Chapter 1 powerpt - Exploration and colonial era

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  • 2. THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA,THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA, AND EUROPE – SECTION 1AND EUROPE – SECTION 1 ► Ancient CulturesAncient Cultures arrivedarrived about 22,000 years agoabout 22,000 years ago via a land bridgevia a land bridge ► Earliest settlers wereEarliest settlers were huntershunters ► Agriculture thrived startingAgriculture thrived starting about 5,000 years agoabout 5,000 years ago ► Some Natives remainedSome Natives remained NomadicNomadic ► Maya, Aztec, and IncaMaya, Aztec, and Inca societies flourishedsocieties flourished
  • 3. NATIVE AMERICAS IN 1400SNATIVE AMERICAS IN 1400S ► Native AmericanNative American societies in Northsocieties in North America were asAmerica were as varied as thevaried as the geographygeography ► TheThe Pueblo (SW)Pueblo (SW) andand Iroquois (NE)Iroquois (NE) were twowere two famous tribesfamous tribes ► Most of the tribes inMost of the tribes in America had commonAmerica had common religious views, tradereligious views, trade patterns & valuespatterns & values
  • 4. WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OFWEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF THE 1400STHE 1400S ► Long established,Long established, sophisticated societiessophisticated societies existed in Western Africaexisted in Western Africa ► TheThe Kingdom of SonghaiKingdom of Songhai controlled trans-Saharacontrolled trans-Sahara tradetrade ► Kingdom of BeninKingdom of Benin andand KongoKongo were two famouswere two famous dynastiesdynasties ► Village and family bondsVillage and family bonds formed the basis of lifeformed the basis of life
  • 5. EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF THEEUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF THE 1400S1400S ► European villages hadEuropean villages had a long tradition ofa long tradition of social hierarchysocial hierarchy –– complete with nobles,complete with nobles, merchants & peasantsmerchants & peasants ► ChristianityChristianity played aplayed a critical role – religiouscritical role – religious leaders had powerleaders had power ► The ReformationThe Reformation in thein the early 1500s led to aearly 1500s led to a split in the churchsplit in the church Martin Luther
  • 6. EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONEUROPEAN EXPLORATION ► The countries ofThe countries of Portugal, Spain,Portugal, Spain, France and EnglandFrance and England explored in the lateexplored in the late 1400s for1400s for God, Gold,God, Gold, and Gloryand Glory ► Improved mapmaking,Improved mapmaking, better sailboats,better sailboats, compasses,compasses, astrolabes, Princeastrolabes, Prince Henry– all led to betterHenry– all led to better explorationexploration
  • 7. SPANISH NORTH AMERICA –SPANISH NORTH AMERICA – SECTION 2SECTION 2 ► Columbus crosses theColumbus crosses the AtlanticAtlantic in October of 1492in October of 1492 and lands in San Salvadorand lands in San Salvador (“Holy Savior”)(“Holy Savior”) ► He spent about 3 monthsHe spent about 3 months exploring Islands in theexploring Islands in the BahamasBahamas ► Europeans used advancedEuropeans used advanced weapons to force localsweapons to force locals into labor:into labor: PlantationPlantation SystemSystem ► Disease devastated NativeDisease devastated Native populationpopulation
  • 8. IMPACT OF COLUMBUSIMPACT OF COLUMBUS  On Africans-On Africans- BeforeBefore slave trade ended in theslave trade ended in the 1800s, 10 million Africans1800s, 10 million Africans takentaken  On Europeans-On Europeans- BiggestBiggest voluntary migration involuntary migration in world historyworld history  On Trade-On Trade- ColumbianColumbian ExchangeExchange meant newmeant new goods & products flowedgoods & products flowed between continentsbetween continents
  • 9. The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: New World to Old World: Diseases: Smallpox Measles Chicken Pox Malaria Yellow Fever Influenza The Common Cold Syphilis
  • 10. The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: New World to Old World: Animals: Horses Cattle Pigs Sheep Goats Chickens Turkeys Llamas Alpacas Guinea Pigs
  • 11. The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: New World to Old World: Plants: Rice Wheat Barley Oats Coffee Sugarcane Bananas Melons Olives Dandelions Daisies Clover Ragweed Kentucky Bluegrass Corn (Maize) Potatoes (White & Sweet Varieties) Beans (Snap, Kidney, & Lima Varieties) Tobacco Peanuts Squash Peppers Tomatoes Pumpkins Pineapples Cacao (Source of Chocolate) Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum) Papayas Manioc (Tapioca) Guavas Avocados
