Basic of work study, work measurement & job design om

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Operation Management PPT

Operation Management PPT

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  • 1. BASIC OF WORK STUDY, JOB DESIGN & WORK MEASUREMENT BY YASHESH MORKHIA -> 816 KARTHIK NADAR -> 818 AKSHAY PATIL -> 819 SWAPNIL PRADHAN -> 820 APEKSHA ->821
  • 2. WORK STUDY
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  WITH INCREASING COMPLEXITIES OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD, NEED TO SIMPLIFY THE WORK SYSTEM HAS BEEN INCREASING DAY BY DAY.  WORK STUDY IS AN AREA OF KNOWLEDGE THAT ADDRESSES THE PROBLEM OF WORK SIMPLIFICATION WITH THE BASIC OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT, HUMAN COMFORT & SAFETY
  • 4. EVOLUTION OF WORK STUDY • F.W.TAYLOR: FOUNDER OF MODERN METHOD AND TIME STUDY. • TAYLOR BEGAN HIS TIME STUDY WORK IN 1881. • HE ESTABLISHED THAT EACH JOB SHOULD HAVE A STANDARD TIME, DETERMINED BY TIME STUDIES. • IN THE TIMING PROCESS TAYLOR ADVOCATED DIVIDING THE WORK INTO SMALL DIVISIONS OF • EFFORT KNOWN AS ELEMENTS. • TIME WAS OBTAINED FOR THESE ELEMENT INDIVIDUALLY AND THEIR COLLECTIVE VALUES WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE ALLOWED TIME FOR THE TASK.
  • 5. WORK OF GILBERTH • GILBRETH IS CONSIDERED AS THE FOUNDER OF „MODERN MOTION STUDY TECHNIQUE‟. • WHICH IS DEFINED AS THE STUDY OF BODY MOTIONS USED IN PERFORMING AN OPERATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING THE OPERATION BY  ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY : MOTIONS  SIMPLIFYING NECESSARY MOTIONS  THEN ESTABLISHING THE MOST FAVORABLE MOTION SEQUENCE FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY
  • 6. IMPORTANCE:• ENHANCING THE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF THE FIRM. • TECHNIQUE TO IDENTIFY NON-VALUE OPERATIONS. • ONLY ACCURATE TECHNIQUE. AND SYSTEMATIC • HAS GOT UNIVERSAL APPLICATION. PROCEDURE ORIENTED
  • 7. DEFINITION “WORK STUDY IS DEFINED AS THAT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CONCERNED WITH THE ANALYSIS OF THE WORK METHODS AND THE EQUIPMENT USED IN PERFORMING A JOB, THE DESIGN OF AN OPTIMUM WORK METHOD AND THE STANDARDIZATION OF PROPOSED WORK METHODS.” PREREQUISITES FOR CONDUCTING WORK STUDY
  • 8. STEPS INVOLVED IN WORK STUDY 1. SELECT Job Or Process To Be Studied 2. RECORD All the details concerning job using various Recording Techniques 3. EXAMINE Recorded facts critically by asking questions like who, what, when, why 4. DEVELOP Most economical method 5. MEASURE The amount of work involved and set standard time to do that job 6. DEFINE New method and standard time 7. INSTALL The new method as a standard practice 8. MAINTAIN New method as agreed standards
  • 9. PRINCIPLES OF WORK STUDY 1. MUST COME FROM THE TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT. 2. PEOPLE MADE AWARE OF THE OBJECTIVES AND THE NEED OF THE EXERCISING SUCH STUDY. 3. METHOD STUDY MUST PRECEDE WORK MEASUREMENT .
  • 10. OBJECTIVES • TO ANALYZE THE PRESENT METHOD OF DOING A JOB, SYSTEMATICALLY IN ORDER TO DEVELOP A NEW AND BETTER METHOD. • TO MEASURE THE WORK CONTENT OF A JOB BY MEASURING THE TIME REQUIRED TO DO THE JOB FOR A QUALIFIED WORKER AND HENCE TO ESTABLISH STANDARD TIME. • TO INCREASE THE PRODUCTIVITY BY ENSURING THE BEST POSSIBLE USE OF HUMAN, MACHINE AND MATERIAL RESOURCES AND TO ACHIEVE BEST QUALITY PRODUCT/SERVICE AT MINIMUM POSSIBLE COST. • TO IMPROVE OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY. • TO REDUCE WASTE THROUGH STANDARDIZATION • TO IMPROVE LABOR EFFICIENCY. OF WORK ELEMENTS OF A JOB.
