Printing in 3D
Euro Foo ‘04

Arthur, James & Simon
quot;Where a calculator on the ENIAC is
     equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes
    and weighs 30 tons, computers in the
  ...
Awareness




3
What are 3D printers?




4
What are 3D printers?
       Machines that produce physical objects from
        digital data.




4
What are 3D printers?
          Machines that produce physical objects from
           digital data.




            3D p...
What are 3D printers?
          Machines that produce physical objects from
           digital data.




            3D p...
Science Fiction?
Science Fiction?




It is very real and the technology is
             used today.
Where is it used?




6
Where is it used?

       Everywhere from
        making shoes




6
Where is it used?

       Everywhere from
        making shoes


       And building tank parts




6
Where is it used?

       Everywhere from
        making shoes


       And building tank parts




       To medical
 ...
How do they work?




7
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)




7
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How do they work?
       Many different technologies   (see “Rapid Prototyping and

        Tooling”, A. Maier)

       ...
How big are the machines?




8
How big are the machines?
       Used to be




8
How big are the machines?
       But
        Used to be
        technology
        changes




8
How big are the machines?
        But to be
         Used gets
         And
         technology
          smaller
      ...
How big are the machines?
     But to be
      Used gets
      And2004, a
       In
      technology
       smaller
   ...
How big are the machines?
     But to be
      Used gets
      And2004, a
       In
      technology
       smaller
   ...
State of the industry

           Rapid Prototyping             Rapid Manufacturing
                  (RP)                ...
Why should we be aware?




10
Why should we be aware?
        Machines which can build other machines
         impact the traditional manufacturing mod...
Why should we be aware?
        Machines which can build other machines
         impact the traditional manufacturing mod...
Why should we be aware?
        Machines which can build other machines
         impact the traditional manufacturing mod...
Summary




11
Summary
        This technology:




11
Summary
        This technology:


            Is very real




11
Summary
        This technology:


            Is very real


            Prints customised objects
             and el...
Summary
        This technology:


            Is very real


            Prints customised objects
             and el...
Interest




12
3D printing Markets




13
3D printing Markets



     Commercial
     Prototyping




13
3D printing Markets



     Commercial         Rapid
     Prototyping     Manufacturing




13
3D printing Markets



     Commercial           Rapid
     Prototyping       Manufacturing




              Consumer 3D
...
Commercial Prototyping




14
Commercial Prototyping
        Concept models.




14
Commercial Prototyping
        Concept models.

        ZCorp has a 32% market share.   (Wohler, Rapid Prototyping 2004)...
Commercial Prototyping
        Concept models.

        ZCorp has a 32% market share.   (Wohler, Rapid Prototyping 2004)...
Rapid Manufacturing




15
Rapid Manufacturing
        Finished goods.




15
Rapid Manufacturing
        Finished goods.

        Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 -
         L...
Rapid Manufacturing
        Finished goods.

        Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 -
         L...
Rapid Manufacturing
        Finished goods.

        Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 -
         L...
Science Fiction?
Science Fiction?




In Sweden they already “print”
hearing aids customised to the
      individual patient.
Consumer 3D printing




17
Consumer 3D printing

        “Printing” physical objects at home.




17
Consumer 3D printing

        “Printing” physical objects at home.

        Instant delivery & customisation.




17
Why?




18
Why?


        Consumers benefits
         are customisation,
         cost and delivery.




18
Why?

                                  Design


        Consumers benefits                       Tools & Machinery


   ...
Why?

                                  Design


        Consumers benefits                         Tools & Machinery


 ...
Why?

                                  Design


        Consumers benefits                         Tools & Machinery


 ...
Why?

                                         Design


        Consumers benefits                              Tools & M...
Why?

                                                      Design
                                         Design
       ...
Why?

                                                      Design
                                         Design
       ...
Why?

                                                       Design
                                          Design
     ...
How big is this?




