Chapter 2 powerpt - revolution and new nation

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  • 1. CHAPTER 2:CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THEREVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLICEARLY REPUBLIC
  • 2. COLONIAL RESISTANCE ANDCOLONIAL RESISTANCE AND REBELLION – SECTION 1REBELLION – SECTION 1  TheThe Proclamation ofProclamation of 17631763 sought to haltsought to halt the westwardthe westward expansion of theexpansion of the colonist, thus thecolonist, thus the colonist believed thecolonist believed the British government didBritish government did not care about theirnot care about their needsneeds  This was one of manyThis was one of many measures passed bymeasures passed by thethe English ParliamentEnglish Parliament that would bethat would be strenuously opposedstrenuously opposed by the Americanby the American ColonistsColonists England’s Parliament and Big Ben
  • 3. NO TAXATION WITHOUTNO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATIONREPRESENTATION  Huge debt from theHuge debt from the French-Indian WarFrench-Indian War caused the Englishcaused the English Parliament toParliament to impose a series ofimpose a series of taxes on thetaxes on the colonistscolonists  TheThe Sugar ActSugar Act andand thethe Stamp ActStamp Act were two suchwere two such taxestaxes Colonists protest
  • 4. THE SUGAR ACTTHE SUGAR ACT  The Sugar Act (1764)The Sugar Act (1764) placed duties (taxes)placed duties (taxes) on certain importson certain imports that had not beenthat had not been taxed beforetaxed before  More importantly, itMore importantly, it meant colonistsmeant colonists accused of violatingaccused of violating the Act were tried inthe Act were tried in Vice-Admiral CourtsVice-Admiral Courts rather than Colonialrather than Colonial CourtsCourts
  • 5. THE STAMP ACTTHE STAMP ACT  In March of 1765In March of 1765 Parliament passedParliament passed thethe Stamp ActStamp Act which imposed awhich imposed a tax on documentstax on documents and printed itemsand printed items such as wills,such as wills, newspapers, andnewspapers, and cards (a stampcards (a stamp would then bewould then be placed on the item)placed on the item)
  • 6. RESISTANCE GROWSRESISTANCE GROWS  In May of 1765In May of 1765 Colonists formed aColonists formed a secret resistancesecret resistance group called,group called, SonsSons of Libertyof Liberty toto protest the lawsprotest the laws  Merchants agree toMerchants agree to boycott Britishboycott British goods until thegoods until the Acts are repealedActs are repealed
  • 7. MORE TAXES, MORE PROTESTSMORE TAXES, MORE PROTESTS  More taxes andMore taxes and acts soon followed:acts soon followed: Declaratory ActDeclaratory Act Townshend ActsTownshend Acts The Townshend ActsThe Townshend Acts taxed goodstaxed goods brought into thebrought into the colonies fromcolonies from Britain – includingBritain – including lead, paint, glass,lead, paint, glass, paper andpaper and TEATEA
  • 8. TENSION MOUNTS INTENSION MOUNTS IN MASSACHUSETTSMASSACHUSETTS  The atmosphere inThe atmosphere in Boston was extremelyBoston was extremely tensetense  The city erupted inThe city erupted in bloody clashes and abloody clashes and a daring tax protest, alldaring tax protest, all of which pushed theof which pushed the colonists and Englandcolonists and England closer to warcloser to war  Boston MassacreBoston Massacre waswas in 1770 when a mobin 1770 when a mob taunted Britishtaunted British soldiers – 5 colonistssoldiers – 5 colonists were killedwere killed BOSTON MASSACRE 1770 BY PAUL REVERE
  • 9. BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773
  • 10. BRITS RESPOND TO TEABRITS RESPOND TO TEA VANDALSVANDALS  After 18,000 poundsAfter 18,000 pounds of tea was dumped byof tea was dumped by colonists into Bostoncolonists into Boston Harbor, King GeorgeHarbor, King George III was infuriatedIII was infuriated  Parliament respondedParliament responded by passing theby passing the Intolerable Acts;Intolerable Acts; which included thewhich included the closing of the Harbor,closing of the Harbor, the Quartering Act,the Quartering Act, Martial law in BostonMartial law in Boston
  • 11. THE ROAD TO REVOLUTIONTHE ROAD TO REVOLUTION  Colonists start toColonists start to organize andorganize and communicatecommunicate  First ContinentalFirst Continental CongressCongress met in 1774met in 1774 and drew up rightsand drew up rights  Military preparationMilitary preparation beganbegan  England reacts byEngland reacts by ordering troops toordering troops to seize weaponsseize weapons ATTENDEES INCLUDED SAMUEL ADAMS, PATRICK HENRY, AND GEORGE WASHINGTON FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS - 1774 PHILLY
