Training
Overview
• When and why is training necessary?
• How should a training program be conducted?
• How are training needs dete...
Employee Training
Why?
• Provide knowledge and skills required to perform
  effectively.

When?
• New hires (to complement...
Employee Development
Why?
• Prepare employees for future positions
• Upgrade general skills for personal growth

When?
• I...
The Training Process
                       Step 1
                   Conduct training
                    needs analyses
...
Needs Analysis
Levels of Analysis
1. Organizational Analysis
     Identification of short- and long-term goals
     Identi...
Needs Analysis
Levels of Analysis
2. Task (Job) Analysis
     Identification of: tasks
                        standards
 ...
Needs Analysis
Levels of Analysis
3. Person Analysis
     Evaluation of individual against standards
     Identification o...
Needs Analysis
Levels of Analysis
4. Demographic Analysis
     Assess the specific training needs of various
     demograp...
Other Common Reasons
              for Training
• Poor performance (without analysis)
   “They’re not performing, therefor...
Types of Training Programs
On-Site Training
• On-the-job training
• Apprentice training
• Coaching/mentoring
• Job rotatio...
Types of Training Programs
Off-Site Training
• Lectures/seminars
• Multi-media presentations
• Programmed/Computer-assiste...
Selection and Development of
        Training Methods
Factors to Consider
1. Purpose (based on needs analysis)
   Common o...
Selection and Development of
        Training Methods
Factors to Consider
2. Principles of Learning
   i. Motivation to le...
Selection and Development of
        Training Methods
Factors to Consider
3. Transfer of Training
   Facilitated by:
     ...
Selection and Development of
       Training Methods
Factors to Consider
4. Individual Differences
   Should accommodate d...
Selection and Development of
        Training Methods
Factors to Consider
5. Trainer Qualifications
   Trainers should:
  ...
Evaluation of Training
Criteria (based on Kirkpatrick, 1976)
• Reaction
    Did employees like the training, think it was ...
Designing an Evaluation Study
Issues to Consider
1. Internal Validity
      accuracy of inference concerning effect of tra...
Research Designs
               Pre-experimental Designs

  • One-group Posttest Only Design
                             ...
Threats to Internal Validity
Threats controlled by Random Assignment
• History
• Maturation
• Selection
• Testing
• Instru...
Research Designs
                  Experimental Designs
  • Pre-test / Post-test Control Group Design
                 R X...
Research Designs
                  Experimental Designs
  • Solomon Four-Group Design
                   R         X      ...
Threats to Internal Validity
Threats not controlled by Random Assignment
• Local history
• Diffusion or imitation of treat...
Research Designs
              Quasi-experimental Designs
  • Pre-test / Post-test Nonequivalent Groups Design
           ...
Research Designs
              Quasi-experimental Designs
  • Time-series Design
          X   X     X        X    T     X...
Outcome




                               x
                                            x    x
                          ...
Threats to External Validity
Examples
• Interaction of testing and treatment
• Interaction of setting and treatment
• Inte...
Threats to Construct Validity
Examples:
• Placebo effect
• Hawthorne effect
• Pygmalion effect
Evaluation of Training:
            An Example
Source: Latham & Saari (1979)

Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of behav...
Evaluation of Training:
              An Example
Focus of Training:
• Orienting new employees
• Giving recognition
• Motiv...
Evaluation of Training:
           An Example
Length of Training: 2 hrs/wk for 9 weeks
Training Procedure:
• Initial instr...
Evaluation of Training:
             An Example
Research Design:
• Participants were male first-line supervisors
• Randoml...
Evaluation of Training:
               An Example
Dependent Measures and Results:
• Reactions - Survey of attitudes immedi...
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A To Z On Training 1 320

