Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
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Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Done by: Maryam AL-Qhatany. 2.3Case
  • 2. Learning Objectives 1Definition of malaria. 2Types of parasite causes malaria . 3Life cycle of different malaria parasite+ Pathogenesis 4Symptoms and sign of malaria. 5Investigation of malaria . 6 Differential diagnosis 7 treatment and prevention of malaria . diagnosis Malaria
  • 3. Introduction Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Previously extremely widespread, the malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America
  • 4. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, (called Plasmodium), which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes , that infect red blood cells in the human body.
  • 5. Causes Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites(female Anopheles mosquito).
  • 6. Plasmodium vivax (P.v.). Plasmodium ovale (P.o). Plasmodium malariae (P.m). Plasmodium falciparum (P.f).
  • 7. incubation period: Symptoms: This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the tropical West African region fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills
  • 8. incubation period: Symptoms: This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the other types and is known to have less than 1 percent infections in the Indian subcontinent. high fever and chills.
  • 9. incubation period: Symptoms: It has the widest distribution around the globe. Approximately 60% of infections in India are caused by P.v. Although it seldom causes death or other serious problems, it can still cause major illness fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills. Flu- like symptoms.
  • 10. incubation period: Symptoms: (P.f). The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the most lethal parasite that causes most infections and deaths related to malaria fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, aching muscles, enlarged spleen, sore back, joint pain, vomiting, nausea, fever, headache.
  • 11. Pathogenesis +
  • 12. Pathogenesis numerous known and unknown waste substances, such as red cell membrane products, hemozoin pigment, and other toxic factors activate macrophages and endothelial cells to secrete cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ and other factor. headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, tiredness, aching joints and muscles, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression, and central nervous system manifestations .
  • 13. destruction of red blood cell hemolytic anemia adhesion of red blood cell on wall of blood vessel Clot (blood in stools)
  • 14. FeverChills Headache Sweats Nausea Fatigue vomiting early stages
  • 15. Other common symptoms: Dry cough Muscle and/or back pain.
  • 16. Jaundice Hepatomegaly Fever Hemolytic Anaemia
  • 17. Diagnosis
  • 18. Dr. ask the patient number of questions concerning: •Current symptoms. •Medical conditions. •Family medical history. •Current medications. •Recent travel history.
  • 19. Laboratory diagnosis identification of malaria parasite or its antigens/products in the blood of the patient.
  • 20. Microscopy Malaria parasites are recognizable by their physical features and by the appearance of the red blood cells. Most
  • 21. Other tests: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serology Immunologic tests
  • 22. •The flu (influenza). •Common cold . •Meningitis. •Typhoid fever. •Dengue fever. •Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in blood) •Hepatitis. •Viral gastroenteritis . •Yellow fever (disease typically transmitted by mosquitoes).
  • 23. Treatment And prevention
  • 24. treatment: IF Early cure serious effects of malaria can be prevented Delay severe fatal disease
  • 25. The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on: •The type (species) of the infecting parasite. •The severity of malaria symptoms . •The patient's age . •Any other illnesses or conditions. •Pregnancy. •Drug allergies. •Other medications taken by the patient.
  • 26. Medications •Chloroquine •Mefloquine . •Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine . • Quinine sulfate. •Doxycycline. • Hydroxychloroquine.
  • 27. Splenomegaly (Enlarged spleen). Complications Cerebralmalaria
  • 28. Prevention :
  • 29. Protecting yourself against mosquito bites
  • 30. Taking antimalarial medicines
  • 31. young children and pregnant women avoid traveling to areas where malaria is common
  • 32. Conclusion you should see the doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to high-risk malaria region.
  • 33. References *http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/malaria-symptoms *http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/221134-differential *http://www.parn.org.pk/index_files/Laboratory%20Diagn osis%20of%20Malaria.html *http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-diagnosis.html *http://www.onlymyhealth.com/what-types-malaria- 1302068689 *http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/malaria/pages/lifecycle.aspx *http://www.vitalhealthzone.com/health/conditions/m/ malaria/06_complications_of_malaria.html#1 *Microorganism book