  • 12. LEXINGTON AND CONCORDLEXINGTON AND CONCORD  With Paul Revere’sWith Paul Revere’s announcement, theannouncement, the Colonists and theColonists and the British began fightingBritish began fighting in April of 1775in April of 1775  The first battle of theThe first battle of the American RevolutionAmerican Revolution lasted only 15lasted only 15 minutes, but itsminutes, but its impact has lasted forimpact has lasted for over 200 yearsover 200 years
  • 13. SECOND CONTINENTALSECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESSCONGRESS  May 1775, ColonialMay 1775, Colonial leaders met for aleaders met for a Second ContinentalSecond Continental CongressCongress  Some called forSome called for Independence, someIndependence, some for reconciliationfor reconciliation  Finally, the CongressFinally, the Congress agreed to appointagreed to appoint George WashingtonGeorge Washington asas head of thehead of the Continental ArmyContinental Army Patrick Henry addresses Congress
  • 14. BATTLE OF BUNKER HILLBATTLE OF BUNKER HILL  British GeneralBritish General Thomas GageThomas Gage decideddecided on an attack onon an attack on Breed’s Hill (nearBreed’s Hill (near Boston)Boston)  Deadliest battleDeadliest battle of warof war as over 1,000as over 1,000 redcoats and 450redcoats and 450 colonists diedcolonists died  BattleBattle misnamedmisnamed Bunker Hill (Breed’sBunker Hill (Breed’s Hill would have beenHill would have been more accurate)more accurate) June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill
  • 15. OLIVE BRANCH PETITIONOLIVE BRANCH PETITION  By July 1775, theBy July 1775, the Second ContinentalSecond Continental Congress wasCongress was readying for war,readying for war, though still hoping forthough still hoping for peacepeace  Most delegates deeplyMost delegates deeply loyalloyal to King Georgeto King George IIIIII  July 8 –July 8 – Olive BranchOlive Branch PetitionPetition sent to Kingsent to King who flatly refused itwho flatly refused it
  • 16. INDEPENDENCE MINDEDINDEPENDENCE MINDED  Public opinionPublic opinion shifted towardshifted toward IndependenceIndependence  Why?Why? EnlightenmentEnlightenment ideas (Johnideas (John Locke’sLocke’s Social ContractSocial Contract,, and Thomasand Thomas Paine’sPaine’s CommonCommon SenseSense)) HUGE BEST SELLER, “COMMON SENSE” 1776
  • 17. DECLARATION OFDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCEINDEPENDENCE  OnOn July 4, 1776July 4, 1776, the, the Continental CongressContinental Congress voted unanimouslyvoted unanimously that the Americanthat the American Colonies were free andColonies were free and they adopted thethey adopted the Declaration ofDeclaration of IndependenceIndependence  The Colonists hadThe Colonists had declared theirdeclared their independence– theyindependence– they would now have towould now have to fight for itfight for it JEFFERSON, ADAMS, & FRANKLIN
  • 18. THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCETHE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE – SECTION 2– SECTION 2  Colonists dividedColonists divided betweenbetween LoyalistsLoyalists andand PatriotsPatriots  New York City earlyNew York City early site of battlessite of battles  Colonial troopsColonial troops retreat, thenretreat, then surprise Britishsurprise British troops attroops at SaratogaSaratoga
  • 19. WINNING THE WARWINNING THE WAR  With French military leaderWith French military leader Marquis de Lafayette’sMarquis de Lafayette’s help, Colonial troopshelp, Colonial troops became effective fightersbecame effective fighters  May 1780, British troopsMay 1780, British troops successfully take Charlessuccessfully take Charles Town, S.C.Town, S.C.  However, it was the lastHowever, it was the last major victory for themajor victory for the British asBritish as GeneralGeneral CornwallisCornwallis finallyfinally surrendered at Yorkstown,surrendered at Yorkstown, Va. on October 18, 1781Va. on October 18, 1781  TheThe Americans victoryAmericans victory shocked the worldshocked the world Cornwallis surrenders
  • 20. TREATY OF PARISTREATY OF PARIS  Peace talks began inPeace talks began in Paris in 1782Paris in 1782  American negotiatingAmerican negotiating team includedteam included JohnJohn Jay, John Adams, andJay, John Adams, and Ben FranklinBen Franklin  Treaty signed inTreaty signed in September of 1783September of 1783 and officiallyand officially recognized therecognized the independence of theindependence of the United States and setUnited States and set boundariesboundaries