  • 11. COMPONENTS / TECHNIQUES OF WORK STUDY WORK STUDY METHOD STUDY • Motion Study : Examine the job and finding more efficient method to perform it WORK MEASUREMENT • Time Study : Determine the time necessary to perform a job and its elements
  • 12. BENEFITS OF WORK STUDY  INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY AND OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY  REDUCED MANUFACTURING COSTS  IMPROVED WORK PLACE LAYOUT  BETTER MANPOWER PLANNING AND CAPACITY PLANNING  FAIR WAGES TO EMPLOYEES  BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS TO EMPLOYEES  IMPROVED WORK FLOW  REDUCED MATERIAL HANDLING COSTS  PROVIDES A STANDARD OF PERFORMANCE TO MEASURE LABOUR EFFICIENCY  BETTER INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND EMPLOYEE MORALE  BASIS FOR SOUND INCENTIVE SCHEME  PROVIDES BETTER JOB SATISFACTION TO EMPLOYEES
  • 13. ADVANTAGES OF METHOD STUDY • WORK SIMPLIFICATION • IMPROVED WORKING METHOD ( CHEAPER METHOD) • BETTER PRODUCT QUALITY • IMPROVED WORK PLACE LAYOUT • IMPROVED EQUIPMENT DESIGN • BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS DISADVANTAGES OF METHOD STUDY • HIGH OPERATING COST • HIGH WASTAGE & SCRAP • EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS AND WORKMEN • EXCESSIVE PRODUCTION BOTTLENECKS • EXCESSIVE REJECTIONS AND REWORK • COMPLAINTS ABOUT QUALITY
  • 14. WORK MEASUREMENT
  • 15. DEFINATION :• “THE APPLICATION OF TECHNIQUES DESIGNED TO ESTABLISH THE TIME FOR A QUALIFIED WORKER TO CARRY OUT A SPECIFIED JOB AT A DEFINED LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE”
  • 16. OBJECTIVES OF WORK MEASUREMENT :• 1. COMPARING ALTERNATIVE METHODS • 2. ASSESSING THE CORRECT INITIAL MANNING (MANPOWER REQUIREMENT PLANNING) • 3. PLANNING AND CONTROL • 4. REALISTIC COSTING • 5. DELIVERY DATE OF PLANNING • 6. COST REDUCTION AND COST CONTROL • 7. IDENTIFYING SUBSTANDARD WORKERS • 8. TRAINING NEW EMPLOYEES.
  • 17. TECHNIQUES OF WORK MEASUREMENT :• 1) REPETITIVE WORK:- THE TYPE OF WORK IN WHICH THE MAIN OPERATION OR GROUP OF OPERATIONS REPEAT CONTINUOUSLY DURING THE TIME SPENT AT THE JOB. THESE APPLY TO WORK CYCLE OF EXTREMELY SHORT DURATION. • 2) NON-REPETITIVE WORK:- IT INCLUDE SOME TYPE OF MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION WORK, WHERE CYCLE ITSELF IS HARDLY EVER REPEATED IDENTICALLY. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES:1)TIME STUDY 2) SYNTHESIS 3) WORK SAMPLING 4) ANALYTICAL ESTIMATION 5)PREDETERMINED MOTION AND TIME STUDY.
  • 18. TIME STUDY • TIME STUDY IS WORK MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR RECORDING THE TIMES AND RATES OF WORKING FOR THE ELEMENTS OF A SPECIFIED JOB CARRIED OUT UNDER SPECIFIED UNDER SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
  • 19. STEPS IN MAKING TIME STUDY:1)SELECT (SELECTING JOB FOR WORK STUDY) 2)OBTAIN & RECORD (DETAILS REGARDING METHODS,OPERATOR, JOB AND WORKING CONDITION) 3)DEFINE (THE ELEMENT, BREAK THE JOB INTO CONVENIENT FOR TIMING) 4)MEASURE (TIME DURATION FOR EACH ELEMENT AND ASSESS THE RATING) 5)EXTEND (OBSERVED TIME INTO NORMAL TIME {BASIC TIME}) 6)DETERMINED (RELAXATION AND PERSONAL ALLOWANCES) 7) COMPUTE (STANDARD TIME FOR THE OPERATION FOR DEFINED JOB OR OPERATION.)
