Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
What is Consciousness?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

What is Consciousness?

1,096
views

Published on

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,096
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
107
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. A Course in Consciousness This is a course in questioning and in seeing, not in believing.
  • 2. The concept of objective reality
    • Objective reality is assumed to exist whether or not it is being observed.
    • The existence of separate objects is assumed to be verifiable by observation, at least in principle.
    • The common feature of all objects is that they are by definition separate from each other.
    • Therefore, observers are assumed to be separate from what they observe and from each other.
    • This means that separation is an intrinsic part of objective reality.
    • We shall see later that the assumption of separation is the source of all suffering.
  • 3. More on objective reality
    • Objective reality is reality by agreement. This means that…
    • 1) We must agree on the definition of an object
    • 2) The existence or nonexistence of an object must be confirmed by more than one observer. If it is not, it is not considered to be objectively real.
    • However, objective reality cannot be proved to exist because all of our observations, without exception, are purely subjective.
    • Important: Therefore, if objective reality can neither be proved to exist or not to exist, it cannot affect any observation.
  • 4. Questions about objective reality
    • Is there any proof that anything exists if you are not observing it?
    • If you cite the reports of others, is there any proof that they exist if you are not observing them?
    • If you cite indirect evidence, is there any proof that that exists if you are not observing it?
    • Is there any proof that your thoughts exist if you are not observing them?
    • Is there any proof that your feelings exist if you are not observing them?
  • 5. The concept of materialism
    • Everything is assumed to be matter (or at least it is governed by physical law).
    • Matter is assumed to be objective—it is assumed to exist whether or not it is being observed.
    • Mind is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of matter with no independent existence of its own.
  • 6. Personalized statement of materialism
    • “I am a body.”
    • Do you agree with this statement? If so, are you all of the body or just parts of it?
    • Which parts are you? Which parts are you not?
    • Where in the body are you?
    • If you are not a body, what are you?
  • 7. Other questions about materialism
    • Do you think that dogs and cats are conscious? If so, what is your evidence?
    • Do you think that bacteria are conscious? If so, what is your evidence?
  • 8. The concept of Cartesian dualism
    • In 1641,René Descartes (French scientist and philosopher, 1596 - 1650) proposed that there are two fundamental independent substances, mind and matter.
    • He proposed that a mind is an indivisible conscious, thinking entity without physical size .
    • He proposed that a body is a divisible object that has physical size, i.e., it occupies space.
    • He proposed that mind and body can interact with each other.
  • 9. Personalized statement of Cartesian dualism:
    • “I am a mind and I have a body.”
    • Do you agree with this statement? If so, are you all of the mind or just parts of it?
    • Which parts are you? Which parts are you not?
    • If you are not a mind, what are you?
  • 10. Questions about Cartesian dualism
    • Do animals have minds? If animals are excluded, how do we explain some of their near-human behaviors. If animals are included, do we exclude any of them?
    • What about plants and microbes? Do they have minds?
    • What about self-reproducing protein molecules (e.g., prions). Do they have minds?
    • What about inanimate objects?
  • 11. The concept of idealism
    • Idealists propose that everything is consciousness and consciousness is everything …
    • … so there is nothing but consciousness and nothing outside of consciousness.
    • This implies that there are no objects that are not being observed, i.e., there is no external objective reality.
  • 12. Questions about idealism
    • What is consciousness, anyway?
    • If everything is consciousness, can there be separate consciousnesses, i.e., is your consciousness separate from my consciousness?
    • If consciousnesses are not separate, how can you see objects that I cannot see?
    • If consciousnesses are separate, how can you and I see the same objects?
  • 13. Personalized statement of idealism
    • “I am consciousness”.
    • Do you agree with this statement? If not, what are you?
  • 14. Does it matter whether we adopt materialism or idealism?
    • If we believe we are bodies, is suffering inevitable?
    • If we believe we are consciousness, is suffering inevitable?
    • If we believe we are neither, is suffering inevitable?
  • 15. Classical physics
    • Classical physics is assumed to be both materialistic and objective.
    • Classical objects are assumed to have separate, independent existences whether or not they are being observed.
    • Classical objects are assumed to have definite properties, such as position, velocity, and orientation whether or not they are being observed. These properties are assumed to have no intrinsic uncertainties.