  • 21. CONFEDERATION AND THECONFEDERATION AND THE CONSTITUTION – SECTION 3CONSTITUTION – SECTION 3  After theAfter the Revolution, manyRevolution, many favored afavored a RepublicRepublic  Some supported aSome supported a strong federalstrong federal governmentgovernment (Federalists)(Federalists) whilewhile others favoredothers favored states rightsstates rights (Anti-(Anti- Federalists)Federalists)
  • 22. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION  The SecondThe Second Continental CongressContinental Congress issued a set of lawsissued a set of laws called thecalled the Articles ofArticles of ConfederationConfederation in 1781in 1781  Gave states one voteGave states one vote each in Congresseach in Congress regardless ofregardless of population of statepopulation of state  Split power betweenSplit power between National GovernmentNational Government and Stateand State
  • 23. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OFACCOMPLISHMENTS OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION  America’sAmerica’s firstfirst ConstitutionConstitution  Established NationalEstablished National governments ability togovernments ability to wage war, signwage war, sign treaties, coin money,treaties, coin money, run post officerun post office  Land Ordinance ofLand Ordinance of 17851785 – made land– made land parcels small &parcels small & affordableaffordable  Northwest OrdinanceNorthwest Ordinance of 1787of 1787 – set– set requirement for statesrequirement for states
  • 24. WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLEWEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLE OF CONFEDERATIONOF CONFEDERATION  Congress could notCongress could not collect taxescollect taxes  Each state had oneEach state had one vote regardless ofvote regardless of populationpopulation  No executive branchNo executive branch  No national courtNo national court systemsystem  Nine of thirteen statesNine of thirteen states needed to agree toneeded to agree to pass any lawpass any law  Lacked national unityLacked national unity  Weak Central Gov’tWeak Central Gov’t
  • 25. SHAY’S REBELLIONSHAY’S REBELLION  An event that highlightedAn event that highlighted the weakness of thethe weakness of the Central (National)Central (National) government wasgovernment was Shay’sShay’s RebellionRebellion  Farmers in westernFarmers in western Massachusetts rose up inMassachusetts rose up in protest over increasedprotest over increased taxestaxes  Daniel Shay led 1,200Daniel Shay led 1,200 farmers toward the arsenalfarmers toward the arsenal in Springfieldin Springfield  The event caused alarmThe event caused alarm throughout the republicthroughout the republic 1787
  • 26. CREATING A NEWCREATING A NEW GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT  The delegates at theThe delegates at the ConstitutionalConstitutional Convention realizedConvention realized the need tothe need to strengthen the centralstrengthen the central governmentgovernment  They soon decided toThey soon decided to create an entirely newcreate an entirely new Constitution instead ofConstitution instead of amending the Articlesamending the Articles  CompromiseCompromise was thewas the order of the dayorder of the day“Compromise”
  • 27. VIRGINIA VS. NEW JERSEYVIRGINIA VS. NEW JERSEY PLANSPLANS  Virginia Plan:Virginia Plan: BicameralBicameral Legislation basedLegislation based on state populationon state population  New Jersey Plan:New Jersey Plan: UnicameralUnicameral Legislation basedLegislation based on one state = oneon one state = one votevote
  • 28. GREAT COMPROMISEGREAT COMPROMISE  After a deadlockedAfter a deadlocked that dragged on & on,that dragged on & on, Roger ShermanRoger Sherman finallyfinally suggested the Greatsuggested the Great Compromise whichCompromise which satisfied both big &satisfied both big & small statessmall states  Bicameral CongressBicameral Congress with House of Repswith House of Reps based on populationbased on population (VA Plan) and Senate(VA Plan) and Senate based on one state =based on one state = one vote (NJ Plan)one vote (NJ Plan)
  • 29. THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISETHREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE  Next difficult issue:Next difficult issue: SlaverySlavery  Southern statesSouthern states wanted slaveswanted slaves included in theincluded in the population figurespopulation figures used to determineused to determine RepresentativesRepresentatives  Northern states whichNorthern states which had few slaves,had few slaves, disagreeddisagreed  Compromise was toCompromise was to count each slave ascount each slave as 3/5ths3/5ths of a personof a person
