be acknowledged electronically Email: saneryiu@csend.org upon receipt. For more information on the requirements Phillip H. Mirvis, Executive Scholar-Practitioner for preparing your submission, I strongly encourage Phone: 301/652-4600 Fax: 301/774-7377 you to consult the Academy website for specifics Email: pmirv@aol.com (please see “Electronic Format Guidelines” – Robert T. Golembiewski, Academy Council University of Georgia http://meetings.aomonline.org/2004/guidelines.htm). Phone: 706/542-2970 Fax: 706/542-4421 Email: rtgolem@uga.edu Division Awards Eric A. Goodman, Web Page Master Five externally-sponsored recognition awards (see Colorado Technical University ODC web site – http://www.aom.pace.edu/odc – for Phone: 719/590-6772 Fax: 719/598-3740 Email: egoodman@coloradotech.edu details) will be given for the best paper in the following categories: competitive paper; action research paper; George Hay, Student Representative Benedictine University/McDonald’s Corp. linking theory-to-practice paper; interactive paper and Email: george.hay@mcd.com student paper. Papers authored by students and/or Gavin Schwarz, Special Projects about action research should be clearly identified as University of New South Wales such at the time of submission (please note that it is a Phone: +61 2 9385 7278 student paper in the email that accompanies the Email: g.schwarz@unsw.edu.au submission). R. Wayne Boss, Newsletter Editor University of Colorado I look forward to receiving your submission and seeing Phone: 303/492-8488 Fax: 303/494-1771 Email: wayne.boss@colorado.edu you in New Orleans in August! If you have any questions, please contact me at odc@mit.edu. 2
    • (From Tenkasi, page 1) (that Ricoeur renamed the threefold present) – the The deadline for submissions is November 10, 2003. present of the past (remembrance), the present of the An electronic submission is strongly preferred. present (attention), and the present of the future (expectation). Augustine associated the threefold To download the submission form visit: http:// present with our capacity to experience distensio www.aom.pace.edu/odc/pdw2004form.doc. anami – a state of consciousness that expands beyond ordinary awareness, a stretching of the soul to You may also download a .pdf version by following the embrace the threefold present. link at this site: http://meetings.aomonline.org/2004. Henri Bergson resonated with Augustine’s reflections on time. The notion of time as momentary, segmented Please direct any questions or submissions to: Ram units is a reflection of the Newtonian categories that Tenkasi, ODC Division PDW Chair, PhD Program we have inherited and cannot grasp the dynamism of in Organization Development and Change, 114 B, lived experience. For Bergson time is a cumulative Scholl Center, Benedictine University, Lisle, IL 60532. flow in which the past, present, and future remain vital Email: rtenkasi@ben.edu or tenkasi@msn.com; Tel: and indivisible in a constantly transforming flux. Bergson 630-829-6212; Fax: 630-829-6211. admits, that because we are pragmatic actors who need to coordinate with others, we tend to segment our experience into discrete units, but only as a matter of convenience. These conceptual categories, he warns, PLANNING ON SPONTANEITY: can obstruct the experience of duree. To grasp duree LESSONS FROM JAZZ FOR A we must break free from learned habits of spatial DEMOCRATIC THEORY OF CHANGE categories and nurture our intuitive capacity to access Frank J. Barrett, Ph.D. a profound unfolding. Whereas mechanistic perspec- Naval Postgraduate School tives depict a “world that dies and is reborn at every Mary Jo Hatch, Ph.D. instant” (Bergson, 1911, p 23), when we intuitively University of Virginia grasp duree, what is revealed is the becoming of life, the global, undivided, progressive creation that 2003 Competitive Paper Award resembles “a gradually expanding rubber balloon The intensifying demand for collaboration and innovation assuming at each moment unexpected forms” (1941, has implications for how we conceive of organizational p 95). change. Traditional models of strategizing that depict One implication of Augustine and Bergson’s views of change as formal, goal-oriented, rational might not time is the need to abandon future prediction based on sustain the kind of innovation and democratic partici- past events; what we take to be “the past” is itself pation required. Current theories of change, derived subject to change. This suggests that at any moment from Newtonian physics, assume time is linear and we can expect the unexpected, a new gestalt can absolute, compare static states, assume that new transform the past to create something heretofore states are effects of pre-planned actions. They unprecedented. assume that the past plays a role in determining the shape of the present. This view privileges outcomes Exploring Distencio and Duree: Jazz Musicians over processes; structures over action, changes over Improvising