    • Classical objects are assumed to be acted upon by classical forces such as electromagnetism and gravity.
    • The laws of classical physics are deterministic. This means that the state of the universe in the future is assumed to be completely determined by the state of the universe at the present, which is assumed to be determined by the state of the universe in the past.
  • 16. Questions about classical physics
    • How might our lives be different if there were no external objective reality but we did not know it?
    • What if we did know it?
    • How might our lives be different if the world were deterministic but we did not know it?
    • What if we did know it?
    • Suppose you accepted the principle of determinism as truth. How do you think you would you then feel about your feelings, decisions, and actions?
    • About other people’s feelings, decisions, and actions?
    • How do you think it would affect your judgments about yourself and others?
  • 17. Quantum physics
    • Quantum theory was developed in the 1920s and threw the world of physics into turmoil.
    • Unlike classical theory, quantum theory needs an interpretation, which is not self-evident.
    • It was originally applied only to microscopic phenomena but now is assumed to describe all phenomena, from elementary particles to the entire universe.
    • It is the only theory we have at the present time. If it is incorrect, we have as yet no other theory to replace it.
    • In every direct and indirect experimental test of quantum theory so far, the basic principles have been shown to be valid.
  • 18. There are two general types of interpretations of quantum theory
    • Interpretations in terms of objective reality
    • Interpretation in terms of subjective reality.
  • 19. The Copenhagen interpretation
    • The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation in terms of objective reality .
    • It is sometimes called the orthodox interpretation because of its widespread acceptance.
    • In this interpretation, the only thing that is assumed to exist prior to an observation is a wavefunction that exists over all space.
    • The wavefunction is assumed to exist whether or not there are observations. Therefore, it is assumed to be separate from the observers.
    • The wavefunction represents the probability that a specific event will be observed by an observer using a specific type of apparatus.
    • It describes all of the possible events that could be observed by such an observer, but cannot predict which event will actually be observed.
  • 20. Wavefunction collapse
    • At the moment of observation, the wavefunction changes irreversibly from a description of all of the possibilities that could be observed to a description of only the event that is observed.
    • This is called wavefunction reduction, or wavefunction collapse.
  • 21. The next observation
    • After an observation and wavefunction collapse, a new wavefunction emerges.
    • It represents all of the possibilities that are allowed by the previous observation.
    • Another observation then results in another wavefunction collapse, etc.
    • Therefore, any experience consists of a sequence of observations, which are all represented objectively by wavefunction collapses.
  • 22. Nonlocal collapse
    • Remember: Objective reality is reality by agreement.
    • Collapse must occur over all space simultaneously because our observations must be consistent with our agreement on what exists or doesn’t exist.
    • For example, if you and I agree that there is one and only one electron, then you cannot observe the electron to be at one position while I simultaneously observe it at another. (This is the “agreement” property of objective reality.)
    • The agreement property leads to the requirement of nonlocal collapse.
  • 23. *Footnote
    • Albert Einstein’s (1879-1955) invented the special theory of relativity in1905. Einstein made the following two assumptions:
    • 1) The velocity of light in vacuum is a constant, independent of the relative velocity (also assumed to be constant) of two observers observing each other. This assumption was consistent with the measurements of Michelson and Morley (1881).
    • 2) No physical effect, including information, can travel faster than the velocity of light. This was also consistent with the measurements of Michelson and Morley.
    • • This is now considered to be a physical law, more than just a theory, because it has been verified innumerable times both directly and indirectly. No experiment has ever invalidated it.
  • 24. The problem of nonlocality
    • Remember: Nonlocality in the Copenhagen interpretation means that collapse happens over all space simultaneously. (This is required for simultaneous observations to be consistent with what is assumed to exist or not to exist).
    • But: Einstein’s special theory of relativity says that no physical effect can travel with a velocity greater than the velocity of light.
    • Thus: There is no known physical explanation for anything that happens over all space simultaneously, so there is no known physical mechanism for nonlocal collapse.
    • Thus: There is no known physical mechanism for the “agreement” property.
  • 25. The idealist solution to nonlocality in the Copenhagen interpretation
    • In this solution, it is consciousness that collapses the wavefunction, not a physical process.
    • Because simultaneous observations made by separate observers must be consistent with our agreed-on reality, there can be only one consciousness.
