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  1. 1. Gerald R. FordGerald R. Ford August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977 The only president not elected asThe only president not elected as either Vice-President or Presidenteither Vice-President or President Created & edited by Steve ArmstrongCreated & edited by Steve Armstrong SHS, 1994-2006SHS, 1994-2006
  2. 2. President Gerald R. FordPresident Gerald R. Ford  Gerald Ford wasGerald Ford was sworn in as Presidentsworn in as President on August 9, 1974on August 9, 1974  Ford retained a fewFord retained a few of Nixon’s cabinet,of Nixon’s cabinet, including Henryincluding Henry KissingerKissinger  Appointed DonAppointed Don Rumsfeld as Chief ofRumsfeld as Chief of StaffStaff  Dick Cheney wasDick Cheney was appointed Deputyappointed Deputy Chief of StaffChief of Staff
  3. 3. Vice-President RockefellerVice-President Rockefeller  Liberal New YorkLiberal New York Governor NelsonGovernor Nelson Rockefeller wasRockefeller was appointed vice-appointed vice- presidentpresident  DemocratsDemocrats threatened to notthreatened to not confirm Rockefellerconfirm Rockefeller  Rumsfeld strived toRumsfeld strived to keep Rockefeller fromkeep Rockefeller from having a voice in thehaving a voice in the Ford administrationFord administration
  4. 4. Cheney, Rumsfeld, FordCheney, Rumsfeld, Ford
  5. 5. Ford with CIA DirectorFord with CIA Director George BushGeorge Bush
  6. 6. Ford pardoned NixonFord pardoned Nixon  September 8, 1974, aSeptember 8, 1974, a month after Nixon’smonth after Nixon’s resignation, Fordresignation, Ford granted Nixon a fullgranted Nixon a full pardonpardon  President Ford’sPresident Ford’s approval ratingapproval rating slipped from 71% toslipped from 71% to 39% overnight39% overnight  Ford believed aFord believed a pardon would endpardon would end WatergateWatergate
  7. 7. President Ford’s early actionsPresident Ford’s early actions  President Ford issued aPresident Ford issued a clemency orderclemency order to those who evaded the draft during theto those who evaded the draft during the Vietnam WarVietnam War  Clemency order issued September 16, 1974Clemency order issued September 16, 1974  Draft evaders and military deserters couldDraft evaders and military deserters could now return to the USA and performnow return to the USA and perform alternative (community) servicealternative (community) service
  8. 8. President Ford’s early actionsPresident Ford’s early actions  Freedom of Information Act was passedFreedom of Information Act was passed by the Democratically controlled Congressby the Democratically controlled Congress  Ford vetoed the lawFord vetoed the law  Veto overridden on November 21, 1974Veto overridden on November 21, 1974  The FOIA allowed for more public accessThe FOIA allowed for more public access to alleged government secretsto alleged government secrets
  9. 9. President Ford’s veto penPresident Ford’s veto pen  President Ford vetoed 39 bills in the firstPresident Ford vetoed 39 bills in the first few months of his administrationfew months of his administration  5656 total vetoes were issued by President Fordtotal vetoes were issued by President Ford  Most vetoes were against spendingMost vetoes were against spending increases proposed by the Democraticallyincreases proposed by the Democratically controlled Congresscontrolled Congress  Ford vetoed a 1976 $6.1 billion spendingFord vetoed a 1976 $6.1 billion spending proposal, which he viewed as an election ployproposal, which he viewed as an election ploy  The veto was upheld by the U.S. SenateThe veto was upheld by the U.S. Senate  President Ford wanted to control federalPresident Ford wanted to control federal spendingspending
  10. 10. Sen. Frank Church’sSen. Frank Church’s CommitteeCommittee  Sen. Church’sSen. Church’s CommitteeCommittee investigated abusesinvestigated abuses of the nationalof the national government since thegovernment since the start of the Cold Warstart of the Cold War  Recommended thatRecommended that restrictions be placedrestrictions be placed on government coverton government covert operations andoperations and domestic spyingdomestic spying
