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Chapter 3 jefferson and war of 1812
 

Chapter 3 jefferson and war of 1812

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    Chapter 3 jefferson and war of 1812 Chapter 3 jefferson and war of 1812 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 3: THEGROWTHI C A E X ANYOUNG AMER OF P A D S I N T H E NATIONY FIRST HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTUR
    • THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA: SECTION 1 • Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party • While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr • For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12th Amendment) 3rd President of the U.S. 1800-1808
    • 1800 Election Results
    • SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple, limited government was the best for the people Jefferson decentralized the government, cut costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes Jefferson Memorial
    • JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT • Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges • Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional • Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional • Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
    • THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE• By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his dreams of an American Empire• He needed money to fight European wars, so he accepted Jefferson’s offered of $15,000,000• More than doubled the size of our country• Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory
    • MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT • After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison • Madison was two-term President 1808-1816 • Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812 4th President 1808-1816
    • WAR OF 1812 – U.S. VS. BRITAIN• Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans• The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house• Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans• Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814 British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
    • RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 Results of the war included: End of the Federalist Party (opposed war) Encouraged industries in U.S. Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nationDespite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
    • NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY• James Monroe was elected president in 1816• Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as key concern of administration• Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory• Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida & southern- most areas of SE America
    • THE MONROE DOCTRINE • In the early 19th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization • In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine)
    • What idea does this political cartoon convey?
    • REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES • The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural • The Industrial Revolution reached America by the early-mid 19th century • New England first to embrace factory system • Especially in textile (fabric) mills
    • SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL• Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power• Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more profitable• The South became a “Cotton Kingdom”• More labor was needed – 1790 = 700,000 slaves 1820 = 1,500,000 slaves Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds
    • BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM • Economic differences created political tension between North & South • As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together • House Speaker Henry Clay’s American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel
    • THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE• In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood• Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state• Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free”• Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT latitude COMPROMISER
    • MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820