    • Hence, this consciousness must be nonlocal and universal. This is required for the “agreement” property of objective reality.
    • Because, in the idealist interpretation, nonlocal universal consciousness is nonphysical, it can collapse the wavefunction over all space simultaneously, so nonlocality is preserved.
    • (This explanation for wavefunction collapse is not widely accepted but no physical explanation has yet been found.)
  • 26. Wavefunction collapse (cont.)
    • • E ven if there was a physical mechanism for wavefunction collapse, it would produce nothing but a collapsed wavefunction.
    • A collapsed wavefunction is not aware! It is only a collapsed wavefunction.
    • Awareness is on a different level from the objects of awareness.
    • What you are aware of cannot be what is aware. (You cannot be what you observe.)
    • The awareness of the observer is self-evident. It needs no proof. That you are aware is the only thing you can be certain of.
    • Everything else is subject to definition and interpretation.
  • 27. Hidden-variables interpretations
    • Hidden-variables theories were devised in order to retain the concept that objects exist and have definite properties whether or not they are observed.
    • Therefore, a hidden-variables interpretation is an objective interpretation.
    • All particles are assumed to be classical and have definite positions and velocities with or without an observation.
    • The particles are assumed to be acted on by all of the classical forces, such as electromagnetism and gravity.
    • In addition, in the well-known theory of David Bohm (1917-1992), the particles are assumed to be acted on by a quantum force, which is derived from the quantum wavefunction.
  • 28. Nonlocality of hidden variables theory
    • In the Bohm theory, the quantum force is assumed to act over all space simultaneously, hence it is nonlocal.
    • Thus, the quantum force violates special relativity.
    • All other proposed hidden variables theories have also proved to be nonlocal.
    • No hidden variables theory has received acceptance because they are all too difficult to work with.
    • Physicists have abandoned definiteness of positions and velocities in order to have a workable theory.
    • Since hidden variables is a materialist theory, there is no explanation for how consciousness arises, or for which objects are conscious and which ones are not.
  • 29. Many-worlds interpretation
    • Many-worlds is an objective interpretation.
    • The many-worlds interpretation was proposed so that the entire universe could be described by a single wavefunction.
    • The wavefunction is assumed to exist as the only objective reality from the moment of the big bang.
    • Since there can be no observer or observation that is separate from the universe, the wavefunction never collapses.
    • At any moment that “I” (as part of the universe) make an observation, the wavefunction branches to manifest the world that “I” observe with a probability given by the wavefunction. There is no wavefunction collapse, but there is a manifestation of my world.
  • 30. Nonlocality of the many-worlds interpretation
    • At the same moment that “my” world manifests, all of the other possibilities given by the wavefunction are manifested as other worlds. There is a “me” in every one of them.
    • The different worlds cannot communicate with each other.
    • Each time there is an observation, there are as many worlds manifested as there are possibilities in the wavefunction.
    • Since there is no wavefunction collapse, the wavefunction of the universe continues forever.
    • A world is manifest over all its space simultaneously, thus, many-worlds is nonlocal.
    • Since many worlds is a materialist theory, there is no explanation for how the consciousness of the observer arises, or for which objects are conscious and which ones are not.
  • 31. The subjective interpretation
    • In this interpretation, there is assumed to be no objective reality. There are only subjective observations.
    • The wavefunction is assumed to be nothing but a mathematical algorithm used to calculate the probability that a particular observation will yield a particular result.
    • Since there is no objective reality, there is no space-time and no nonlocality.
    • Since there is no nonlocality, there is no problem of nonlocality.
  • 32. Solipsism vs. nonsolipsism in the subjective interpretation
    • • In a solipsistic view, there is only one observer. (This view does not require agreement on what is being observed.)
    • • In a nonsolipsistic view there are at least two observers.
    • • In order for there to be communication between observers, this view requires agreement on the definition of what is observed. For example, we must agree on the definition of “chair” before we can talk about our observations of a chair.
    • This is the “agreement” property of the subjective interpretation.
    • Even in the subjective interpretation, if there is more than one observer, agreement is required!
  • 33. But…are there really separate observers?
    • Since any experience consists of a sequence of observations, all experiences are nothing but sequences of observations.
    • Normally, we regard separate sequences to imply that there are separate observers making these observations.
