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1Definition of malaria.
2Types of parasite causes malaria .
3Life cycle of different malaria parasite+
4Symptoms and sign of malaria.
5Investigation of malaria .
6 Differential diagnosis
7 treatment and prevention of malaria .
Approximately 300 million
people worldwide are affected
by malaria and between 1 and
1.5 million people die from it
every year. Previously extremely
widespread, the malaria is now
mainly confined to Africa, Asia
and Latin America
is an infectious disease caused by a
parasite, (called Plasmodium), which
is transmitted via the bites of
infected mosquitoes , that infect red
blood cells in the human body.
Malaria is caused by a type of
microscopic parasite that's
transmitted most commonly by
This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is
mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the
tropical West African region
fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills
This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the
other types and is known to have less than 1
percent infections in the Indian subcontinent.
high fever and chills.
It has the widest distribution around the globe.
Approximately 60% of infections in India are caused by P.v.
Although it seldom causes death or other serious
problems, it can still cause major illness
fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills. Flu-
The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the
most lethal parasite that causes most infections
and deaths related to malaria
fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, aching
muscles, enlarged spleen, sore back, joint pain,
vomiting, nausea, fever, headache.
and unknown waste
substances, such as
red cell membrane
pigment, and other
activate macrophages and
endothelial cells to secrete
cytokines and inflammatory
mediators such as tumor necrosis
factor, interferon-γ and other
headache, fever, nausea and
vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia,
tiredness, aching joints and
immunosuppression, and central
nervous system manifestations .
destruction of red blood
adhesion of red blood cell on wall of
(blood in stools)
Other common symptoms:
Muscle and/or back pain.
Dr. ask the patient number of
•Family medical history.
•Recent travel history.
diagnosis identification of
malaria parasite or
in the blood of the
Malaria parasites are recognizable by
their physical features and by the
appearance of the red blood cells.
Polymerase chain reaction
•The flu (influenza).
•Common cold .
•Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in blood)
•Viral gastroenteritis .
•Yellow fever (disease typically transmitted by
serious effects of
malaria can be
The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on:
•The type (species) of the infecting parasite.
•The severity of malaria symptoms .
•The patient's age .
•Any other illnesses or conditions.
•Other medications taken by the patient.