19
How big is this?
        Home Products is a $1 trillion market.
         (extrapolated from a $350 billion US Market, US ...
How big is this?
        Home Products is a $1 trillion market.
         (extrapolated from a $350 billion US Market, US ...
Summary




20
Summary
                                                Rapid
                             Commercial      Manufacturin
  ...
Summary
                                                  Rapid
                               Commercial      Manufacturi...
Summary
                                                      Rapid
                                   Commercial      Man...
Market Trends




21
Trends.




22
Trends.
        Hardware & consumables is worth $270M p.a.
         and expected to grow to $330M per year by
         20...
Trends.
        Hardware & consumables is worth $270M p.a.
         and expected to grow to $330M per year by
         20...
Machine sales




23
Machine sales
        The underlying volume of RP machines sold
         shows a high growth level




23
Machine sales
        The underlying volume of RP machines sold
         shows a high growth level

          2000




  ...
Patent Growth




24
Patent Growth
        Gives an idea of the future interest in a market.




24
Patent Growth
        Gives an idea of the future interest in a market.


         400




                              ...
Thank you




25
Also available in colour.




26
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Printing in 3D

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Euro Foo 2004 talk on 3D printing, very basic introduction.

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Printing in 3D

  1. 1. Printing in 3D Euro Foo ‘04 Arthur, James & Simon
  2. 2. quot;Where a calculator on the ENIAC is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and perhaps weigh 1.5 tons.” - Popular Mechanics, 1949. 2
  3. 3. Awareness 3
  4. 4. What are 3D printers? 4
  5. 5. What are 3D printers?  Machines that produce physical objects from digital data. 4
  6. 6. What are 3D printers?  Machines that produce physical objects from digital data. 3D printer (Solidimension concept modeller) 4
  7. 7. What are 3D printers?  Machines that produce physical objects from digital data. 3D printer Physical objects (Solidimension concept modeller) 4
  8. 8. Science Fiction?
  9. 9. Science Fiction? It is very real and the technology is used today.
  10. 10. Where is it used? 6
  11. 11. Where is it used?  Everywhere from making shoes 6
  12. 12. Where is it used?  Everywhere from making shoes  And building tank parts 6
  13. 13. Where is it used?  Everywhere from making shoes  And building tank parts  To medical applications X- Print 6 Ray
  14. 14. How do they work? 7
  15. 15. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier) 7
  16. 16. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers. 7
  17. 17. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  18. 18. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  19. 19. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  20. 20. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  21. 21. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  22. 22. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  23. 23. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  24. 24. How do they work?  Many different technologies (see “Rapid Prototyping and Tooling”, A. Maier)  Develop solid objects and electronics by building in layers.  Most interesting use “inkjet” technology. 7
  25. 25. How big are the machines? 8
  26. 26. How big are the machines?  Used to be 8
  27. 27. How big are the machines?  But Used to be technology changes 8
  28. 28. How big are the machines?  But to be Used gets  And technology smaller changes 8
  29. 29. How big are the machines?  But to be Used gets  And2004, a  In technology smaller desktop changes version is expected to be released. 8
  30. 30. How big are the machines?  But to be Used gets  And2004, a  In technology smaller desktop changes version is expected to be released. Cost $19,000 8
  31. 31. State of the industry Rapid Prototyping Rapid Manufacturing (RP) (RM) concept models Finished products 1987 1990 2003 2004 9
  32. 32. Why should we be aware? 10
  33. 33. Why should we be aware?  Machines which can build other machines impact the traditional manufacturing model (e.g. nanotechnology) 10
  34. 34. Why should we be aware?  Machines which can build other machines impact the traditional manufacturing model (e.g. nanotechnology)  3D printing is such a disruptive technology. 10
  35. 35. Why should we be aware?  Machines which can build other machines impact the traditional manufacturing model (e.g. nanotechnology)  3D printing is such a disruptive technology.  There are future implications - Printers which Print Printers, Open source design etc. 10
  36. 36. Summary 11
  37. 37. Summary  This technology: 11
  38. 38. Summary  This technology:  Is very real 11
  39. 39. Summary  This technology:  Is very real  Prints customised objects and electronics. 11
