Manifest destiny jeff jack asy review

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Manifest destiny jeff jack asy review

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION AMERICA EXPANDS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY
  2. 2. THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA <ul><li>Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party </li></ul><ul><li>While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr </li></ul><ul><li>For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12 th Amendment) </li></ul>3 rd President of the U.S . 1800-1808
  3. 3. 1800 Election Results
  4. 4. SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple, limited government was the best for the people </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson decentralized the government, cut costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes </li></ul>Jefferson Memorial
  5. 5. JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT <ul><li>Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE <ul><li>By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his dreams of an American Empire </li></ul><ul><li>He needed money to fight European wars, so he accepted Jefferson’s offered of $15,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>More than doubled the size of our country </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory </li></ul>
  7. 7. MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT <ul><li>After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Madison was two-term President 1808-1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812 </li></ul>4 th President 1808-1816
  8. 8. WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN <ul><li>Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans </li></ul><ul><li>The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814 </li></ul>British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
  9. 10. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 <ul><li>Results of the war included: </li></ul><ul><li>End of the Federalist Party (opposed war) </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged industries in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation </li></ul>Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
  10. 11. NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY <ul><li>James Monroe was elected president in 1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as key concern of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida & southern- most areas of SE America </li></ul>
  11. 12. THE MONROE DOCTRINE <ul><li>In the early 19 th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization </li></ul><ul><li>In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine ) </li></ul>
  12. 13. What idea does this political cartoon convey?
  13. 14. THE AGE OF JACKSON <ul><li>During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy </li></ul>
  14. 15. REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES <ul><li>The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution reached America by the early-mid 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>New England first to embrace factory system </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in textile (fabric) mills </li></ul>
  15. 16. SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL <ul><li>Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more profitable </li></ul><ul><li>The South became a “Cotton Kingdom” </li></ul><ul><li>More labor was needed – 1790 = 700,000 slaves </li></ul><ul><li>1820 = 1,500,000 slaves </li></ul>Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds
  16. 17. BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM <ul><li>Economic differences created political tension between North & South </li></ul><ul><li>As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together </li></ul><ul><li>House Speaker Henry Clay’s American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel </li></ul>
  17. 18. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE <ul><li>In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free” </li></ul><ul><li>Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude </li></ul>HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER
  18. 19. MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820
  19. 20. ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON <ul><li>Jackson , hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted </li></ul><ul><li>In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the new voters supported the rugged westerner Jackson who also won re-election in 1832 </li></ul>ANDREW JACKSON IS ON THE $20 BILL
  20. 21. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY <ul><li>As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people </li></ul><ul><li>Called The Spoils System or Jacksonian Democracy, Jackson hired his own supporters to replace the previous administration’s staff </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies </li></ul>
  21. 22. INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830 <ul><li>Congress, with Jackson’s support, passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>Under this law, the federal government funded treaties that forced tribes west </li></ul><ul><li>The Cherokee Tribe in Georgia refused and were supported by the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson refused to abide by the Court decision </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson said, “John Marshall (Supreme Court Chief Justice) has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears followed the Court ruling as U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them west, mostly on foot. . .thousands died </li></ul>
  22. 23. INDIAN REMOVAL - 1830
  23. 24. TARIFF OF “ABOMINATION” <ul><li>In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, “a Tariff of Abominations,” and blamed it for economic problems in the South </li></ul>THE NORTH THE SOUTH TARIFFS
  24. 25. NULLIFICATION THREAT <ul><li>In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson’s VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification </li></ul><ul><li>He believed if a state found an act of Congress to be unconstitutional, it could declare the law void within its borders </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions only relieved by a Clay Compromise Tariff in 1833 </li></ul>
  25. 26. JACKSON’S BANK WAR <ul><li>Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president </li></ul><ul><li>In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs </li></ul>
  26. 27. PANIC OF 1837 <ul><li>In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared </li></ul>MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
  27. 28. HARRISON & TYLER <ul><li>Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van Buren in the election of 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Harrison, known as “Tippecanoe” for a battle he won against natives, died a month into his term </li></ul><ul><li>His VP, John Tyler became president </li></ul>HARRISON 1841 TYLER 1841-1845
  28. 29. MANIFEST DESTINY <ul><li>In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea” </li></ul>
  29. 30. UNITED STATES EXPANSION BY 1853 - MANIFEST DESTINY
  30. 31. FAMOUS TRAILS WEST <ul><li>No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as the roads to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to Oregon City, Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on their way to Salt Lake City </li></ul>
  31. 32. MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS <ul><li>After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers felt at home in Texas territory </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area more stable </li></ul><ul><li>Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas – trouble started </li></ul>
  32. 33. TEXAS INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and Americans in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>One issue was the slaves many Americans had brought with them </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829 </li></ul>
  33. 34. REMEMBER THE ALAMO <ul><li>Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to force Texans to obey Mexican law </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio – at the same time Austin issued a call to arms for all American Texans </li></ul><ul><li>American forces moved into a mission known as the Alamo in 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls and slaughtered all 187 Americans </li></ul>THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO
  34. 35. MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR <ul><li>1844 presidential election winner, James Polk, eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into Mexican territory in 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>America victories soon followed, and in 1848 Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed – U.S. gets (larger) Texas, New Mexico & California </li></ul>MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA
  35. 37. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH <ul><li>After gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill , migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became known as Forty-niners </li></ul><ul><li>By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in California topped $2,000,000,000 </li></ul>

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