  • 12. SPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRESPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRE ► Spanish explorersSpanish explorers (Conquistadors)(Conquistadors) seizedseized much of the Americasmuch of the Americas ► CortesCortes conquered theconquered the Aztecs in MexicoAztecs in Mexico ► PizzaroPizzaro conquered theconquered the Incas in PeruIncas in Peru ► Exploitation of localExploitation of local populations was significantpopulations was significant –– Encomienda SystemEncomienda System
  • 13. SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWESTSPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST AND WESTERN AMERICAAND WESTERN AMERICA ► Mid-1500s, Spain exploredMid-1500s, Spain explored much of what is today themuch of what is today the SW & West of the USASW & West of the USA ► New Mexico settled byNew Mexico settled by Spanish priest whoSpanish priest who converted Nativesconverted Natives (Pueblos)(Pueblos) ► Texas area had 30Texas area had 30 expeditions in 16expeditions in 16thth centurycentury ► California was site ofCalifornia was site of numerousnumerous missionsmissions California Missions
  • 14. EARLY BRITISH COLONIES –EARLY BRITISH COLONIES – SECTION 3SECTION 3 ► Beginning in the earlyBeginning in the early 1600s, the English1600s, the English established colonies alongestablished colonies along the eastern coast of Norththe eastern coast of North AmericaAmerica ► 1607: Jamestown1607: Jamestown was firstwas first to be settledto be settled ► John Smith led this groupJohn Smith led this group of settlersof settlers ► Colony struggled at first,Colony struggled at first, then was saved bythen was saved by Tobacco cropTobacco crop
  • 15. PURITANS CREATE A “NEWPURITANS CREATE A “NEW ENGLAND”ENGLAND” ► The 16The 16thth centurycentury Reformation caused aReformation caused a split in the Christiansplit in the Christian Church; Catholics andChurch; Catholics and ProtestantsProtestants ► One extreme group ofOne extreme group of Protestant reformers –Protestant reformers – thethe PuritansPuritans sought tosought to cleanse or “purify” theircleanse or “purify” their religion of all traces ofreligion of all traces of CatholicismCatholicism PURITAN, OR “PILGRIM”
  • 16. COLONISTS MEETCOLONISTS MEET RESISTANCERESISTANCE ► New England ColonistsNew England Colonists (Puritans) soon conflicted(Puritans) soon conflicted with the Native Americanswith the Native Americans over land & religionover land & religion ► King Philip’s WarKing Philip’s War waswas fought in 1675 betweenfought in 1675 between the Natives and Puritansthe Natives and Puritans ending a year later withending a year later with many dead and themany dead and the Natives retreatingNatives retreating
  • 17. SETTLING THE MIDDLESETTLING THE MIDDLE COLONIESCOLONIES ► Dominated by DutchDominated by Dutch and Quaker settlers,and Quaker settlers, the Middle Coloniesthe Middle Colonies were founded in thewere founded in the mid-1600smid-1600s ► William PennWilliam Penn ledled Quakers as theyQuakers as they colonizedcolonized Pennsylvania andPennsylvania and DelawareDelaware
  • 18. ENGLAND’S COLONIESENGLAND’S COLONIES PROSPERPROSPER ► Throughout the 1600s andThroughout the 1600s and 1700s, more British1700s, more British Colonies were establishedColonies were established ► By 1752, the EnglishBy 1752, the English Crown had assumed moreCrown had assumed more & more responsibility for& more responsibility for the 13 coloniesthe 13 colonies ► Mercantilism & NavigationMercantilism & Navigation ActsActs were two such wayswere two such ways that the Englishthat the English government controlled thegovernment controlled the coloniescolonies King George III
  • 20. NAVIGATION ACTSNAVIGATION ACTS ► 1651- England’s1651- England’s Parliament passed aParliament passed a series of laws known asseries of laws known as thethe Navigation ActsNavigation Acts ► These laws restricted theThese laws restricted the colonies shipping & tradecolonies shipping & trade ► Ships, destinations, crews,Ships, destinations, crews, goods: All strictly regulatedgoods: All strictly regulated by the Englishby the English ► The colonies wereThe colonies were developing a spirit of self-developing a spirit of self- determination. Therefore,determination. Therefore, they were NOT happy withthey were NOT happy with these restrictionsthese restrictions
  • 21. THE COLONIES COME OF AGE –THE COLONIES COME OF AGE – SECTION 4SECTION 4 ► New England, MiddleNew England, Middle Colonies, and the South –Colonies, and the South – all developed distinctall developed distinct economies and societieseconomies and societies ► In the South, ruralIn the South, rural PlantationsPlantations with a singlewith a single cash crop were commoncash crop were common ► Small Southern farmersSmall Southern farmers (Germans, Scots, Irish)(Germans, Scots, Irish) and African slaves madeand African slaves made up the majority of peopleup the majority of people Southern Plantation