  • 30. DIVISION OF POWERSDIVISION OF POWERS  Next issue: Should theNext issue: Should the National government orNational government or the states hold power?the states hold power? Who shall beWho shall be sovereign?sovereign?  Delegates choose to splitDelegates choose to split powerpower  FederalismFederalism systemsystem developeddeveloped  Federal government hadFederal government had delegated, or enumerateddelegated, or enumerated powers (Coin, trade, war,powers (Coin, trade, war, etc.)etc.)  States had reservedStates had reserved powers (education)powers (education)
  • 31. SEPARATION OF POWERSSEPARATION OF POWERS
  • 32. RATIFYING THE CONSTITUTIONRATIFYING THE CONSTITUTION  The ConstitutionalThe Constitutional Convention adjournedConvention adjourned in September of 1787in September of 1787  Nine of thirteen statesNine of thirteen states had to ratify thehad to ratify the ConstitutionConstitution  Supporters of theSupporters of the Constitution wereConstitution were Federalists. ThoseFederalists. Those opposed were Anti-opposed were Anti- FederalistFederalist
  • 33. FEDERALISTFEDERALIST  Led byLed by AlexanderAlexander Hamilton, JamesHamilton, James Madison and John Jay,Madison and John Jay, Federalist believedFederalist believed that while thethat while the Constitution was notConstitution was not perfect, it was farperfect, it was far superior to the Articlessuperior to the Articles of Confederationof Confederation  They favored a strongThey favored a strong central governmentcentral government James Madison “Father of the Constitution”
  • 34. ANTI-FEDERALISTANTI-FEDERALIST  The Anti-FederalistThe Anti-Federalist view was that theview was that the Constitution did notConstitution did not guarantee the rightsguarantee the rights of the people of theof the people of the statesstates  Led byLed by Patrick Henry,Patrick Henry, George Mason, andGeorge Mason, and Richard Henry Lee,Richard Henry Lee, the Anti-Federaliststhe Anti-Federalists wanted a Bill of Rightswanted a Bill of Rights to off-set the strongto off-set the strong central governmentcentral government Lee penned his views in the widely read, Letters from the Federal Farmers
  • 35. ADOPTION OF THE BILL OFADOPTION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTSRIGHTS  To satisfy the States-To satisfy the States- Rights advocates, aRights advocates, a Bill of Rights wasBill of Rights was added to theadded to the Constitution toConstitution to guarantee individualguarantee individual rightsrights  The Bill of Rights wasThe Bill of Rights was ratified in Decemberratified in December of 1791- three yearsof 1791- three years after the Constitutionafter the Constitution was ratifiedwas ratified First Ten Amendments
  • 36. OLDEST LIVING CONSTITUTIONOLDEST LIVING CONSTITUTION  The U.S. ConstitutionThe U.S. Constitution is the oldest writtenis the oldest written national constitution innational constitution in the worldthe world  Elastic ClauseElastic Clause key tokey to flexibilityflexibility  Also ability to change,Also ability to change, or “amend” theor “amend” the Constitution helpsConstitution helps preserve itpreserve it  27 Amendments have27 Amendments have been addedbeen added
  • 37. LAUNCHING THE NEW NATION –LAUNCHING THE NEW NATION – SECTION 4SECTION 4  TheThe herohero of theof the Revolution was theRevolution was the unanimous choice forunanimous choice for the nation’s firstthe nation’s first presidentpresident  WashingtonWashington took officetook office under the Constitutionunder the Constitution and with the Congressand with the Congress  He faced an enormousHe faced an enormous task of creating atask of creating a newnew governmentgovernment America’s First President
  • 38. JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789  One of Washington’sOne of Washington’s first tasks was tofirst tasks was to create a judicialcreate a judicial systemsystem  Judiciary Act set upJudiciary Act set up our justice systemour justice system  The act called for aThe act called for a Supreme Court,Supreme Court, federal courts, andfederal courts, and district courtsdistrict courts  The systemThe system guaranteed that theguaranteed that the federal laws wouldfederal laws would remain “supreme”remain “supreme”
