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  • Motion
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  • 541 powerpoint

    1. 1. Motion and Forces Describing Motion •Motion •Speed & Velocity
    2. 2. Newton’s First Law An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a net force.
    3. 3. Motion Problem: − Is your desk moving? We need a reference point... − nonmoving point from which motion is measured
    4. 4. Motion Motion − Change in position in relation to a reference point. Reference point Motion
    5. 5. Relative Motion If you are sitting in a chair reading this sentence, you are moving. You are not moving relative to your desk or your school building, but you are moving relative to the other planets in the solar system and the Sun.
    6. 6. Motion • Distance • Distance describes how far an object has moved. • The SI unit of length or distance is the meter (m). Longer distances are measured in kilometers (km). • Shorter distances are measured in centimeters (cm).
    7. 7. Motion • Displacement is the distance and direction of an object's change in position from a reference point. • Suppose a runner jogs to the 50-m mark and then turns around and runs back to the 20-m mark. • The runner travels 50 m in the original direction (north) plus 30 m in the opposite direction (south), so the total distance she ran is 80 m.
    8. 8. Motion Problem: • You are a passenger in a car stopped at a stop sign. Out of the corner of your eye, you notice a tree on the side of the road begin to move forward. • You have mistakenly set yourself as the reference point.
    9. 9. Speed & Velocity Speed − rate of motion − distance traveled per unit time d s t distance speed = time
    10. 10. Calculating Speed The SI unit for distance is the meter and the SI unit of time is the second (s), so in SI, units of speed Sometimes it is more convenient to express speed in other units, such as kilometers per hour (km/h).
    11. 11. Speed & Velocity Instantaneous Speed − speed at a given instant − Speed odometer reading Average Speed − the total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel total distance avg. speed = total time
    12. 12. Changing Instantaneous Speed When something is speeding up or slowing down, its instantaneous speed is changing. If an object is moving with constant speed, the instantaneous speed doesn't change. To determine direction you need to know the velocity
    13. 13. Speed & Velocity Problem: − A storm is 10 km away and is moving at a speed of 60 km/h. Should you be worried?  It depends on the storm’s direction!
    14. 14. Speed & Velocity Velocity − speed in a given direction − can change even when the speed is constant!
    15. 15. Speed an Acceleration Video
    16. 16. Calculations  Your neighbor skates at a speed of 4 m/s. You can skate 100 m in 20 s. Who skates faster? GIVEN: WORK: d = 100 m t = 20 s s=? s=d÷t d s t s = (100 m) ÷ (20 s) s = 5 m/s You skate faster!
    17. 17. Calculations  Sound travels 330 m/s. If a lightning bolt strikes the ground 1 km away from you, how long will it take for you to hear it? GIVEN: WORK: s = 330 m/s d = 1km = 1000m t=? t=d÷s d s t t = (1000 m) ÷ (330 m/s) t = 3.03 s
    18. 18. Graphing Motion Distance-Time Graph A slope = speed steeper slope = Straight line = flat line = B faster speed no motion constant speed Single point = instantaneous speed
    19. 19. Graphing Motion Distance-Time Graph A Who started out faster? − A (steeper slope) Who had a constant speed? − A Describe B from 10-20 min. − B stopped moving Find their average speeds. B − A = (2400m) ÷ (30min) 80 m/min − B = (1200m) ÷ (30min) 40 m/min A= B=
    20. 20. Graphing Motion Distance-Time Graph Acceleration is indicated by a curve on a DistanceTime graph. 400 Distance (m) 300 Changing slope = changing velocity 200 100 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20
    21. 21. Graphing Motion Specify the time period when the object was... slowing down − 5 to 10 seconds speeding up − 0 to 3 seconds Speed-Time Graph 3 2 Speed (m/s) moving at a constant speed − 3 to 5 seconds not moving − 0 & 10 seconds 1 0 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10
    22. 22. Speed and Velocity Check on Learning
    23. 23. 1 _____is a unit of speed. A m/s B s C kg D hr
    24. 24. 2 _____ describes how fast something is going, whereas, _____describes how fast something is going and in a certain direction. A speed, velocity B rate, speed C rate, velocity D speed, acceleration
    25. 25. 3 The SI unit for speed is _____. A In/hour B m/s C cm/min D none of the answers
    26. 26. 4 If a person walked at 2 m/s for 12 s, he/she would travel a distance of___ A 24 m B 6m C 4m D none of the answers
    27. 27. 5 The _____ of a distance versus time graph is speed. A slope B Y-intercept C origin D None of the answers
    28. 28. 6 How far would you travel moving at 12 m/s for 3.00 minutes? A 36.0 m B 2160 m C 40.0 m D 36.0 miles
    29. 29. 7 The speed at any instant of time is known as_____ A average speed B velocity C given speed D Instantaneous speed
    30. 30. 8 If a total distance of 750 m is covered in a time interval of 25 s, the average speed is _____? A 3974 mi/hr B 3 mi/hr C 30 mi/hr D 30 m/s
    31. 31. 9 How long would it take to travel 50 km traveling at a speed of 10 km/hr? A 3 hours B 1 hour C 5 hours D 50 hours
    32. 32. 10 Which of the following is a measure of velocity? A 30 s B 30 South C 30 m/s D 30 m/s, South
    33. 33. Well done. You’re finished!
    34. 34. Well done!
    35. 35. Try again!