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Manifest destiny jeff jack asy review

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  • 1. CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION AMERICA EXPANDS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY
  • 2. THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA
    • Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party
    • While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr
    • For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12 th Amendment)
    3 rd President of the U.S . 1800-1808
  • 3. 1800 Election Results
  • 4. SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT
    • Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple, limited government was the best for the people
    • Jefferson decentralized the government, cut costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes
    Jefferson Memorial
  • 5. JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT
    • Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges
    • Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional
    • Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional
    • Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
  • 6. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
    • By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his dreams of an American Empire
    • He needed money to fight European wars, so he accepted Jefferson’s offered of $15,000,000
    • More than doubled the size of our country
    • Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory
  • 7. MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT
    • After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison
    • Madison was two-term President 1808-1816
    • Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812
    4 th President 1808-1816
  • 8. WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN
    • Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans
    • The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house
    • Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans
    • Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814
    British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
  • 9.  
  • 10. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812
    • Results of the war included:
    • End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)
    • Encouraged industries in U.S.
    • Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation
    Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
  • 11. NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY
    • James Monroe was elected president in 1816
    • Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as key concern of administration
    • Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory
    • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida & southern- most areas of SE America
  • 12. THE MONROE DOCTRINE
    • In the early 19 th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization
    • In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine )
  • 13. What idea does this political cartoon convey?
  • 14. THE AGE OF JACKSON
    • During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy
  • 15. REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES
    • The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural
    • The Industrial Revolution reached America by the early-mid 19 th century
    • New England first to embrace factory system
    • Especially in textile (fabric) mills
  • 16. SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL
    • Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power
    • Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more profitable
    • The South became a “Cotton Kingdom”
    • More labor was needed – 1790 = 700,000 slaves
    • 1820 = 1,500,000 slaves
    Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds
  • 17. BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM
    • Economic differences created political tension between North & South
    • As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together
    • House Speaker Henry Clay’s American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel
  • 18. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE
    • In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood
    • Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state
    • Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free”
    • Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude
    HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER
  • 19. MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820
  • 20. ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON
    • Jackson , hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens
    • In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted
    • In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted
    • Many of the new voters supported the rugged westerner Jackson who also won re-election in 1832
    ANDREW JACKSON IS ON THE $20 BILL
  • 21. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
    • As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people
    • Called The Spoils System or Jacksonian Democracy, Jackson hired his own supporters to replace the previous administration’s staff
    • Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies
  • 22. INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830
    • Congress, with Jackson’s support, passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830
    • Under this law, the federal government funded treaties that forced tribes west
    • The Cherokee Tribe in Georgia refused and were supported by the Supreme Court
    • Jackson refused to abide by the Court decision
    • Jackson said, “John Marshall (Supreme Court Chief Justice) has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”
    • Trail of Tears followed the Court ruling as U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them west, mostly on foot. . .thousands died
  • 23. INDIAN REMOVAL - 1830
  • 24. TARIFF OF “ABOMINATION”
    • In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816
    • Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, “a Tariff of Abominations,” and blamed it for economic problems in the South
    THE NORTH THE SOUTH TARIFFS
  • 25. NULLIFICATION THREAT
    • In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson’s VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification
    • He believed if a state found an act of Congress to be unconstitutional, it could declare the law void within its borders
    • Tensions only relieved by a Clay Compromise Tariff in 1833
  • 26. JACKSON’S BANK WAR
    • Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats
    • Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president
    • In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs
  • 27. PANIC OF 1837
    • In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency
    • He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars”
    • Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing
    • In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared
    MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
  • 28. HARRISON & TYLER
    • Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van Buren in the election of 1840
    • Harrison, known as “Tippecanoe” for a battle he won against natives, died a month into his term
    • His VP, John Tyler became president
    HARRISON 1841 TYLER 1841-1845
  • 29. MANIFEST DESTINY
    • In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion
    • Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God
    • Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea”
  • 30. UNITED STATES EXPANSION BY 1853 - MANIFEST DESTINY
  • 31. FAMOUS TRAILS WEST
    • No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as the roads to the West
    • Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico
    • Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to Oregon City, Oregon
    • Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on their way to Salt Lake City
  • 32. MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS
    • After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers felt at home in Texas territory
    • Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs
    • Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area more stable
    • Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas – trouble started
  • 33. TEXAS INDEPENDENCE
    • Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans in Texas
    • Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and Americans in Texas
    • One issue was the slaves many Americans had brought with them
    • Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829
  • 34. REMEMBER THE ALAMO
    • Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to force Texans to obey Mexican law
    • Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio – at the same time Austin issued a call to arms for all American Texans
    • American forces moved into a mission known as the Alamo in 1836
    • After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls and slaughtered all 187 Americans
    THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO
  • 35. MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR
    • 1844 presidential election winner, James Polk, eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S.
    • Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into Mexican territory in 1845
    • America victories soon followed, and in 1848 Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed – U.S. gets (larger) Texas, New Mexico & California
    MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA
  • 36.  
  • 37. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH
    • After gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill , migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850
    • Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became known as Forty-niners
    • By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in California topped $2,000,000,000