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Structures in c++

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This for the students of computer science and for those who want to learn about the concepts

This for the students of computer science and for those who want to learn about the concepts

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  • 1. Page 1 of 6 Structures What is a Structure? Structure is a collection of variables under a single name. Variables can be of any type: int, float, char etc. The main difference between structure and array is that arrays are collections of the same data type and structure is a collection of variables under a single name. How to declare and create a Structure Declaring a Structure: The structure is declared by using the keyword struct followed by structure name, also called a tag. Then the structure members (variables) are defined with their type and variable names inside the open and close braces { and }. Finally, the closed braces end with a semicolon denoted as ; following the statement. The above structure declaration is also called a Structure Specifier. Example: Three variables: custnum of type int, salary of type int, commission of type float are structure members and the structure name is Customer. This structure is declared as follows: In the above example, it is seen that variables of different types such as int and float are grouped in a single structure name Customer. Arrays behave in the same way, declaring structures does not mean that memory is allocated. Structure declaration gives a skeleton or template for the structure. After declaring the structure, the next step is to define a structure variable. Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science
  • 2. Page 2 of 6 How to declare Structure Variable? This is similar to variable declaration. For variable declaration, data type is defined followed by variable name. For structure variable declaration, the data type is the name of the structure followed by the structure variable name. In the above example, structure variable cust1 is defined as: What happens when this is defined? When structure is defined, it allocates or reserves space in memory. The memory space allocated will be cumulative of all defined structure members. In the above example, there are 3 structure members: custnum, salary and commission. Of these, two are of type in and one is of type float. If integer space allocated by a system is 2 bytes and float four bytes the above would allo9acter 2bytes for custnum, 2 bytes for salary and 4 bytes for commission. How to access structure members in C++? To access structure members, the operator used is the dot operator denoted by (.). The dot operator for accessing structure members is used thusly: structure variable name.member name For example: A programmer wants to assign 2000 for the structure member salary in the above example of structure Customer with structure variable cust1 this is written as: Nested Structures A structure can be nested inside another structure. Stuct addr { int houseno; char area[26]; Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science
  • 3. Page 3 of 6 char city[26]; char state[26]; }; struct emp { int empno; char name[26]; char desig[16]; addr address; float basic; }; emp worker ; The structure emp h as been defined having several elements including a structure address also. The elements address(of structure emp) is itself a structure of type addr. While defining such structures, just make sure that innder structure one defined before outer structure one defined before outer structures. Structure and Arrays The structure and the array both are c++ derived data types. While arrays are collections of analogous elements, structures assembles dissimilar elements under one roof. Array and structure both combined together to form complex data objects. There may be structures contained within an array; also there array element of a structure. Array of Structure To declare 100- elements array of structure of type addr addr mem_addr[100]; To create an array having structures emp type Emp sales_emp[100]; Above declaration to create an array sales_emp to store 100 structures of emp type. Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science
  • 4. Page 4 of 6 Array Within Structures A structure elements my be simple or complex . A complex structure may itself be a structure or any array. When a structure elements happens to be an array it is treated in the same way as array are treated. The only additional things to be kept in mind is that to access it, its structure name followed by a (.) and the name is to be given. For example consider structure ; Struct student { Int rollno; char name[21]; float marks[5]; //array of 5 floats }; students learner; The above declared statement variable learner is of structure type student that contains an elements which is a n array of 5 floats to store marks of a students in 5 different subjects. Passing Structures to Function If you have a structure local to a function and you need to pass its values to another function , then it can be achieved in two ways : (i) by passing individual structure elements , and (ii) by passing the entire structure . Both the ways cab be achieved by call by value as well as by call by reference method pa passing variables. Passing Structure Elements to Functions When an elements of a structure is passed to a function , you are actually passing the value of that element to the function Therefore , it just like passing a simple variable. Consider following structure Struct date { short day; shot month; short year; } Bdate; ` Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science
  • 5. Page 5 of 6 Passing entire structure to Functions Passing entire structure makes the most sense when the structure is relatively compact. The entire structure can be passed to the function both ways by value and by reference. Passing by value is useful when the original values are not to be changed and passing by reference is useful when original values are to be changed. User Defined Data Types C++ allows you to define explicitly new data type name by using the keyword typedef doses not actually create a new data class, rather it defines a new name for an exiting type. This can increase the potablity of a program as only the typedef statements would have to be changed . Using typedef can also aid in self- documenting your code by allowing ddescriptive name for the standard data type. The syntax of the typedef statement is Typedef type name ; Use of typedef for declaring structures The typedef function is used to declare the alias name for the structure type. typedef structure result { } progress; results report1; progress report2 in this above program segment the usage of typedef defines a structure result and an alias name of the same structure as progress. The two structures report1 and report2 are declared accordingly of the same type as result and progress are now alternative nomenclature for each other. Enumerated data types It is another way of defining data types. It includes all the probables list of values that a data type can take. It has the following format for declaration; Enum struc-name {v1 v2 ,v3, v3,v4…..v n } Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science
  • 6. Page 6 of 6 Practice Question Paper 1. What is a structure? 2. Define arrays of structures? 3. Differentiate between the following using examples a. Simple structure b. multiple structure 4. Explain the following with examples a. Declaration of a structure b. Definition of a structure variable c. Accessing of a structure member d. Initialization of a member within structures. e. Arrays of structures. f. Passing structures to functions g. Use defined structure 6. Explain the usage of type def for declaring structure . 7.What are enumerated data type? 8. What are symbolic constants? 9. Define a structure for length and breadth of a rectangle of type float and refer the same as rect. 10. Write a statement to assign a variable measure to length member of rect structure variable. 11. The enumerated type is considered as an integer type . Comment on the factual concern of the statement. 12. Write a program segment to declared and initialize an array of four structure with name of the student age and marks in three subjects. Prepared By Sumit Kumar Gupta, PGT Computer Science