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  • Habeas corpus means "You have the body." A petition to bring a person before a court or a judge. In most common usage, it is directed to the official person detaining another, commanding that the person to produce the body of the prisoner or person detained so the court may determine if such a person had been denied his or her liberty without the process of law.
  • Emma Goldman. Description: "Woman anarchist leader and aid in draft war. Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman convicted of conspiracy against draft law and sentenced to two years in penitentary and finded $10,000 each, July 9, 1917." Keywords: Credit: National Archives and Records Administration
  • Espionage willfully cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny or refusal of duty in the military forces . (Espionage Act) b. prohibited disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive remarks about the form of government, flag or uniform of the United States. It even prohibited the opposition to the purchase of war bonds. (not investment advice!) (Sedition Act) Swat the Fly, But Use Common Sense Literary Digest, 3/6/20. Originally from the Newark News (Pease). political cartoon
  • Sauerkraut - freedom cabbage
  • Sauerkraut - freedom cabbage
  • Sauerkraut - freedom cabbage
  • National Anti-Suffrage Association. Description: Men looking in the window of the National Anti-Suffrage Association headquarters.
  • Women's Votes. Literary Digest, 6/28/19. Originally from the St. Louis Republic (Chapin). political cartoon Donkey is a symbol of Democratic party, elephant is a symbol of Republican party. Agitation for suffrage went on even during the war and the law was passed in 1919.
  • The Coming Transformation-July First. Outlook, 5/21/19. Originally from the San Francisco Chronicle (Bronstrup). political cartoon
  • "Oh, Ho, Hum! No Beer, No Work!" Literary Digest, 8/16/19. Originally from The American Issue,Westerville, Oh., (Henderson). political cartoon
  • Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in Chicago : The Negro seen in the picture was, it is said, pursued by a mob and ran to the mounted policeman shown at the left, who kept the mob at bay until other officers arrived on the scene. This Negro was armed for defense ; the policeman at his side is shown in the act of taking a weapon from his hip pocket. Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in Chicago Outlook, 8/20/19. Originally from Underwood & Underwood (c). photograph
  • These strikers were photographed with groceries that the General Strike Committee had issued to union families.
  • Chicago Steel-Workers Announcing the Walk-out Literary Digest, 10/4/19. Originally from the International (c). photograph
  • A poster distributed by the United States Steel Corporation shortly after the start of the 1919 strike falsely proclaimed a company victory.
  • The strike ballot distributed by the National Committee for Organizing Iron and Steel Workers--printed in English, Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Slovak, and Polish--indicates the range of nationalities that composed the industry’s workforce in 1919.
  • "Give me those Railroads!" Literary Digest, 8/16/19. Originally from the New York World (Rehse). political cartoon
  • "These attacks will only increase the activities of our crime-detecting forces," declares Attorney-General Palmer, whose Washington home, shown above, was damaged by a bomb-explosion on June 2. Bombing at Washington D.C. home of Attorney-General Palmer Literary Digest, 6/14/19 photograph
  • Rounding Up the "Reds" in a Nation-Wide Campaign Against Revolutionaries : Police Searching a Group of Arrested "Suspects" in Police Headquarters, Chicago Rounding Up the "Reds" in a Nation-Wide Campaign Against Revolutionaries Outlook, 1/21/20. Originally from the International (c). photograph
  • The Patriotic American. Literary Digest, 6/28/19. Originally from the Chicago Tribune (Orr). political cartoon
  • The Patriotic American. Literary Digest, 6/28/19. Originally from the Chicago Tribune (Orr). political cartoon
  • Civilliberties

    1. 1. World War I and Civil Liberties <ul><li>Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Espionage and Sedition Acts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The free speech cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural censorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-German sentiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane Addams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1919 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race riots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike wave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red Scare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of Bolshevism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Palmer Raids </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History <ul><li>1798: Alien and Sedition Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus </li></ul><ul><li>1917: The Espionage Act </li></ul><ul><li>1919-1920: The Red Scare </li></ul>
    3. 3. World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917
    4. 4. World War I > Eugene Debs was jailed again under the Espionage Act in 1918
    5. 5. World War I > Cartoon against the Sedition Act, 1920
    6. 6. World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases <ul><li>Charles Schenk v. United States (1919) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed antiwar pamphlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conviction upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and present danger” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>convicted under the Espionage Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed pamphlets and agitated against the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conviction upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the constitution of the United States” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called for the overthrow of U.S. government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. World War I > The Poster by the Committee on Public Information
    8. 8. World War I > Some names changed because of the war with Germany <ul><li>Hamburger - “liberty stake” </li></ul><ul><li>Sauerkraut - “liberty cabbage” </li></ul><ul><li>German measles - “liberty measles” </li></ul><ul><li>dashchunds - “liberty pups” </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin, Iowa - Lincoln, Iowa </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser Street - Maine Way </li></ul>
    9. 9. World War I > Cartoon making fun of Jane Addams, 1918
    10. 10. Suffrage > Men at the National Anti-Suffrage Association Headquaters
    11. 11. Suffrage > The National Women’s Party pickets the White House in January 1917
    12. 12. Suffrage > Women’s Suffrage Cartoon
    13. 13. Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919
    14. 14. Prohibition > Cartoon Announcing the End of Crime Due to Prohibition, 1919
    15. 15. Race Riots > Police “Rescues” a Black Man During the Chicago Race Riot
    16. 16. Strike Wave > The Seattle General Strike
    17. 17. Strike Wave > Steel Workers Announce the Walk-Out, October 4, 1919
    18. 18. Strike Wave > US Steel Corporation Poster Proclaims Victory
    19. 19. Strike Wave > Strike Ballot in Several European Languages, 1919
    20. 20. Strike Wave > New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919
    21. 21. Red Scare > Philadelphia Inquirer cartoon against Bolshevism, 1919
    22. 22. Red Scare > Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919
    23. 23. Red Scare > Police searches suspects in Palmer raids
    24. 24. Red Scare > Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919
    25. 25. Red Scare > Spider-web chart linking women’s rights groups to radicalism, 1922
    26. 26. Red Scare > Debs and Palmer on Radicalism Eugene Debs, 1918: “ I believe in the Constitution. Isn’t it strange that we Socialists stand almost alone today in upholding and defending the Constitution of the United States? The revolutionary fathers … understood that free speech, a free and the right of free assemblage by the people were fundamental principles in democratic government. … I believe in the right of free speech, in war as well as peace.” Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, 1920: “ Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, seeking to replace marriage vows with libertine laws, burning up the foundations of society. … My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants.”