    • But, if there is no objective reality, can there really be separate observers?
  • 34. More questions about the subjective interpretation
    • Is it possible that the “observer” is nothing but a mental construct?
    • What does the requirement for agreement between observers imply about the consciousness of the “observers”?
    • Are there separate consciousnesses, or is there only one consciousness that functions through different minds?
  • 35. Agreement ↔Communication
    • In both the objective and subjective interpretations of quantum theory, there must be agreement—in the objective case, on the definition of what exists or does not exist, and in the subjective case, on the definition of what is observed or what is not observed.
    • But, agreement requires communication, and communication requires agreement.
    • Therefore, is it possible that the need to communicate is our most basic need, even more basic than the need to survive?
    • Is it the heart that needs to communicate, or is it the mind?
    • Is the need to communicate a reflection of our innate connectedness?
  • 36. *Footnote: (Wash. Post, Feb. 24, 2008)
    • In 1982, the first 100 mobile telephones appeared in Wash., D.C. There were only 7 relay towers.
    • Today, in a world of 6.6 billion people, there are about 3.3 billion cellphones in use.
    • This is the fastest global diffusion of technology in human history.
    • In a few years, there will be 5 billion cellphones in use.
    • Why this sudden rush to technology?
  • 37. *Footnote (cont.)
    • In Tibet, many houses don’t have toilets.
    • But, Tibet has better cellphone coverage than the U.S. does.
    • In Tibet, communication is more important than toilets!
    • In fact, much of the developing world has better cellphone communication than the U.S.
    • This is partly because the developing world has few land lines, and cellphone networks are cheaper.
    • But, it is also a reflection of something else: “It’s the technology most adapted to the essence of the human species—sociability” (“ Wired” Magazine).
    • In other words, cellphone communication is person-to-person, not person-to-world.
  • 38. The experiments of Benjamin Libet, et al. (1973)
    • Subject is told to lift a finger whenever he/she chooses.
    • The EEG of subject is measured simultaneously with the EMG from the finger.
  • 39. The results
    • The EEG signal begins 0.3 s before the subject is aware of the impulse to lift finger.
    • The subject associates his/her awareness of this impulse with his/her observations of the time on a clock. No separate muscle action is required.
    • This process is repeated many thousands of times.
    • Thus , the decision to perform a muscle act is made prior to the awareness of the decision .
  • 40. Conclusion
    • In objective time (time as measured by a clock or other instrument), any neurological or sensory process always happens before our awareness of it because the brain requires a few tenths of a second to process an event before we are aware of it.
    • Thus, all subjective experiences happen after the corresponding objective events. This applies to “volitional” experiences as well as “nonvolitional” ones.
  • 41. Free will
    • Free will assumes that you can choose your thoughts.
    • If you can choose your thoughts, why do you have thoughts that you don’t want?
    • Free will assumes that you can choose your feelings.
    • If you can choose your feelings, why do you have feelings that you don’t want?
    • Free will assumes that you can choose your actions.
    • If you can choose your actions, why do you do things that you don’t want to do?
  • 42. Exercises on free will
    • Try to stop thinking for 30 seconds. Were you successful?
    • Try to stop feeling all body sensations for 30 seconds. Were you successful?
    • Try to stop all muscle motion for 30 seconds. Were you successful?
    • If you can’t control your thoughts, feelings, and actions, what can you control?
  • 43. The cause of suffering according to the sages
    • The sages tell us that suffering is a result of identification with the sense of doership.
    • Consequently we believe that we are the thinker, feeler, and chooser of our thoughts, feelings, emotions, and body sensations.
    • We cling to them because we believe they are what we are…
    • … and we simultaneously resist them because we judge them to be wrong or lacking.
  • 44. A model for the cycle of suffering ( The Mindful Way Through Depression, by Williams, Teasdale, Segal, Kabat-Zinn, includes guided meditation CD)
    • In this model, suffering is caused by a self-reinforcing feedback loop of identification as doer.
    • Identification never occurs in isolation. It is always accompanied by feelings, body sensations, and behaviors.
    • Each of these reinforces all of the others.
  • 45. Examples of identification as doer
    • “ I” should not have these thoughts (“I” should have only pure thoughts).
    • “ I” should not have these feelings (“I” should have only pleasant feelings).