  40. 40. Summary  This technology:  Is very real  Prints customised objects and electronics.  High value $700,000,000 $525,000,000 Services ($257M) $350,000,000 Hardware ($176M) $175,000,000 Consumables ($94M) $0 11
  41. 41. Interest 12
  42. 42. 3D printing Markets 13
  43. 43. 3D printing Markets Commercial Prototyping 13
  44. 44. 3D printing Markets Commercial Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing 13
  45. 45. 3D printing Markets Commercial Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing Consumer 3D Printing 13
  46. 46. Commercial Prototyping 14
  47. 47. Commercial Prototyping  Concept models. 14
  48. 48. Commercial Prototyping  Concept models.  ZCorp has a 32% market share. (Wohler, Rapid Prototyping 2004) 14
  49. 49. Commercial Prototyping  Concept models.  ZCorp has a 32% market share. (Wohler, Rapid Prototyping 2004)  Currently use HP printer heads. 14
  50. 50. Rapid Manufacturing 15
  51. 51. Rapid Manufacturing  Finished goods. 15
  52. 52. Rapid Manufacturing  Finished goods.  Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 - Loughborough University) 15
  53. 53. Rapid Manufacturing  Finished goods.  Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 - Loughborough University)  “Print” in metals, plastics and polymers. NB patents for inkjet printing electronic circuits. 15
  54. 54. Rapid Manufacturing  Finished goods.  Cost effective for short product runs (less than 6,000 - Loughborough University)  “Print” in metals, plastics and polymers. NB patents for inkjet printing electronic circuits.  Allows for mass customisation. 15
  55. 55. Science Fiction?
  56. 56. Science Fiction? In Sweden they already “print” hearing aids customised to the individual patient.
  57. 57. Consumer 3D printing 17
  58. 58. Consumer 3D printing  “Printing” physical objects at home. 17
  59. 59. Consumer 3D printing  “Printing” physical objects at home.  Instant delivery & customisation. 17
  60. 60. Why? 18
  61. 61. Why?  Consumers benefits are customisation, cost and delivery. 18
  62. 62. Why? Design  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & RM Stock Labour Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  63. 63. Why? Design  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  64. 64. Why? Design  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  65. 65. Why? Design  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Printers Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  66. 66. Why? Design Design consumable  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Printers Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  67. 67. Why? Design Design consumable  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Printers Material consumable Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead 18
  68. 68. Why? Design Design consumable  Consumers benefits Tools & Machinery are customisation, Factory Space cost and delivery. Production Raw Materials & & RM Stock Raw Materials RM Stock Labour Printers Material consumable Overhead Warehouse Distribution Shipping Overhead  For manufacturers, the threat is that capital cost barriers for new competitors are removed. 18
  69. 69. How big is this? 19
  70. 70. How big is this?  Home Products is a $1 trillion market. (extrapolated from a $350 billion US Market, US Economic overview 2003) 19
  71. 71. How big is this?  Home Products is a $1 trillion market. (extrapolated from a $350 billion US Market, US Economic overview 2003)  Unexploited Henry C. Co, Technology and Operations Management, CSU. 19
  72. 72. Summary 20
  73. 73. Summary Rapid Commercial Manufacturin Prototyping  Three new markets g Consumer 3D Printing 20
  74. 74. Summary Rapid Commercial Manufacturin Prototyping  Three new markets g Consumer 3D Printing  Uses well known technology 20
  75. 75. Summary Rapid Commercial Manufacturin Prototyping  Three new markets g Consumer 3D Printing  Uses well known technology  Relatively unexploited. 20
  76. 76. Market Trends 21
  77. 77. Trends. 22
  78. 78. Trends.  Hardware & consumables is worth $270M p.a. and expected to grow to $330M per year by 2006. 22
  79. 79. Trends.  Hardware & consumables is worth $270M p.a. and expected to grow to $330M per year by 2006. $500,000,000 $375,000,000 Add-on services est. Add-on services $250,000,000 Hardware est. Hardware Consumables est. Consumables $125,000,000 $0 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22
  80. 80. Machine sales 23
  81. 81. Machine sales  The underlying volume of RP machines sold shows a high growth level 23
  82. 82. Machine sales  The underlying volume of RP machines sold shows a high growth level 2000 1500 3D Machines Estimated 1000 3D Machines sold 500 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 23
  83. 83. Patent Growth 24
  84. 84. Patent Growth  Gives an idea of the future interest in a market. 24
  85. 85. Patent Growth  Gives an idea of the future interest in a market. 400 +21% 300 Growth in RP patents 200 issued. +231 new 100 RP patents in 2003 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 24
  86. 86. Thank you 25
  87. 87. Also available in colour. 26
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