  11. 11. Ford’s economic dilemmaFord’s economic dilemma  American economy began to falter in 1971American economy began to falter in 1971  President Nixon removed USA from thePresident Nixon removed USA from the gold standardgold standard  Post-war inflation rose from 5.9% in 1970Post-war inflation rose from 5.9% in 1970 to 9.1% in 1975to 9.1% in 1975  President Ford advocated hisPresident Ford advocated his WhipWhip InflationInflation NowNow (WIN) program in 1975(WIN) program in 1975  The public viewed Ford as ineffectiveThe public viewed Ford as ineffective  Chicago & Detroit lost half of theirChicago & Detroit lost half of their manufacturing jobsmanufacturing jobs
  12. 12. Role of the Twin TowersRole of the Twin Towers  New York’s WorldNew York’s World Trade Center twinTrade Center twin towers weretowers were completed in 1977completed in 1977  Signified a shift in theSignified a shift in the American economyAmerican economy
  13. 13. New energy policiesNew energy policies  Alaska Pipeline wasAlaska Pipeline was first proposed in 1968first proposed in 1968  completed in 1977completed in 1977  The pipelineThe pipeline transported oil fromtransported oil from Alaska’s north slopeAlaska’s north slope to the port at Valdezto the port at Valdez
  14. 14. Prudhoe Bay pump stationPrudhoe Bay pump station
  15. 15. Beginning of the PipelineBeginning of the Pipeline
  16. 16. Pipeline criticsPipeline critics
  17. 17. Other regulationsOther regulations  55-mph speed limit forced on all states55-mph speed limit forced on all states  This was the second most disobeyed lawThis was the second most disobeyed law since prohibitionsince prohibition
  18. 18. Ford’s Foreign PolicyFord’s Foreign Policy  Ford met with Brezhnev in 1974 to lay theFord met with Brezhnev in 1974 to lay the groundwork for a new SALT II agreementgroundwork for a new SALT II agreement  Kissinger continued his shuttle diplomacy,Kissinger continued his shuttle diplomacy, laying the groundwork for a future peacelaying the groundwork for a future peace agreement between Israel and Egyptagreement between Israel and Egypt
  19. 19. Fall of Saigon, 1975Fall of Saigon, 1975
  20. 20. Angolan Civil WarAngolan Civil War
  21. 21. Helsinki Accords, August 1975Helsinki Accords, August 1975  Helsinki Accords were a series ofHelsinki Accords were a series of agreements between the USA, Russia andagreements between the USA, Russia and several other nationsseveral other nations  USA & USSR agreed to the post-WW IIUSA & USSR agreed to the post-WW II division of Europedivision of Europe  Signatory nations agreed to respect theSignatory nations agreed to respect the human rights of citizenshuman rights of citizens  The may have led to more anti-communistThe may have led to more anti-communist agitation in eastern Europeagitation in eastern Europe
  22. 22. Ford signed Helsinki AccordsFord signed Helsinki Accords
  23. 23. Squeaky Fromm, Sept 5, 1975Squeaky Fromm, Sept 5, 1975  President Ford isPresident Ford is hustled away tohustled away to safety after Squeakysafety after Squeaky Fromm attempted toFromm attempted to shoot himshoot him
  24. 24. Sarah Moore, Sept 22, 1975Sarah Moore, Sept 22, 1975  President FordPresident Ford grimaces as a shot isgrimaces as a shot is fired at him by Sarahfired at him by Sarah Jane Moore in SanJane Moore in San Francisco, CAFrancisco, CA
  25. 25. Ford sought re-election inFord sought re-election in 19761976
  26. 26. Ford selected Bob DoleFord selected Bob Dole  Sen. Bob DoleSen. Bob Dole appealed to theappealed to the conservative wing ofconservative wing of the Republican Partythe Republican Party  Favored by RumsfeldFavored by Rumsfeld
  27. 27. The campaignThe campaign  Vice-PresidentVice-President Rockefeller,Rockefeller, campaigning for Bobcampaigning for Bob Dole, reacted toDole, reacted to college studentscollege students heckling themheckling them
  28. 28. Carter’s Playboy interviewCarter’s Playboy interview
  29. 29. Ford-Carter DebateFord-Carter Debate  President FordPresident Ford suggested thatsuggested that Russia did not controlRussia did not control eastern Europeeastern Europe