    • “ I” should not have these emotions (“I” should have only loving emotions).
    • “ I” should not have these body sensations (“I” should have only pleasant sensations).
    • “ I” should not behave the way “I” do (“I” should always behave compassionately).
    • “ I” should not be in this world (“I” should be in a more compassionate world).
  • 46. More examples of identification
    • • “I” want to change but “I” am afraid to change.
    • • “I” am afraid to give up my identity as being shameful, guilty, defective, sad, angry, or anxious.
    • • If “I” don’t cling to my identity, what will “I” be?
    • • How will “I” behave?
    • • What will “I” do?
  • 47. How can suffering end?
    • We can begin to disidentify by shifting from doing mode to being mode.
    • Being mode is always in the present moment…
    • … and identification is weaker in the present moment.
    • Hence, there is less suffering in the present moment.
  • 48. When we are in doing mode…
    • • We identify as “doer”.
    • • As “doer”, we cling to our thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations…
    • • … and we simultaneously resist our thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations.
    • • Clinging and resisting gives structure to our lives and to our world, but…
    • • … it also prevents us from experiencing anything outside of our structure.
  • 49. When we are in being mode, we see that…
    • We are not what is thinking.
    • We are not what is feeling.
    • We are not what is choosing.
    • We are not what is judging.
    • We are not what is resisting.
    • We are not what is doing.
    • We see that everything happens all by itself.
    • In other words, we start to become disidentified.
  • 50. Spiritual practice
    • Spiritual practice takes us from the doing mode in which there is suffering into the being mode in which there is not.
    • Spiritual practice also makes it clear that there is no “me” to judge or to resist, nor is there an “I” to do anything, including spiritual practice.
  • 51. A step-by-step practice of mindfulness (Williams, Teasdale, Segal, Kabat-Zinn)
    • First: We pause and become aware of our thoughts (“e.g., ruminating about tomorrow”).
    • Second: We become aware of our feelings (“e.g., anxiety”).
    • Third: We become aware of our body sensations (“e.g., tightness in the body”).
    • Fourth: We feel the breath that is already there without trying to change it.
    • Feeling the breath is comforting and takes us out of doing mode and puts us into being mode.
  • 52. Mindfulness practice (cont.)
    • Mindfulness practice can be applied to all forms of suffering, including anxiety, anger, and sadness.
    • When mindfulness is broken down into steps, the connections between thoughts, judgments, feelings, body sensations, and behaviors become clearer.
    • When the connections become clearer, the cycle of suffering becomes less real.
    • We become disidentified from doership, clinging, and resistance.
    • This is not easy—but neither is suffering.
    • This is a long term practice, not just one-time.
  • 53. Nonduality
    • Nonduality is the teaching that All is Consciousness and Consciousness is All.
    • We shall use the term God as an equivalent to the term Consciousness.
    • Therefore, in this teaching, we shall sometimes say that All is God and God is All.
  • 54. Duality
    • Consciousness is always whole and unsplit.
    • However, the mind tries to split Consciousness into parts and then it names the parts, e.g., female (yin) and male (yang).
    • This process of separating and naming is called conceptualization.
    • Anything that is thought to be separate from an else is nothing but a concept.
    • For example, the separation between yin and yang is nothing but a concept.
    ALL IS GOD GOD IS ALL YIN YANG
  • 55. The basic split
    • The mind tries to split Consciousness into “I” and not-”I”.
    • In this teaching, this split is not real, therefore, “I” am not really separate from my body-mind…
    • … and “you” are not really separate from “me”.
    • However, the illusion of separation is extremely persistent.
    • All spiritual practice has the aim of dissolving it.
    • The dissolution of the illusion is called “enlightenment”, “awakening”, or “nirvana”.
    • With the end of the illusion comes the end of suffering.
  • 56. Questions about concepts
    • Am “I” separate from…
    • … this chair?
    • … this thought?
    • … this feeling?
    • … this emotion?
    • … this sensation?
    • … this body?
    • In other words, am “I” nothing but a concept?
  • 57. Well, then, if I am not a concept, what am I?
    • In nondualistic teaching, I am Consciousness which is whole and unsplit.
    • That is my true nature…
    • … and there is never any separation.
  • 58. More spiritual practices
    • There are many spiritual practices, almost as many as there are teachers.