changing. We revisit theories of organizational change One situation where people view time as dynamic or from the perspective of distencio anami and duree and as “the continuous elaboration of the absolutely new” suggest alternatives to theorizing the change process. (Bergson, 1911, p 11) is jazz improvisation. Jazz Time as Heterogenous: Augustine's Distensio involves both approaches to time outlined above: on Anami and Bergson’s Duree the one hand, time is highly structured and partitioned; on the other, following the temporal coordinates and We explore two philosophers who challenge linear rhythmic structures does not guarantee good jazz. notions of time. St. Augustine (397/1993) proposed that the question of the length of time invites measure- Jazz musicians orient themselves to linear temporal ment and comparison, but that this creates an illusion. order when they divide their music is divided into beat, For Augustine there are three aspects of present time tempo, meter, and rhythm. What this scheme does not 3
    • capture, however, is how tensions and movement are orientation to fixed time, but through a dynamic transformed into a transcendent feel that they refer to synchronicity, a mindset of surrender and wonderment as “achieving a groove.” Groove occurs when the that encourages constantly anticipating one another’s rhythm section “locks in” together, when members contributions, attuning and adjusting as participants have a mutual orientation to the beat. Once a group interact. What makes this temporal orientation work as shares this rhythmic momentum, it takes on a life of its a form of coordination is the commitment to stay own separate from the individual members. Jazz engaged, a listening to the potential in unexpected musicians describe groove in ways that seem to depart trajectories, an intuitive grasping of duree. This alter- from a linear view of time, tempo, or beat. These native model of coordination has more to do with an moments are described in terms of ecstasis, a “standing experience of interpersonal attunement, anticipation of outside of” conventional categories of experience that the unexpected, an assumption that one will discover recalls for us Bergson’s duree. solutions as needed. This theory of change would be less a series of lists then descriptions of spontaneous Jazz improvisation resonates with Augustine’s distencio interactivity as experienced by participants, a view of and Bergon’s duree in which time is a heterogenous change from inside its processes. unfolding of changes in which past, present and future are intermingled. Melodies evoke previously heard We believe that as we consider distencio and duree, excerpts; improvisers connect utterances to stock we will adopt a holistic view of time: a respect for phrases, well-known standards, familiar repertoires. emergent processes, trust in the possibility of intuitive But each enactment also shapes the future. At any glimpses that embrace past, present, and future. Such moment a player can take the music in a new direction, views have emotional and aesthetic as well as intellec- defy expectations, and/or trigger others to re-interpret tual content, perhaps expressed in poetic or artistic what they have just heard. forms, and encourage researchers to notice groups spontaneously coordinating, striking grooves extempo- Implications for Theorizing and Managing raneously, beginning down one path and then suddenly Organizational Change re-adjusting as cues are reinterpreted. The mindset of Most of our assumptions in change theories reflect improvisation embraces openness and revels in a Newtonian views of time. Life cycle models assume sense of wonder that welcomes a future beyond that change goes through progressive, irreversible cognitive reach, a willingness to do what jazz musicians sequences; from such a mindset, leaders of change do – throw themselves into situations in which they are might be prone to notice prefigured sequences, anticipate over their heads for the sheer joy of enlivened discovery inevitabilities, organize for compliance. Evolutionary and creation. In such a mindset, planning itself changes theories, including punctuated equilibrium models, shape, appearing not as a means to control outcomes, emphasize the inevitable scarcity in the environment, but as an invitation to imagine and try out possibilities. rational diagnosis and strategic response. Dialectic Our jazz examples suggest that to approach organiza- models highten awareness of past conflicts and oppo- tional life from a perspective of duree amounts to sitions as engines of change. Teleological models abandonment, a surrender to emergence, and requires emphasize rational planning toward envisioned end that participants trust their ability to coordinate action states. Bergson would claim that this retrospective without conventionally imposed boundaries, a stretching sense making is the product of the intellect and its of the soul of