  • 20. TYPES OF ELEMENT • A REPETITIVE ELEMENT – IS AN ELEMENT WHICH OCCURS IN EVERY WORK CYCLE OF THE JOB. • AN OCCASIONAL ELEMENT - DOES NOT OCCUR IN EACH WORK CYCLE OF THE JOB, BUT WHICH MAY OCCUR AT REGULAR OR IRREGULAR INTERVALS. E.G. MACHINE SETTING. • A CONSTANT ELEMENT - THE BASIC TIME REMAINS CONSTANT WHENEVER IT IS PERFORMED. E.G. SWITCH THE MACHINE ON. • A VARIABLE ELEMENT - IS AN ELEMENT FOR WHICH THE BASIC TIME VARIES IN RELATION TO SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCT, EQUIPMENT OR PROCESS, E.G. DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT, QUALITY ETC. E.G. PUSH TROLLEY OF PARTS TO NEXT SHOP.
  • 21. TYPES OF ELEMENT • MANUAL ELEMENT - IS AN ELEMENT PERFORMED BY A WORKER. • MACHINE ELEMENT - IS AUTOMATICALLY PERFORMED BY A POWER-DRIVEN MACHINE (OR PROCESS). • GOVERNING ELEMENT - OCCUPIES A LONGER TIME THAN ANY OF THE OTHER ELEMENTS WHICH ARE BEING PERFORMED CONCURRENTLY. E.G. BOIL KETTLE OF WATER, WHILE SETTING OUT TEAPOT AND CUPS. • FOREIGN ELEMENT - IS OBSERVED DURING A STUDY WHICH, AFTER ANALYSIS, IS NOT FOUND TO BE NECESSARY PART OF THE JOB. E.G. DEGREASING A PART THAT HAS STILL TO BE MACHINED FURTHER.
  • 22. ALLOWANCES • RELAXATION ALLOWANCES • VARIABLE ALLOWANCES • INTERFERENCE ALLOWANCES • CONTINGENCY ALLOWANCES • POLICY ALLOWANCES
  • 23. Personal Allowance Constant Fatigue Allowance Variable Fatigue Allowance Relaxation Allowance Fatigue Allowance Normal Time Contingence Allowance Total Allowance Policy Allowance If applicable Standard Time VARIOUS ALLOWANCES TO BUILD STANDARD TIME
  • 24. EXAMPLE ON HOW TO CALCULATE STANDARD TIME:
  • 25. WORK MEASUREMENT • STANDARD TIME IS USED IN: • COSTING THE LABOR COMPONENT OF PRODUCTS • TRACKING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE • SCHEDULING & PLANNING REQUIRED RESOURCES
  • 26. SETTING STANDARD TIMES • STEP 1: CHOOSE THE SPECIFIC JOB TO BE STUDIED • STEP 2: TELL THE WORKER WHOSE JOB YOU WILL BE STUDYING • STEP 3: BREAK THE JOB INTO EASILY RECOGNIZABLE UNITS • STEP 4: CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF CYCLES YOU MUST OBSERVE • STEP 5: TIME EACH ELEMENT, RECORD DATA & RATE THE WORKER‟S PERFORMANCE • STEP 6: COMPUTE THE NORMAL TIME • STEP 7: COMPUTE THE STANDARD TIME
  • 27. EXAMPLE :-
  • 28. WORK SAMPLING:WORK SAMPLING WAS ORIGINALLY DEVELOPED BY L.H.C. TIPPETT IN BRITAIN IN 1934 FOR THE BRITISH COTTON INDUSTRY RESEARCH BOARD. DEFINATION:A TECHNIQUE IN WHICH A STATISTICALLY COMPETENT NUMBER OF INSTANTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS ARE TAKEN, OVER A PERIOD TIME, OF A GROUP OF MACHINES,PROCESSES OR WORKERS. WORK SAMPLING HAS THREE MAIN APPLICATIONS:1) ACTIVITY AND DELAY SAMPLING:- TO MEASURE THE ACTIVITIES AND DELAYS OF WORKERS AND MACHINES. 2) PERFORMANCE SAMPLING:- TO MEASURE WORKING TIME AND NON WORKING TIME OF A PERSON ON A MANUAL WORK AND TO ESTABLISH A PERFORMANCE INDEX OR PERFORMANCE LEVEL FOR A PERSON DURING HIS WORKING TIME. 3) WORK MEASUREMENT:- UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES, TO MEASURE MANUAL TASK THAT IS TO ESTABLISHED A TIME STANDARD FOR AN OPERATION.