  • 22. THE MIDDLE PASSAGETHE MIDDLE PASSAGE ► During the 17During the 17thth century,century, Africans endured aAfricans endured a transatlantic crossingtransatlantic crossing from Africa to the Northfrom Africa to the North American ColoniesAmerican Colonies ► Cruelty characterizedCruelty characterized the months long journeythe months long journey – 13% died on route– 13% died on route
  • 23. AFRICANS MAINTAIN PARTS OFAFRICANS MAINTAIN PARTS OF THEIR CULTURETHEIR CULTURE ► Despite enslavement,Despite enslavement, Africans coped with theAfricans coped with the horrors of slavery viahorrors of slavery via music, dance, andmusic, dance, and storytellingstorytelling ► Slaves also resisted theirSlaves also resisted their position of subservienceposition of subservience by faking illness, breakingby faking illness, breaking tools, or work slowdownstools, or work slowdowns ► Others were more radicalOthers were more radical and tried escape & revoltand tried escape & revolt
  • 24. NORTHERN COLONIESNORTHERN COLONIES COMMERCE THRIVESCOMMERCE THRIVES ► The development of cities,The development of cities, expansion of trade, andexpansion of trade, and diverse economiesdiverse economies gradually made the Northgradually made the North radically different from theradically different from the SouthSouth ► Philly was the 2Philly was the 2ndnd largestlargest British portBritish port ► Farming differed from theFarming differed from the South: smaller, moreSouth: smaller, more diverse crops in Northdiverse crops in North LIBERTY BELL
  • 25. THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THETHE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE GREAT AWAKENINGGREAT AWAKENING ► 1700s: An intellectual1700s: An intellectual movement known as themovement known as the EnlightenmentEnlightenment began inbegan in Europe and a religiousEurope and a religious movement known as themovement known as the Great AwakeningGreat Awakening startedstarted in the Coloniesin the Colonies ► The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment emphasized reason,emphasized reason, science, and observationscience, and observation and led to the discovery ofand led to the discovery of natural lawsnatural laws ► Copernicus, Galileo,Copernicus, Galileo, Franklin and Newton wereFranklin and Newton were key figureskey figures
  • 26. RELIGIOUS REVIVAL: THE GREATRELIGIOUS REVIVAL: THE GREAT AWAKENINGAWAKENING ► A series of religiousA series of religious revivals aimed at restoringrevivals aimed at restoring devotion & piety sweptdevotion & piety swept through the colonies in thethrough the colonies in the mid-1700smid-1700s ► Jonathan EdwardsJonathan Edwards was awas a Puritan priest from NewPuritan priest from New England who wasEngland who was instrumental in theinstrumental in the movementmovement ► Fire & Brimstone style ofFire & Brimstone style of worship; large, emotionallyworship; large, emotionally charged crowdscharged crowds ► Like the Enlightenment theLike the Enlightenment the movement stressed themovement stressed the importance of theimportance of the individualindividual
  • 27. FRENCH AND INDIAN WARFRENCH AND INDIAN WAR ► Competition in NorthCompetition in North America led to a warAmerica led to a war (1754-1763) between old(1754-1763) between old rivalsrivals France and EnglandFrance and England ► The French in NorthThe French in North America were tradesmenAmerica were tradesmen (furs) not long-term(furs) not long-term inhabitantsinhabitants ► Ohio River valley was theOhio River valley was the site of the conflictsite of the conflict ► The Colonists supportedThe Colonists supported the British while thethe British while the Natives supported theNatives supported the FrenchFrench FRENCH INDIAN WAR BY NAT YOUNGBLOOD
  • 28. BRITAIN DEFEATS AN OLDBRITAIN DEFEATS AN OLD ENEMYENEMY ► While the French had earlyWhile the French had early victories, the British led byvictories, the British led by William PittWilliam Pitt andand GeorgeGeorge WashingtonWashington eventuallyeventually defeated the Frenchdefeated the French ► Treaty of Paris ends theTreaty of Paris ends the war in 1763war in 1763 ► Brits claim most of NorthBrits claim most of North America including FloridaAmerica including Florida (from French ally Spain) &(from French ally Spain) & CanadaCanada ► Native Americans alsoNative Americans also realized a French loss wasrealized a French loss was a Native American lossa Native American loss WILLIAM PITT ON A COIN
  • 29. PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763 ► To avoid further costlyTo avoid further costly conflicts with Nativeconflicts with Native Americans, the BritishAmericans, the British government prohibitedgovernment prohibited colonists from settling westcolonists from settling west of theof the AppalachianAppalachian MountainsMountains ► The ProclamationThe Proclamation established a line alongestablished a line along the Appalachian thatthe Appalachian that colonists could not crosscolonists could not cross (They did anyway)(They did anyway)