management. habitual propensity to impose order, to divide up what is indivisible. What gets lost in these theories and References prescriptive models is the human capacity to intuitively Augustine 397/1993 Confessions, trans. F.J. Sheed. grasp emergent whole processes, the very process of Indianapolis IN: Hackett Publishing. becoming, the gradual expansion that can “assume at Bergson, H. 1911 Creative Evolution. New York: each moment unexpected forms” (Bergson 1941: 95). Henry Holt and Co. Bergson, H. 1941 / 1946 The Creative Mind, This suggests that many of our change stories and translated by M Andison. Westport, Connecticut: theories of change are poor guides to managing change Greenwood Press. or even to understanding it. What tends to get over- Slife, Brent. 1993 Time and Psychological Explana- looked by change theorists are notions of duree, distencio, tion. New York: State University of New York and groove: coordination can be achieved not through Press. 4
    • MORAL PURPOSE AND 9/11, it became a moral enterprise as well: to honor the ORGANIZATIONAL RESILIENCE: dead, care for both the family members of the SANDLER O’NEILL & PARTNERS, L.P. deceased as well as the living, and deny the terrorists IN THE AFTERMATH OF a victory: “I feel more motivated and more determined. We have more responsibility to ... [rebuild the firm] for SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 those who are gone....we are at war. It is important to Steven F. Freeman keep our economy going.” University of Pennsylvania One employee, who had quit before 9/11 to start a non- Larry Hirschhorn financial business in his home, came back: “I never Center For Applied Research really wanted to come back to the Street after I left, but Marc Maltz ... from a moral standpoint, it is absolutely the right Triad Consulting Group thing to do.” 2003 Best Practice Paper Award When Sandler O’Neill’s salespeople sold stocks and On September 11th, 2001 Sandler O’Neill & Partners, bonds, they were selling for their dead colleagues both an investment bank on the 104th floor of the World emotionally and literally. Commissions generated Trade Center, lost thirty-nine percent of its people, through sales and trades on the accounts of a deceased including two-thirds of its management committee, and employee went to that employee’s estate. In addition, nearly all of its physical assets and corporate records. the firm paid salaries until the end of the year and bonuses that met or exceeded any prior bonus; Yet despite of the devastating losses, Sandler O’Neill extended medical insurance for five years and for has managed not only to survive, but to thrive: No deals children until the age of 18; created a foundation pay or clients were lost; the firm was profitable two months for their college education; established a resource after the attack; and by May 2002, profitability and center to help with financial and legal needs, and revenue superceded to pre-9/11 levels and were trending provided continuing counseling services. They held a sharply upward. By September 2002, the firm had memorial service for the victims and their families at strengthened core areas and built a new business in Carnegie Hall and created a memorial in the new capital markets, underwriting an annualized $23 billion in office. initial public offerings. Moreover all this was achieved as the firm was providing generous care, salary, bonus Customers and even competitors responded to this and benefits to the families of the deceased. sense of moral purpose. Immediately after 9/11, it seemed doubtful to analysts and the media that a Overview of Findings relationship-based firm in a relationship-based industry Using ethnographic techniques, interviews, observation could survive the death of so many relationship and document review, our team of five investigators managers. In fact, all clients remained with the firm. endeavored to explain this remarkable performance. Maintaining a relationship with the firm enabled clients, suppliers and other stakeholders to honor their Several situational factors contributed to resilience of relationship to those who died and to work through firms hit in the 9/11 attacks including an extraordinarily their own feelings regarding this national tragedy. Six supportive environment. Likewise, Sandler generally months after the attack, Dunne noted that, early on: “I managed the crisis well. But aspects of the situation thought that clients would find it a bit presumptuous on can only augur the possibility of recovery; and crisis my part if I interjected myself into those relationships. management can only mitigate losses. Sandler O’Neill’s I was 100 percent wrong. Not only did they want it, phenomenal post 9/11 success was attributable to they expected it. Now I am furiously ... contacting the other factors, most importantly the invocation of a key people that our key people talked to.” moral purpose which directly motivated stakeholders and indirectly enabled the firm to obtain help and to Attracting Help seize opportunities created through loss. Organizations are often incapable of seeking and using The Source of Sandler’s Resilience: Moral Purpose help, even in catastrophes. Directors may worry that publicity could stimulate lawsuits and expose their Prior to 9/11, employees thought of the firm as an weakness, leading potentially to further losses of key instrument “for feeding the mouths of families.” After personnel and business. In the first months after the 5
