Work study


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Work study

  1. 1. WORK STUDY
  2. 2. Meaning:-  Work study or work analysis is the discipline of industrial engineering that uses various techniques to quantitatively measure or estimate work to increase the amount produced from a given quantity of resources by improving the use of existing resources.
  3. 3. Definition :-  Work study is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with the analysis of the work methods and the equipment used in performing a job, the design of an optimum work method and the standardization of proposed work methods.  Work study is also understood as a systematic objective and critical examination of the factors affecting productivity for the purpose of improvement. It make use of techniques of method study and work measurement to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out specific activity.
  4. 4. WORK ANALYS IS Method Study Work Measurement Enhance Productivity To simplify the job Develop better methods Quantitatively measure work
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS:- • Method study:- the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. • Work measurement:-the application of techniques ,deigned to establish the time for a qualified worker, to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance.
  6. 6. Objectives of Work Study • To analyze the present method of doing a job , systematically in order to develop a new and better method • To measure the work content of a job by measuring the time required to do the job for a qualified worker and hence to establish standard time. • To increase the productivity by ensuring the best possible use of human, machine and material resources and to achieve best quality product/service at minimum possible cost. • To improve operational efficiency.
  7. 7. WORK DESIGN Method study/Operation Analysis Work Measurement Motion Study Time Study Developed by Gilberts Developed by Taylor Objective:- Improve operations by more effective utilization of all resources Objective:-Improve control by more accurate planning, manning estimating and evaluating performance. Relationship of Time and Motion Study to Work study (Used to evaluate alternate design/methods) (Used to find the fastest motion sequence)
  8. 8. Basic work study Procedure  Select the job or the process or the operation to be studied  Record all relevant facts about the job or process or operation using suitable charting techniques such as operation process charts, flow process charts etc..  Examine critically all the recorded facts ,questioning the purpose place,sequence,person and the means of doing the job/process/operation.
  9. 9. Basic work study Procedure • Develop the new method for the job/process/operation • Measure the work content and establish the standard time using an appropriate work measurement technique • Define the new method for the job/process/operation • Install the new method as standard practice. • Maintain the new method for the job/process/operation
  10. 10. Benefits of Work Study  Increased productivity and operational efficiency.  Reduced material cost.  Improved work place layout.  Better manpower planning and capacity planning.  Fair wages to employees.  Better working conditions to employees.  Improved workflow.
  11. 11. Method Study Work Study Work Measurement Select the work to be studied Record the present method to limit of detail economically justified using Operation process chart Flow Process Charts Motion Charts Film Analysis charts Examine the facts critically considering in turn purpose place ,sequence ,person and means. Develop best method under prevailing circumstances Define new methods Install and maintain the new method to achieve Higher Productivity Select the work to be Measured Record where necessary effective and in effective time under existing working condition. Examine in order to eliminate ineffective time. Define method to be used Breakdown job into elements Measure quantity of work involved in the method by Time study Synthesis Analytical estimating Estimate normal time and add relevant allowances to determine standard time or work unit value To achieve
  12. 12. Method study  Work methods analysis or methods study is a scientific technique of observing, recording and critically examining the present method of performing a task or job operation with the aim of improving the present method and developing a new and cheaper method.
  13. 13. Objectives of methods study  To study the existing / proposed method of doing any job or activity.  To develop an improved method to improve productivity and to reduce operating cost.  To reduce excessive material handling movement and thereby reduce fatigue of workmen.  To improve utilization of workers.  To eliminate wasteful and inefficient motions.  To standardize work methods or processess,working conditions,machinery,equipment and tools.
  14. 14. Advantages of Method study  Work simplification  Improved working methods  Better product quality  Improved workplace layout  Improved equipment design  Better working conditions  Better material handling and lesser material handling cost  Improved work flow  Less fatigue to operator  Optimum utilization of all resources  Higher safety to work men  Shorter production cycle time  Higher job satisfaction of workmen  Reduce material consumption and wastage  Reduced manufacturing cost and higher productivity.
  15. 15. Factors facilitating Methods Study  High operating cost  High wastage and scarp  Excessive movement of material and workmen  Excessive production bottlenecks  Complaints about quality  Complaints about poor working conditions  Increasing number of accidents  Excessive use of overtime
  16. 16. Method Study Procedure 1. Select the work or job to be studied and define objectives to be achieved by method study. 2. Record all relevant facts or information pertaining to the existing method using the recording techniques such as Process Charts: Outline process chart Operation process chart Flow process chart Man-Machine chart Multiple activity chart Simultaneous motion chart Motion chart Film analysis chart
  17. 17. Process Charts  The different kinds of process chart share a common core set of symbols, though some have additional symbols for specific and specialized process steps.  The common symbols (of which there are only five) were first promulgated by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and have become known as the ASME symbols.
  18. 18. OPERATION: a main step, where the part, material or product is usually modified or changed INSPECTION: indicates a check for quality or quantity TRANSPORT: the movement of workers, materials or equipment STORAGE: controlled storage in which material is received into or issued from a store, or an item is retained for reference purposes DELAY or TEMPORARY STORAGE: indicates a delay in the process, or an object laid aside until required. Combined activity
  19. 19. Operation Process Chart  A graphic representation that gives an overall view of an entire process, including the points at which materials are introduced, the sequence of inspections, and all operations not involved in material handling.