    • The purpose of all of them is to help us to become aware of our true nature.
    • We have already discussed some mindfulness practices.
  • 59. Loving-kindness practice
    • • To foster loving-kindness for ourselves, we can meditate on the following or similar phrases…
      • “ May I be filled with loving-kindness.
      • “ May I be well.
      • “ May I be peaceful and at ease.
      • “ May I be happy and free.”
    • This may have to repeated many times.
  • 60. Loving-kindness practices (cont.)
      • • To foster loving-kindness for others, we can meditate on the following or similar phrases…
        • − “ May you (he/she) be filled with loving-kindness
        • − “ May you (he/she) be well.
        • − “ May you (he/she) be peaceful and at ease.
        • − “ May you (he/she) be happy and free.”
      • • Apply this to a friend, then somebody you are neutral about, then somebody you dislike.
      • • This may have to repeated many times.
  • 61. Other loving-kindness practices
      • Think “love”, then flood yourself with light.
      • Think “love”, then simultaneously flood yourself and a friend with light.
      • − Think “love” and simultaneously flood yourself and somebody you are neutral about with light.
      • − Think “love” and simultaneously flood yourself and somebody you dislike with light.
      • • This may have to be repeated many times.
  • 62. Affirmations
    • − “ I am light, love, peace, and joy.”
    • − “ I am infinite power, infinite strength, perfect health.”
    • This may have to be repeated many times.
  • 63. Inquiry
    • There are two basic kinds of inquiry:
    • − self-inquiry (lower case), and…
    • − Self-inquiry (upper case).
  • 64. What is self-inquiry (lower case)?
    • self-inquiry is the investigation of the “I”.
      • Ask the question, who is it that is thinking this? Then, look and see if you can see the thinker.
      • Ask the question, who is it that is feeling this? Then, look and see if you can see the feeler.
      • Ask the question, who is it that is suffering? Then, look and see if you can see the sufferer.
      • Ask the question, who is it that is doing this? Then, look and see if you can see the doer.
      • Ask the question, who is it that is observing this?
      • Then look and see if you can see the observer.
  • 65. What do you see?
    • If you see a thinker, feeler, sufferer, doer, or observer, can it be you?
    • What is it that sees them?
    • If you don’t see a thinker, feeler, sufferer, doer, or observer, can there be one?
  • 66. What is Self-inquiry (upper case)?
    • Self-inquiry is the investigation of the true I, which is pure Awareness, or pure Seeing.
      • Ask, what is it that is aware? Then turn inward and look and see. (This is not easy, but neither is suffering.)
      • If you see something, that can’t be what is seeing because it is what is being seen. (Remember, anything you can see cannot be you.)
      • So, if you can’t see it but it is what is seeing, then what are you?
  • 67. Meditation
    • Meditation is best learned from an experienced teacher.
    • You may have to try out several teachers and several forms of meditation to find one that will help you to realize your true nature.
  • 68. One form of meditation
    • A common form of Buddhist meditation consists of two parts:
      • Concentration
      • Mindfulness
  • 69. Concentration meditation
    • Close your eyes and slowly scan your body from your feet to your head, and feel the body sensations from the inside.
    • Then put your attention on feeling your breath.
    • Your attention will wander. Whenever you notice it, bring your attention back to the breath.
    • Do this a billion times.
    • Each time you become aware of your wandering mind, it is an awakening!
  • 70. Mindfulness meditation
    • While you are feeling the breath, you will notice thoughts and feelings arising.
    • Notice from where/what they arise and into where/what they go.
    • Notice whether it is you who are thinking or feeling them, or whether they arise and fall spontaneously.
    • If you see that it is you that are thinking or feeling them, who/what is it that sees this?
    • If you see that they arise and fall spontaneously, what does that imply about the existence of a thinker or feeler?
  • 71. Mantra practice
    • Mantra practice helps us to get out of our heads and into our bodies. It helps to heal the separation between the mind and the body. All mantra practice is to be done audibly and mindfully in such a way that the mantra resonates throughout the body.
    • Examples:
      • Intone the Hindu mantra, “Aum”.
      • Chant the Hindu mantra, “Om Namah Shivaya”.
      • Chant the Buddhist mantra, “Om mani padme hum”.