  • 39. WASHINGTON CREATESWASHINGTON CREATES DEPARTMENTSDEPARTMENTS  WashingtonWashington createdcreated 33 executiveexecutive branchesbranches  StateState: Thomas: Thomas JeffersonJefferson  WarWar: Henry Knox: Henry Knox  TreasuryTreasury:: Alexander HamiltonAlexander Hamilton
  • 40. Hamilton Vs. JeffersonHamilton Vs. Jefferson  Hamilton was aHamilton was a staunch Federalist,staunch Federalist, while Jefferson waswhile Jefferson was an Anti-Federalistan Anti-Federalist  Hamilton believedHamilton believed in commerce &in commerce & industry, whileindustry, while Jefferson believedJefferson believed in a society ofin a society of farmer-citizensfarmer-citizens
  • 41. HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLANHAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN  Hamilton wanted aHamilton wanted a National BankNational Bank fullyfully funded by thefunded by the GovernmentGovernment  Opponents, like JamesOpponents, like James Madison, felt theMadison, felt the Constitution made noConstitution made no provisions for such aprovisions for such a Federal bankFederal bank  Thus begins a longThus begins a long battle between thosebattle between those whowho interpret theinterpret the Constitution looselyConstitution loosely vs. strictlyvs. strictly
  • 42. TWO-PARTY SYSTEMTWO-PARTY SYSTEM  Differences withinDifferences within Washington’s cabinetWashington’s cabinet gave rise to agave rise to a Two-Two- Party SystemParty System  Supporters Hamilton’sSupporters Hamilton’s strong governmentstrong government view calledview called themselvesthemselves FederalistsFederalists  Supporters ofSupporters of Jefferson’s vision of aJefferson’s vision of a strong statestrong state government weregovernment were calledcalled Democratic-Democratic- RepublicansRepublicans
  • 43. WHISKEY REBELLIONWHISKEY REBELLION  During Washington’sDuring Washington’s 22ndnd term in officeterm in office (1794),(1794), WhiskeyWhiskey farmers,farmers, angered byangered by an excessivean excessive taxtax,, attacked tax collectorsattacked tax collectors  Washington respondedWashington responded with great forcewith great force (13,000 troops)(13,000 troops)  Set precedent forSet precedent for armed force toarmed force to support federalsupport federal authorityauthority
  • 44. ELECTION OF 1796ELECTION OF 1796  Federalists nominatedFederalists nominated Vice President JohnVice President John AdamsAdams  Democratic-Democratic- RepublicansRepublicans nominated Thomasnominated Thomas JeffersonJefferson  Adams wins andAdams wins and runner-up Jeffersonrunner-up Jefferson becomes vice-becomes vice- president (as lawpresident (as law dictated)dictated) Jefferson (left) and Adams
  • 45. XYZ AFFAIRXYZ AFFAIR  Adams attempts to avoidAdams attempts to avoid war with France afterwar with France after France ships seizeFrance ships seize American shipsAmerican ships  He sends official to meetHe sends official to meet with France foreignwith France foreign ministerminister  France sends three lowFrance sends three low level officerslevel officers  Adams is insulted andAdams is insulted and refers to them as “X, Y,refers to them as “X, Y, and Z”and Z”  Next two years anNext two years an undeclared naval warundeclared naval war between France & U.S.between France & U.S. was wagedwas waged
  • 46. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTSALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS  To counter what heTo counter what he considered a threat againstconsidered a threat against the government, Adamsthe government, Adams passed through Congresspassed through Congress thethe Alien and Sedition ActsAlien and Sedition Acts  Alien Act raised residenceAlien Act raised residence requirements forrequirements for citizenship from 5 to 14citizenship from 5 to 14 years and allowedyears and allowed President to deport anyonePresident to deport anyone  Sedition Act set fines & jailSedition Act set fines & jail for anyone making falsefor anyone making false statements against thestatements against the governmentgovernment
  • 47. STATES ATTEMPT TO NULLIFYSTATES ATTEMPT TO NULLIFY ALIEN & SEDITION ACTSALIEN & SEDITION ACTS  In an event that wouldIn an event that would foreshadow futureforeshadow future conflicts, twoconflicts, two Southern States (Va,Southern States (Va, & Ky.) asserted the& Ky.) asserted the principle ofprinciple of nullificationnullification  Nullification meantNullification meant that a state couldthat a state could nullify, or considernullify, or consider void, any act ofvoid, any act of Congress theyCongress they deemeddeemed unconstitutionalunconstitutional