Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services. The services themselves have long been referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS), so we use that term. The datacenter hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud.
Buyya et al.
A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers.
The entire stack (hw & sw) is leveraged to the internet
HaaS Amazon S3
IaaS VMWare, Amazon EC2
PaaS Google AppEngine, Mosso, Aneka
Computing becomes a real utility used by all the masses
service providers (web hosting)
The economic aspect become more important (billing, pricing, QoS, SLA)
These are the two main differences from Grid Computing.
Anatomy of a Cloud Social Networks Scientific Computing Amusement CDNs Financial Applications Infrastructure as a Service Platform as a Service Software as a Service Data Centers Clusters Storage Other Grids/Clouds Virtualization VM Management & Deployment Amazon S3, EC2 OpenNebula, Eucalyptus Mosso Web 2.0 Interface Programming API Scripting & Programming Languages Google AppEngine Microsoft Azure Manjrasoft Aneka Google Apps (Gmail, Docs,…) Salesforce.com QoS Metering SLA Negotiation Admission Control Pricing and Billing Accounting Public Cloud Private Cloud
Evolution of Cloud Computing Terms related to Cloud Computing
Biggies Software on demand Grid computing: massive processing Elastic computer: By 2012, the global market for cloud computing will be $95 billion Merryll Linch
You can take it with you Are gadgets important? As wireless technology gets better and cheaper, more and more different kinds of objects will connect directly to the cloud .
They have already used Cloud … Powerset: a start-up that is creating a natural language powerful search. When they need to catalogue the web, they buy cloud services. New York times: to create 11.000 pdfs, they needed to subcontract cloud services Schumacher Group (emergency rooms for hospitals) : almost affected by Katrina hurricane, they was growing quickly but was having problems to create regional offices to support it. Running some systems remotely was the answer. Starbucks: using Salesforce CRM to create the new idea Mystarbucks.com website as a online community. US Olympic Committee: using AT&T service to handle a busy traffic during the games SOGETI: The consultancy company owned by Cap Gemini contracted cloud services from IBM Blue Cloud to a whole-company brainstorming program.
Cloud – Pros … Customer Supplier Flexibility: new needs can be solved quickly. Elasticity: temporary needs can be solved and you can “return” the infrastructure after the pick. New business: Smaller investment Time-to-market: Faster Implementation Synergies: Hardware investment can be spread Economy of scales: Hardware investment can be spread Alliance: Intel, HP e Yahoo Hardware consolidation: Best use of money invested in hardware Global Model: Data centres are distributed around the world, using better conditions: employees, nature, energy, etc… Costs: employees, nature, energy, etc… Smaller, TCO reduction. Geographical Distribution: Better services for disperse companies and easier mobility.
Cloud – Cons … Customer Supplier Lack of cost advantage: Not achieving ROI before turn people sceptical with CC . Strategy: Large databases; critical data; old systems; systems that require specific hardware Migration: Current enterprise apps can't be migrated conveniently. Management: Difficulty of managing cloud applications. Safety: To manage customer data, the identification management must be solved Liability: …… Latency: …… Lack of Service levels agreements: Cloud providers still are not taking accountability for the platforms Putative Risk: Legal, regulatory and business. Can our data be “elsewhere”? Pricing: How it is being charged. Migrate from boxes to services is a lesson to learn. Performance: Data bases can be less quick Challenge: management of resources, over many locations and with various tenants.