    • attack, other firms provided little access to the public, “Opportunities start from an empty space.” One and none have recovered so completely and dramatically. executive came over from a much larger firm because, The CEO of Cantor Fitzgerald committed several “I thought the opportunity to rebuild the equities missteps in the initial treatment of the families of dead business was unique in such a small, well-regarded employees. He lacked the openness that would have firm.” enabled him to test ideas and possible policies with Death generally created slots for strategic, high-quality friends and advisors. new hires. And because the firm received such good Sandler O’Neill’s sense of moral purpose enabled the publicity for the moral stance it took in relationship to firm to attract expertise and commitment from the its families, it had its pick of candidates at all levels. outside. Relatives answered phones, laid cable and set Young people from top universities, who might up computers; ex-employees worked the phones; and normally have gone to larger firms, applied for jobs at once trading began the following Monday, volunteers Sandler O’Neill. traded for the firm and for the deceased without taking The firm hired Wall Street talent from prestige firms salary and commissions. Top lawyers and consultants who, by virtue of their skills and relationships, brought volunteered their time. new kinds of business. Dunne commented, “Some The crisis generated publicity and celebrity (including new senior hires have helped a great deal: I miss X so profiles on CNBC and CBS’ 60 Minutes and a cover much, but hiring Y has been a godsend for me. And it’s story in Fortune). Public approval of Sandler O’Neill’s also helped everybody else behave better.” management, Dunne’s charisma, and the effectiveness Loss often presents opportunity, but “taking advantage” with which Sandler managed public relations led to of such opportunity is generally eschewed as dancing invitations for new deals. Management fully accepted on their grave of dead colleagues. In this case, however, the generosity of others, allowing the firm to enter by helping the firm survive, pursuing opportunities deals that were made available and made business meant providing resources to help the family members sense. One partner told us, “XX gave us a deal. It was of co-workers who died. Under these conditions, great. They practically filled out the paperwork for ambition becomes a gift. us.” The combination of moral work and the pull of Tragedy’s Upside: Opportunity (for individuals) opportunity released extraordinary physical and The loss of friends and colleagues was personally psychological resources. Work typically involves a devastating, yet loss created opportunities. One tradeoff between normal business activities, which we respondent put it: “For every destruction there is undertake for material advancement, and volunteer construction.” Even though reconstructing the firm work, which we undertake for a moral payoff, but in an was physically burdensome and psychologically organization that permits advancement through moral difficult, many stepped forward to fill voids because work, people feel exceptionally energetic and psycho- the situation presented an opportunity to advance. As logically available. one person explained, “I took on coverage of better Implications accounts. This is not the way you want to get them, but ....” Among the implications of this research is how we think about risk management and crisis preparation. At the firm-level, some larger banks saw Sandler Since 9/11, organizations have invested substantial O’Neill as a symbol and “invited [them] to the table” resources in these areas. Most effort has been techno- to participate on large underwriting deals: “Opportu- logically focused, but Sandler O’Neill’s remarkable nity? A ton right afterwards. Competitors included us recovery is attributable entirely to human factors: in underwriting. Companies that we would never relationships, the management of emotions, and, speak with, such as X; there was an open forum... above all, invoking a moral purpose that motivated Some of these relationships will be enduring.” extraordinary effort. Structural Opportunities The tragedy also created “structural” opportunities. An IT professional said that in a sad way the disaster Happy Holidays! was an opportunity to improve the computer systems, 6
