Objectives• Define integrated teaching.• Justify the need for integrated teaching.• Enumerate the directions of integrated teaching.• Define learning module.• List types of learning modules.• List steps of module development.• State the drawbacks of integrated teaching.
Concept of Integration• Integrate which means “make whole”• Integration denotes “coordination of different activities to ensure harmonious functioning”
Growth and Fragmentation of Medical Science:• Disciplines in earliest medical colleges and the medical student. Easy to Integrate Medicine/Surgery Pathology Anatomy
Growth and Fragmentation of Medical Science:• Disciplines in current medical colleges and the medical student . Medicine/Surgery/Obst& Unable to Gyn/Paeds/Ortho/Opthal/ENT/ integrate Radio/Dermat/Psych/Others. Path/Micro/Pharmac/ PSM/ FMT Anatomy/Physiology/Biochemistry
• Medical educationists all over the world recognize that integration in medical education is one of the major educational reforms required.• The world Summit on Medical Education (1993) identified “the disjunction between medical education and the medical practice as one of the major problems.”• The Medical Council of India (1997) has also strongly recommended integration in undergraduate medical education.
Integration of medical education• Integration in education can be defined as the coordination of different teaching-learning activities to ensure the harmonious functioning of the educational process for more effective learning by students.
Purpose• The purpose of integration is to increase the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process.
Piece-meal: e.g. tuberculosis Phar Paeds Surgery Medicine Obs &Gyn C O N F U Patho S I Micro O N
Makes a whole: B E T T E R U N D Phar Paed E R Medicine S T A Obs & N Gynac D I N G
Directions of integration :• Horizontal : Two or more disciplines of any phase of MBBS curriculum (pre- clinical, para-clinical or clinical).• Vertical : Two or more disciplines of two or more phases of MBBS curriculum. Clinical Phase Para-Clinical Phase Pre-Clinical Phase
Examples:• Horizontal: Combined teaching-learning of renal structure and function by Anatomy and Physiology.• Vertical: Combined teaching-learning of renal failure by Pathology and Medicine departments.• Both: Combined teaching-learning of renal failure by the departments of Physiology, Pathology, Medicine and Surgery.
Learning Modules:• A module is a planned unit of educational experiences which is multidisciplinary. A module should include: List of participating departments, Learning objectives, Alternative teaching-learning methods and media, Time-table, List of learning resources. Evaluation plan,
Types:1) Topic based modules: Developed from multi-disciplinary topics, e.g. UTI, DM, Tuberculosis, Hypertension.2) Problem based modules: Developed from multi-disciplinary clinical problems, e.g. acute abdomen, headache, shock.3) Task based modules: Derived from multi-disciplinary tasks, e.g. first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Steps of Module Development:1) Choose the topic, problem or task (must know).2) Identify the participating departments.3) State the learning objectives.4) Plan evaluation.5) Choose alternative T-L methods.6) Identify learning resources and T-L media.7) Plan time table.8) Trial implementation.9) Revise by feedback.
Benefits of Learning Modules:For Students :• As there is unified presentation of common medical problems, contradictory concepts and opinions could be minimized by planning.• Irrelevant areas also can be eliminated at the planning stage.• There is also avoidance of the repetition of subject matter.• Students are able to observe good examples of multi-disciplinary cooperation.For Teachers :• Provides an opportunity not only for inter-departmental cooperation but also for sharing ideas and learning from other disciplines.• Research problems can be identified and research projects can be initiated.
Problems of INTEGRATED TEACHING1) Lack of adequate weightage in evaluation renders it irrelevant from achievement point of view.2) Too many modules may result in complex schedules that few may able to keep up with.3) Modular learning can also lead to fragmented learning of subjects and fragmentation of assessment.
Objectives• Define integrated teaching.• Justify the need for integrated teaching.• Enumerate the directions of integrated teaching.• Define learning module.• List types of learning modules.• List steps of module development.• State the drawbacks of modular learning.