European explorationandcolonization

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European explorationandcolonization

  1. 1. By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. Earlier Explorations1. Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca2. A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships.3. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
  3. 3. Admiral Zheng He Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!1371-1435
  4. 4. A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
  5. 5. Motives for European Exploration1. Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.2. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.3. Reformation  refugees & missionaries.4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.5. Technological advances.6. Fame and fortune.
  6. 6. New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan]Hartman Astrolabe (1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant
  7. 7. New Weapons Technology
  8. 8. Prince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419
  9. 9. Museum of Navigation in Lisbon
  10. 10. Portuguese Maritime Empire1. Exploring the west coast of Africa.2. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.3. Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut.4. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
  11. 11. Zheng He’s VoyagesIn 1498, Da Gama reachedCalcutta, China’s favorite port!
  12. 12. Christofo Colon [1451- 1506]
  13. 13. Columbus’ Four Voyages
  14. 14. Other Voyages of Exploration
  15. 15. Ferdinand Magellan & theFirst Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c
  16. 16. Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
  17. 17. The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs vs.Fernando Cortez Montezuma II
  18. 18. The Death of Montezuma II
  19. 19. Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
  20. 20. The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs.Francisco AtahualpaPizarro
  21. 21. Slaves Working in aBrazilian Sugar Mill
  22. 22. The “Columbian Exchange”  Squash  Avocado  Peppers  Sweet Potatoes  Turkey  Pumpkin  Tobacco  Quinine  Cocoa  Pineapple  Cassava  POTATO  Peanut  TOMATO  Vanilla  MAIZE  Syphilis  Trinkets  Liquor  GUNS Olive  COFFEE BEAN  Banana  Rice Onion  Turnip  Honeybee  Barley Grape  Peach  SUGAR CANE  Oats Citrus Fruits  Pear  Wheat  HORSE Cattle  Sheep  Pigs  Smallpox Flu  Typhus  Measles  Malaria Diptheria  Whooping Cough
  23. 23. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conq u istad oresOfficialEuropean s ie Colony! ar on si is M Perm a Sett nent lers
  24. 24. Treasuresfrom the Americas!
  25. 25. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
  26. 26. The Slave Trade1. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.2. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries.3. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
  27. 27. Slave Ship“Middle Passage”
  28. 28. “ Coffin” Position Below Deck
  29. 29. African Captives Thrown OverboardSharks followed the slave ships!
  30. 30. European Empires in the Americas
  31. 31. The Colonial Class SystemPeninsulares CreolesMestizos MulattosNative Indians Black Slaves
  32. 32. Administration of theSpanish Empire in the New World1. Encomienda or forced labor.2. Council of the Indies. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru.3. Papal agreement.
  33. 33. The Influence of theColonial Catholic Church Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission
  34. 34. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 &The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
  35. 35. Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws  1542
  36. 36. New Colonial Rivals1. Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.2. Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.3. First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. Surat in NW India in 1608.4. Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
  37. 37. New Colonial Rivals
  38. 38. Impact of European Expansion1. Native populations ravaged by disease.2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”]3. New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
  39. 39. 5. New Patterns of World Trade

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