    • SEATTLE’S EXPERIENCED MUSIC On Architecture, Muliti-Language and Reality PROJECT: ON COLOR LANGUAGE AND Framing? THE FRAMING OF For decades architects have perfected the language of ORGANIZATIONAL REALITY form and function to realize built realities. But some Anat Lechner recent developments have challenged the exclusive New York University status of form and function language. Frank O. Leslie Harrington Gehry’s work represents an interesting and successful LH. Color attempt to reach a cross-language expression of architectural art. In works from the early ’80s Gehry 2003 Best Visual Paper demonstrates his mastery of the traditional architectural The rhetoric of change now used by many companies language of form-function (e.g. 1984 California Aero- often falls on deft ears and resisting hearts. Coupled space Museum). His seminal work in Bilbao however with frequent restructuring, this language confuses revolutionizes the architectural language forever where organizational citizens and alienates rather than recruit “form-function” is “talked” in a new dialect, the dialect their hearts and minds (Beer and Nohria, 2000). While of “materials.” The overlaying of these two languages most transformation efforts attempt to increase allows Gehry’s Guggenheim in Bilbao to establish new organizations’ agility and responsiveness, rarely do presence, new meaning of what buildings are about, they focus on facilitating people’s ability to cope with and above all, new theory of embeddedness of uncertainty embedded in change (Kotter, 2000). architecture in nature and the relationship between Framing new realities of competition and employment design and context (Lechner, 1999). in ways appealing to involved constituencies becomes Commissioned to design Paul Allen’s Experienced a critical managerial challenge. This challenge also Music Project building in Seattle, Gehry, now more stems from the type of reality change architects attentive to the affects of multi-language as means of attempt to shift, reality that is collective, task-oriented reality framing, is introducing yet a third language- and explicit by character but as such, it is ignoring intersection, that of function-form-materials, and individuals’ inner reality that is primarily emotional COLOR. As the EMP architecture was inspired by (Nussbaum, 2001) and is significantly impacted by the sexy curves and colors of Hendrix’ electric guitars organizational changes (Jick, 1996). (Brady, 1998) this theme is captured by purple haze To the question of how reality is shaped various and red exteriors. Overlaying the additional Color professions and disciplines respond differently and yet language, Gehry is able to frame the meaning of the they all hold in common the importance of language, EMP in the utmost richest way, making the architecture a set of accepted codes and rules with which ideas expression truer to the ideas it represents. and abstractions are being articulated and realized. Gehry’s use of color to connote meanings of the music Musicians use the language of notes to describe sound, world, presupposes the existence of a color psychologists turn to symbols and archetypes to language, one that associates colors and meanings in articulate emotions, philosophers employ verbal a systematic way. But can the same rationale that expressions to construct logic, and managers use the guides Gehry be leveraged within the context of language of resources to realize goals and convey organization so that change efforts be ‘talked’ in desired meanings to communities inside and outside language that inspires people rather than be threatening the firm. and alienating? As demonstrated, language is not confined to its verbal Color Language and Organizations facet and its use encompasses emotional expression, social interaction, recording of facts, shaping reality, We presuppose that transitions from one reality to providing an instrument of thought, and expressing of another elicit a rich gamut of cognitions, emotions and identity. For those in the business of “shaping reality,”outer- reactions. We further suggest that change efforts manifested and inner-experienced, appropriate use of usually employ resource restructuring language aimed the appropriate language is of considerable impor- at shifting strategies and structures, a language tance (Handy, 1997:7), but how to think of appropri- incapable of aligning individuals’ emotions and ateness in this context? And is it possible that complex cognitions with the desired organizationl configuration. messages need to be delivered using multiple-language? But what is this “emotional language” that can 7
