Fdr's new deal and great depression pt 2(1)


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Fdr's new deal and great depression pt 2(1)

  1. 1. The Great Depression FDR’s “New Deal”
  2. 2. The New Deal Affects Many Groups ND represents an important opportunity for women/minorities gains were limited, however. patterns of prejudice and discrimination were hard to break
  3. 3. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Francis Perkins – 1st female cabinet member • Secretary of labor • Played a major role in creating Social Security system • Supervised labor legislation FDR also appt 3 female diplomats & 1 female federal judge WOMEN STILL FACED WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
  4. 4. The New Deal Affects Many GroupsNational Recovery Administration – set wages; some were lower for women Federal Emergency Relief Administration & Civil Works Admin hired fewer women than men CCC hired only men Despite these problems, women made small gains Gains: 11.7% in 1930 to 15.6% in 1940! WIDESPREAD CRITICISM OF WOMEN WORKING DID NOT CHANGE THE PROGRESSION OF WOMEN GETTING JOBS
  5. 5. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Growth of activism by AAs A. Phillip Randolph Established 1st all-black labor union – Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Laid the groundwork for the civil rights movement
  6. 6. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Mary McLeod Bethune – educator appointed to head Division of Negro Affairs of the NYA Her job: • To make sure they hired AAs as administrators • To provide job training to AAs Organized “Black Cabinet” – advisors on racial affairs • William Hastie and Robert Weaver appt to Department of Interior NEVER BEFORE SO MANY AA VOICES HEARD IN GOVT!
  7. 7. The New Deal Affects Many Groups FDR failed to support civil rights Feared upsetting Southern white Dems Refused to pass anti-lynching law Refused to end poll tax
  8. 8. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Mexican Americans Supported ND, though they benefited less than AAs! • CCC and TVA helped some, but disqualified many migrants as they had no permanent address • They had come to US during ‘20s. Mainly in Southwest Farm laborers – not governed by state or federal work law Wages – fell to $.09/hr! Attempts at unionization – violence from employers & govt authorities!
  9. 9. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Native Americans Strong support by federal govt John Collier -Commissioner of Indian Affairs– appt by FDR in ‘34 helped create Indian Reorganization Act * change govt policy from assimilation to NA autonomy! * Restored some lands to tribal ownership
  10. 10. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Native Americans Economic changes: lands belong to whole tribe Govt can’t take over unoccupied lands & sell them to non- Indians Cultural changes: # of boarding schools for NAs reduced; attend school on reservation Political changes: elect tribal councils on reservations PROS: those who valued tribal traditions. OBJECTIONS: from those who owned land individually under Dawes Act – tired of whites telling them what was good for them (the more “Americanized”) [* Dawes Act: broke up reservations; gave land to individual Indians 1887]
  11. 11. The New Deal Affects Many Groups Summary: ND had huge impact on women, AAs, Mexican-Amercans, and workers and a huge impact on American society and culture 1936 Election showed: Class warfare was an issue in American politics third party declined FDR won due to his appeal to the “forgotten man” (Al Smith said, “no one shoots Santa Claus”) Forged powerful coalition of South, blacks, urbanites, and the poor, immigrants, Catholics, and Jews Democrats will dominate national politics through 30s and 40s
  12. 12. Bankers and Big Business Federal Securities Act which creates the Securities and Exchange Commission
  13. 13. TVA- TennesseeValley Authority “Creeping Socialism in Concrete” “It was the presence of cheap electricity, lower interest rates, water projects that laid the foundation of the New South” Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young
  14. 14. Housing Reform and Social Security Federal Housing Administration Social Security Act Social Security largely inspired by highly industrialized European models. In the agricultural U.S. this was unimaginable but America had become increasingly urbanized
  15. 15. Twilight of the New Deal • Fact: FDR’s term from 1933-1937 did not end the Great Depression. Only modest recovery • 1937 another economic dip - Roosevelt Recession due to Social Security taxes biting into payrolls • Here he embraces British economist John Maynard Keynes - Keynsenian Economics - planned deficit spending is ok. *major turning point in American gov’t • http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock/
  16. 16. Critics and Praise Critics • waste, confusion, graft • too communist: “Rooseveltski” • business shocked by the leap before you look spirit • bureaucratic interference and regimentation • national debt huge - now we are a handout state - people will expect it! • caused greater class strife • private enterprise stifled by planned economy • FDR too aggressive against Supreme Court • * New Deal did not cure the Great Depression!
  17. 17. Critics and Praise • yes some waste but it was relief not recovery that was the aim and relief was granted • philosophy of balancing the human budget didn’t exist in federal gov’t before this time and it needed to be added to the American process • He may have saved American free enterprise - he was not against capitalism but against overly strong capitalists - he purged the American system of some of its worse abuses •Socialist party actually died at this time • Roosevelt, like Jefferson, provided bold reform without a bloody revolution - at a time when Europe was struggling with uprisings and communism or fascism •Choosing the middle road he is called the greatest conservative since Hamilton •Hamilton in his support of big gov’t but Jeffersonian in his support of the fogotten man