  20. 20. Flow Process Chart  The Flow Process Chart records the steps in a process along a vertical line, with the action type being shown by a symbol alongside a description of the action, as in the illustration
  21. 21. Man-Machine chart  Man-machine chart is a chart relation of how much time the machine spend while the man or the operator spending his time on his job.  The man-machine chart, or simochart, is a planning industrial graphically defining resources' activity (robots, operators, ...) at repetitive tasks. It is typically used to plan the activity of resources in large and medium series.  Each resource continually performs the same tasks. When the last task is completed, the resource runs again the first task. This estate is called cycle.  A diagram is constituted of tangled cycles. The duration of the longest cycle is called time of cycle. It is usually the time needed to produce or assemble a piece.
  22. 22. Multiple activity charts  Multiple activity charts are used to show the interrelationships of individuals in teams of workers, or the relationships between workers and equipment, usually during the record stage of method study.  The activities of each subject (whether worker or equipment) are recorded, normally as blocks in columnar form, against a common time scale.
  23. 23. Diagrams such as Flow diagram String diagram Cycle graph chronocyclegraph  Examine the recorded facts critically by asking questions like What is done?What is the purpose of the operation?Why should it be done? who does the work?Why is it done there?When is the work done? How is the work done?
  24. 24. Flow diagram  A flow diagram is a graphical means of presenting, describing, or analyzing a process. This is done by drawing small boxes which represent steps or decisions in a chain of steps or decisions.
  25. 25. Flow diagram
  26. 26. String Diagram  The String Diagram is a simple tool for analyzing and designing work spaces such that movement can be minimized. The basic diagram simply consists of a map of the work area, with the actual movements drawn on top.
  27. 27. Method Study Procedure 3.Examine the above facts critically:-Critical examination is done by questioning technique. This step comes after the method is recorded by suitable charts and diagrams. The individual activity is examined by putting a number of questions. The following factors are questioned  Purpose – To eliminate the activity, if possible.  Place – To combine or re-arrange the activities.  Sequence – -do-  Person – -do-  Means – To simplify the activity.
  28. 28. The following sequence of questions is used:  Purpose – What is actually done? Why is it done? What else could be done? What should be done?  Place – Where is it being done? Why is it done there? Where else could it be done? Where should it be done?
  29. 29.  Sequence – When is it done? Why is it done then? When could it be done? When should it be done?  Person – Who is doing it? Why does that person do it? Who else could do it? Who should do it?  Means – How is it done? Why is it done that way? How else could it be done? How should it be done?
  30. 30. By doing this questioning  Unwanted activities can be eliminated  Number of activities can be combined or re-arranged  Method can be simplified. All these will reduce production time.
  31. 31. Method Study Procedure 4.Develop the improved method by generating several alternatives and selecting the best method. The answer to the questions given below will result in the development of a better method.  Purpose – What should be done?  Place – Where should it be done?  Sequence – When should it be done?  Person – Who should do it?  Means – How should it be done?
  32. 32. The factors to be considered while evaluating alternatives and selecting the best method are: 1. Cost of implementation 2. Expected savings in time and cost 3. Feasibility 4. Producibility 5. Acceptance to design, production planning and control, quality control, production and sales departments 6. Reaction of the employees to new method 7. Short term or long term implication of alternatives
  33. 33. Method Study Procedure 5. Define Once a complete study of a job has been made and a new method is developed, it is necessary to obtain the approval of the management before installing it. The work study man should prepare a report giving details of the existing and proposed methods. He should give his reasons for the changes suggested.
  34. 34. The report should show (a) Brief description of the old method. (b) Brief description of the new method. (c) Reasons for change. (d) Advantages and limitations of the new method. (e) Savings expected in material, labour and overheads. (f) Tools and equipment required for the new method. (g) The cost of installing the new method including. 1. Cost of new tools and equipment. 2. Cost of re-layout of the shop. 3. Cost of training the workers in the new method. 4. Cost of improving the working conditions.
  35. 35. Written standard practice: Before installing the new method, an operator‘s instructions sheet called written standard practice is prepared. It serves the following purposes:  It records the improved method for future reference in as much detail as may be necessary.  It is used to explain the new method to the management foreman and operators.  It gives the details of changes required in the layout of machine and work places.  It is used as an aid to training or retraining operators.  It forms the basis for time studies.
  36. 36. Written standard practice: The written standard practice will contain the following information: (a) Tools and equipment to be used in the new method. (b) General operating conditions. (c) Description of the new method in detail. (d) Diagram of the workplace layout and sketches of special tools, jigs or fixtures required.
  37. 37. Method Study Procedure 6.Install the improved method in three phases- planning, arranging and implementation phases. This step is the most difficult stage in method study. Here the active support of both management and trade union is required. Here the work study man requires skill in getting along with other people and winning their trust.
  38. 38. Install stage consists of (a) Gaining acceptance of the change by supervisor. (b) Getting approval of management. (c) Gaining the acceptance of change by workers and trade unions. (d) Giving training to operators in the new method. (e) To be in close contact with the progress of the job until it is satisfactorily executed.
  39. 39. Method Study Procedure  7. Maintain the new method by ensuring that the installed method is functioning well. The work study man must see that the new method introduced is followed. The workers after some time may slip back to the old methods. This should not be allowed. The new method may have defects. There may be difficulties also. This should be rectified in time by the work study man. Periodical review is made. The reactions and suggestions from workers and supervisors are noted. This may lead to further improvement. The differences between the new written standard practice and the actual practice are found out. Reasons for variations are Analysed. Changes due to valid reasons are accepted. The instructions are suitably modified.