    • effectively address individuals’ reactions to the uncer- ! Management – Blue tainties of change? Such language most likely is non- ! Trust – Green and Blue confrontational and facilitative. It is geared at framing conditions that will allow for desired emotions and ! Leadership – Red behaviors to emerge. It might be archetypal in the Jungian sense as it attempts to evoke associations and ! Efficiency – Green mental schemata that are assumed to exist, and engage ! Innovation – Yellow them in the re-framing of experiences as positive (Riley, 1995). We theorize that Color Language has ! Obedience – Black the power and capability to act as such facilitative Intersecting the Languages of Change Management instrument of reality creation. and Color Following color psychologists’ claims that people are The challenge of the change manager, the architect of responding to colors as meaning cues often times in a social realities (Senge, 1990) is to frame a new reality universal fashion (Birren, 1950), and that color is most in ways that are not only accepted, but also desired by commonly associated with affective rather than and meaningful to people. As this “framing” involves intellectual stimuli, we propose that people’s notions of the simultaneous shifting of cognitions, emotions and their work life and changes in organizational reality actions, the use of multi-language expressions might be would be referred to or talked about using different needed in order to appeal to all three. Our findings color schemes. We further assume that if such an suggest that color language can couple managerial implicit language is tapped it would have tremendous change language as the “Blues of management” give impact on our conceptualization of organizational place to the “Reds of leadership” and “Yellows of realities as well as implications to the way we influence innovation.” To better understand the impact of the human emotions in times of organizational transition. color language we should re-state a key purpose Methodology of language as means to frame reality through its “referential,” “propositional” or “ideational” role of This study was motivated by the proposition that communication (Crystal, 1997). As such, language different color schemes will be associated with the creates and controls the way reality is shaped, expe- “old” and “new” management paradigms described by rienced and enacted. Thus, color language too is Ancona et al (1998). The empirical part of this work participating in this delicate framing of meanings, just considered associations managers make between as our data shows. colors and managerial constructs. Six constructs were selected to represent these two paradigms including: The question that arises is: Would people in organiza- Management / Efficiency / Obedience – for the “old” tions show greater self-management, efficacy and paradigm, and Leadership / Innovation / Trust – for the creativity, if exposed continuously to red and yellow “new” paradigm. colors? Establishing the existence of color language in organizations our research program continues to A sample of mangers (n = 82) from various industries explore the opportunity to couple color and change with average managerial experience of 8.2 years was languages to successfully interlace organizational- selected. Subjects were presented with a short strategic with the individual-emotional reality framing questionnaire and asked to refer to attached color efforts a la Gehry! chart in answering the questions to ensure collective standard color reference point. A multiple comparison References can be obtained from Anat Lechner, Stern x2 test was employed to analyze data. School of Business, New York University, 44 W. 4th Street, Tisch 7-17, New York, NY 10012. Findings Significant color-construct matching was found for all six constructs. A further pair-wise comparison of color per construct was then conducted to define the source of difference of colors per construct revealed earlier. Season’s Greetings! This analysis yielded the following results: 8
    • Please Address All Correspondence to: R. Wayne Boss Academy of Management ODC Newsletter Graduate School of Business Administration Campus Box 419 University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309 (303) 492-8488 FEEDBACK TO THE EDITOR We welcome your feedback and would appreciate your comments below. Selected comments on articles in the OD Newsletter may be published in the next issue, so please indicate if you prefer your comments to be withheld. After completing your comments, please detach this page and return it to the editor. (Please Print All Comments.) LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 1. Do you have any comments that you would like to share with the Editor (comments on articles from the last issue, comments on this issue, suggestions, etc.?) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ NEWS ABOUT MEMBERS 2. Is there any important information about you or a colleague that you would like to have appear in the next issue? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ PUBLICATIONS 3. Please list below any recent or forthcoming publications by you or a colleague.(Indicate full citation.) ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 9