  1. 1. Training
  2. 2. Overview • When and why is training necessary? • How should a training program be conducted? • How are training needs determined? • What goes into the design of an effective training program? • What are some of the commonly used training methods? • How can we determine whether training has been effective?
  3. 3. Employee Training Why? • Provide knowledge and skills required to perform effectively. When? • New hires (to complement selection) • Change of jobs (e.g., transfer, promotion) • Change to jobs (e.g., new technology; realignment) • Performance deficiencies detected
  4. 4. Employee Development Why? • Prepare employees for future positions • Upgrade general skills for personal growth When? • Internal promotion policy • QWL programs • Team building • Developing/changing organizational culture
  5. 5. The Training Process Step 1 Conduct training needs analyses Step 2 Develop training objectives Step 7 Step 3 measure training Review available results training methods Step 6 Step 4 Implement Design/select training program training methods Step 5 Design training evaluation approach
  6. 6. Needs Analysis Levels of Analysis 1. Organizational Analysis Identification of short- and long-term goals Identification of human resource needs Evaluation of methods of meeting HR needs (e.g., selection, training) Assessment of resource availability Evaluation of support for transfer of training
  7. 7. Needs Analysis Levels of Analysis 2. Task (Job) Analysis Identification of: tasks standards optimal procedures
  8. 8. Needs Analysis Levels of Analysis 3. Person Analysis Evaluation of individual against standards Identification of deficiencies Identification of causes (e.g., motivation vs. ability)
  9. 9. Needs Analysis Levels of Analysis 4. Demographic Analysis Assess the specific training needs of various demographic groups (e.g., the disabled, or those protected by civil rights legislation).
  10. 10. Other Common Reasons for Training • Poor performance (without analysis) “They’re not performing, therefore they must need training” • Fad “Everyone else is doing it” • Reward “They deserve it” • Habit “We’ve always done it. Besides, we have a budget for it”
  11. 11. Types of Training Programs On-Site Training • On-the-job training • Apprentice training • Coaching/mentoring • Job rotation • On-line help (as needed)
  12. 12. Types of Training Programs Off-Site Training • Lectures/seminars • Multi-media presentations • Programmed/Computer-assisted instruction • Simulation • Cases studies/management games • Role-playing • Behaviour modelling
  13. 13. Selection and Development of Training Methods Factors to Consider 1. Purpose (based on needs analysis) Common objectives include Information acquisition Skills development (e.g., motor, interpersonal, problem solving, decision-making)
  14. 14. Selection and Development of Training Methods Factors to Consider 2. Principles of Learning i. Motivation to learn Relevance and meaningfulness Adequate preparation & self-efficacy Choice/participation (e.g., time, content) Clear goals Reinforcement ii. Feedback iii. Opportunity to practice
  15. 15. Selection and Development of Training Methods Factors to Consider 3. Transfer of Training Facilitated by: Similarity of setting and task Overlearning Teaching of general principles Reinforcement of transfer
  16. 16. Selection and Development of Training Methods Factors to Consider 4. Individual Differences Should accommodate differences in: Readiness to learn Motivation to learn Preferred learning style
  17. 17. Selection and Development of Training Methods Factors to Consider 5. Trainer Qualifications Trainers should: Have knowledge of the organization Be knowledgeable about content Be motivated to train Understand principles of learning 6. Cost
  18. 18. Evaluation of Training Criteria (based on Kirkpatrick, 1976) • Reaction Did employees like the training, think it was useful, feel more confident in their abilities? • Learning Did employees learn anything new? • Behavioural Do trainees behave any differently back on the job? • Results Did the training have the desired outcome?
  19. 19. Designing an Evaluation Study Issues to Consider 1. Internal Validity accuracy of inference concerning effect of training 2. External Validity accuracy of inference regarding generalizability 3. Construct Validity accuracy of inference about why the training worked
  20. 20. Research Designs Pre-experimental Designs • One-group Posttest Only Design T X • One-group Pre-test / Post-test Design X T X Key X = measure T = training R = random assignment
  21. 21. Threats to Internal Validity Threats controlled by Random Assignment • History • Maturation • Selection • Testing • Instrumentation • Attrition (Mortality) • Statistical Regression
  22. 22. Research Designs Experimental Designs • Pre-test / Post-test Control Group Design R X T X R X X • Pre-test Only Control Group Design R T X R X Key X = measure T = training R = random assignment
  23. 23. Research Designs Experimental Designs • Solomon Four-Group Design R X T X R X X R T X R X Key X = measure T = training R = random assignment
  24. 24. Threats to Internal Validity Threats not controlled by Random Assignment • Local history • Diffusion or imitation of treatment • Compensatory equalization of treatment • Compensatory rivalry • Resentful demoralization
  25. 25. Research Designs Quasi-experimental Designs • Pre-test / Post-test Nonequivalent Groups Design X T X X X • Alternate Treatments Design X T X X X X T X Key X = measure T = training R = random assignment
  26. 26. Research Designs Quasi-experimental Designs • Time-series Design X X X X T X X X X Key X = measure T = training R = random assignment
  27. 27. Outcome x x x x x x x x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 training occurs Time
  28. 28. Threats to External Validity Examples • Interaction of testing and treatment • Interaction of setting and treatment • Interaction of history and treatment • etc.
  29. 29. Threats to Construct Validity Examples: • Placebo effect • Hawthorne effect • Pygmalion effect
  30. 30. Evaluation of Training: An Example Source: Latham & Saari (1979) Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour modelling as a training technique
  31. 31. Evaluation of Training: An Example Focus of Training: • Orienting new employees • Giving recognition • Motivating poor performers • Correcting poor habits • Discussing potential disciplinary action • Reducing absenteeism • Handling a complaining employee • Reducing turnover • Overcoming resistance to change
  32. 32. Evaluation of Training: An Example Length of Training: 2 hrs/wk for 9 weeks Training Procedure: • Initial instructions (learning points) • Videotape of model • Role-playing • Feedback • Monitoring and reinforcement
  33. 33. Evaluation of Training: An Example Research Design: • Participants were male first-line supervisors • Randomly divided into two groups Experimental (training) Control (waiting list)
  34. 34. Evaluation of Training: An Example Dependent Measures and Results: • Reactions - Survey of attitudes immediately following training & 6 months later - Ratings were found to be uniformly high • Learning - Multiple choice test administered 6 months after training - Exp’t > Control • Behaviour - Role playing 3 months after training - Exp’t > Control • Results - Performance appraisal (standard and BOS) - Pre-training: Exp’t = Control - Post-training: Exp’t > Control

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