  • 29. WHAT IS JOB DESIGN Job design – process by which managers decide individual job tasks and authority Job redesign – process by which managers reconsider what employees are expected to do The well-being of organizations and people relates to how well management designs jobs
  • 30. DEFINITION OF JOB DESIGN Def: Job Design is the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities; on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and the superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
  • 31. GOALS OF JOB DESIGN 1. 2. 3. 4. Major Concern Purpose of Job Design Affect on Employee Impact
  • 32. DESIGN FACTOR • LAYOUT OF EQUIPMENT AND SEATING • INSTRUMENT DISPLAY DESIGN • COMPATIBILITY • CONTROL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
  • 33. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • TEMPERATURE AND HUMMIDITY • VIBRATION • NOISE
  • 34. VISUAL ENVIRONMENT • LIGHTING • VENTILATION • BEHAVIOURAL DIMENSIONS OF JOB DESIGN • JOB ROTATION • JOB ENLARGEMENT • JOB ENRICHMENT
  • 35. JOB ROTATION: JOB ENLARGEMENT :JOB ENRICHMENT: • JOB ROTATION: REFERS TO THE MOVEMENT OF AN EMPLOYEE FROM ONE JOB TO ANOTHER. • PLEASE NOTE: JOBS THEMSELVES ARE NOT ACTUALLY CHANGED, ONLY EMPLOYEES ARE ROTATED AMONG VARIOUS JOBS. • • JOB ENLARGEMENT WHEN A JOB IS ENLARGED THE TASKS BEING PERFORMED ARE EITHER ENLARGED OR SEVERAL SHORT TASKS ARE GIVEN TO ON WORKER, THUS THE SCOPE OF THE JOB IS INCREASED BECAUSE THERE ARE MANY TASKS TO BE PERFORMED BY THE SAME WORKER. • • JOB ENRICHMENT: JOB ENRICHMENT AS IS CURRENTLY PRACTICED ALL OVER THE WORK IS A DIRECT OUTGROWTH OF HERZBERG‟S TWO FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION.
  • 36. APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN • ENGINEERING APPROACH: • HUMAN APPROACH: • JOB CHARACTERISTICS APPROACH:
  • 37. ENGINEERING APPROACH: • THE WORK OF EVERY WORKMAN IS FULLY PLANNED OUT BY THE MANAGEMENT AT LEAST ON DAY IN ADVANCE AND EACH MAN RECEIVES IN MOST CASES COMPLETE WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS, DESCRIBING IN DETAIL THE TASK WHICH HE/SHE HAS TO ACCOMPLISH- FW TAYLOR. • PROBLEM WITH THIS APPROACH: REPETITION-MECHANICAL PACING-NO END PRODUCT-LITTLE SOCAL INTERACTION-NO INPUT
  • 38. HUMAN APPROACH: • THE HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH RECOGNIZED THE NEED TO DESIGN JOBS WHICH ARE INTERESTING AND REWARDING. • HERZBERG‟S RESEARCH POPULARIZED THE NOTION OF ENHANCING NEED SATISFACTION THROUGH WHAT IS CALLED JOB ENRICHMENT. • FACTORS INVOLVED: • MOTIVATORS LIKE ACHIEVEMENT, RECOGNITION, WORK AND GROWTH AND HYGIENIC FACTORS. ITSELF, RESPONSIBILITY, ADVANCEMENT • ACCORDING TO HERZBERG. THE EMPLOYEE IS DISSATISFIED WITH THE JOB IF REQUIRED MAINTENANCE FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED DEGREE ARE NOT INTRODUCED INTO THE JOB.
  • 39. JOB CHARACTERISTICS APPROACH • THEORY BY HACKMAN AND OLDHAM STATES THAT EMPLOYEES WILL WORK HARD WHEN THEY ARE REWARDED FOR THE WORK THEY DO AND WHEN THE WORK GIVES THEM SATISFACTION. • HENCE INTEGRATION OF MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE • ACCORDING TO THIS APPROACH JOB CAN BE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF FIVE CORE JOB DIMENSIONS: 1. SKILL VARIETY 2. TASK IDENTITY 3. TASK SIGNIFICANCE 4. AUTONOMY 5. FEEDBACK WITH JOB DESIGN.
  • 40. JOB DESIGN PROCESS: • JOB DESIGN PROCESS HAS TO START FROM WHAT ACTIVITY NEEDS TO BE DONE IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS. • IT REQUIRES USE OF TECHNIQUES LIKE WORK-STUDY, PROCESS PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS AND ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS AND ALSO TECHNICAL ASPECTS