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European explorationandcolonization

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  • 1. By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  • 2. Earlier Explorations1. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca2. A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships.3. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
  • 3. Admiral Zheng He Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!1371-1435
  • 4. A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
  • 5. Motives for European Exploration1. Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.2. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.3. Reformation  refugees & missionaries.4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.5. Technological advances.6. Fame and fortune.
  • 6. New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan]Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant
  • 7. New Weapons Technology
  • 8. Prince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419
  • 9. Museum of Navigation in Lisbon
  • 10. Portuguese Maritime Empire1. Exploring the west coast of Africa.2. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.3. Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut.4. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
  • 11. Zheng He’s VoyagesIn 1498, Da Gama reachedCalcutta, China’s favorite port!
  • 12. Christofo Colon [1451- 1506]
  • 13. Columbus’ Four Voyages
  • 14. Other Voyages of Exploration
  • 15. Ferdinand Magellan & theFirst Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c
  • 16. Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
  • 17. The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs vs.Fernando Cortez Montezuma II
  • 18. The Death of Montezuma II
  • 19. Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
  • 20. The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs.Francisco AtahualpaPizarro
  • 21. Slaves Working in aBrazilian Sugar Mill
  • 22. The “Columbian Exchange”  Squash  Avocado  Peppers  Sweet Potatoes  Turkey  Pumpkin  Tobacco  Quinine  Cocoa  Pineapple  Cassava  POTATO  Peanut  TOMATO  Vanilla  MAIZE  Syphilis  Trinkets  Liquor  GUNS Olive  COFFEE BEAN  Banana  Rice Onion  Turnip  Honeybee  Barley Grape  Peach  SUGAR CANE  Oats Citrus Fruits  Pear  Wheat  HORSE Cattle  Sheep  Pigs  Smallpox Flu  Typhus  Measles  Malaria Diptheria  Whooping Cough
  • 23. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conq u istad oresOfficialEuropean s ie Colony! ar on si is M Perm a Sett nent lers
  • 24. Treasuresfrom the Americas!
  • 25. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 26. The Slave Trade1. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.2. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries.3. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
  • 27. Slave Ship“Middle Passage”
  • 28. “ Coffin” Position Below Deck
  • 29. African Captives Thrown OverboardSharks followed the slave ships!
  • 30. European Empires in the Americas
  • 31. The Colonial Class SystemPeninsulares CreolesMestizos MulattosNative Indians Black Slaves
  • 32. Administration of theSpanish Empire in the New World1. Encomienda or forced labor.2. Council of the Indies. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru.3. Papal agreement.
  • 33. The Influence of theColonial Catholic Church Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission
  • 34. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 &The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
  • 35. Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws  1542
  • 36. New Colonial Rivals1. Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.2. Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.3. First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. Surat in NW India in 1608.4. Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
  • 37. New Colonial Rivals
  • 38. Impact of European Expansion1. Native populations ravaged by disease.2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”]3. New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
  • 39. 5. New Patterns of World Trade